Macehead with the Name of Anum-mutabil

Macehead with the Name of Anum-mutabil

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King Scorpion is another elusive king of ancient Egypt. Very little is know of him - and it has been suggested he was actually none other than the famous king Narmer, and the Scorpion symbol that we take to represent his name is actually a title. During these early stages of dynastic history Egypt was divided into small kingdoms, which fought each other, so perhaps he was a contemporary and rival king of Narmer.

The famous Scorpion King  macehead is really the only evidence of his existence.  It resembles the mace head of king Narmer. It was found in the ancient city of Nekhen.  

In the mace head we see the figure of a king, who wears the "pin bowl" crown of Upper Egypt. Officially it was called the White Crown. He holds in his hands a tool that looks like a hoe or a mattock. What exactly he is doing with the hoe is again a matter of dicussion. He could be opening a canal to let the Nile waters reach the fields. Another explanation is that he is cutting the foundations of a temple - a very important ancient ritual.

In front of the king is a servant holding a basket, which may have contained seeds.  This might refer to the ritual being related to agriculture and planting. The pharaoh was always seen to symbolize the fertility of the land, to which the waters of the Nile were crucial. And so this may well have been a depiction of opening the canal for agriculture.

Another explanation is that the king is establishing his rule to the land he has conquered. This might not contradict the opening of the canal -theory, with its connections to the fertility of the land, and the king's divine role in it.  What supports the establishing his rule, are the rekhyt-birds hanging from the standards in the macehead. These birds (which are actyally lapwings) symbolized the common people through the Egyptian history, and the fact that they are shown hanging from their necks, would speak in favor of them symbolizing the people the king had conquered. ਊnother explanation is  that the birds may have represented foreigners, and that the macehead told about king Scorpion's victory over foreigners.

There is the symbol of a seven-leafed rosette and a scorpion in front of the king's face.  This kind of rosette identified the king at the time. And the sign of the scorpion, "srqt", told his name.

He is wearing a full ceremonial outfit - you can see a bull's tail hanging at the back from his belt. The bull was an important symbol of royal power.

There is an interesting article by Winifred Needler about a rock carving found in Gebel Sheikh Suliman (the Second Cataract area), which might suggest King Scorpion led a military expedition to Wawat (Nubia). The link to the article is at the end of the page.

Who was the Scorpion King in ancient Egypt?

Halfway between history and legend is the figure of a pharaoh prior to the unification of Ancient Egypt and whose symbol was a scorpion under the protection of the falcon Horus (symbol of royalty as protected from the god).

This pharaoh, the oldest known to date, has been popularly called the Scorpion King. His history is older than that considered until recently as the first of the pharaohs, Narmer.

Despite the fact that there is a film about him, it should be clarified that it is hardly based on historical data, since so far little is known for sure.

It is believed that his nickname of Scorpion could represent either his resistance or his success in strategy, but this association is almost certainly related to his war skills.

His sarcophagus was found in the late nineteenth century by Gunter Dreyer, and it is estimated that it must have lived between 3,200 BC and 3,300 BC, in the times in which the upper and lower Egypt were unified.

Until recently, these first kings, who were represented as half men and half animals, were thought to be mere mythological figures, but the discovery of Horus-Scorpio has confirmed that they were people of flesh and blood.

His tomb was found in ancient Abydos, an ancient and important necropolis during the initial period of the Dynastic Period, although its history dates back to the Predynastic Period, when it was an important center of religious pilgrimage.

Both the sarcophagus of the so-called «Dynasty 0» and the predynastic ones had been looted long ago, also that of the so-called Horus-Scorpion, in which some objects decorated with his particular seal could be found and which was built in imitation of a palace.

Based on Carbon 14 evidence, he is the oldest of the Egyptian kings found to date.

One of the most interesting and revealing objects on the figure of this ancient king is a rounded mace, an object with which the kings executed their enemies, and which has the symbol of Horus carved on a scorpion (although it is thought that this is a ritual object, more than practical).

This 25 cm diameter mace contains a scene in which this king appears to wear a white crown, the symbol of the pharaohs of Upper Egypt, as well as his intention to take the delta of the Nile.

5 Strange Theories About Stonehenge

Thousands of years ago, an ancient civilization raised a circle of huge, roughly rectangular stones in a field in what is now Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge, as it would come to be called, has been a mystery ever since.

Building began on the site around 3100 B.C. and continued in phases up until about 1600 B.C. The people who constructed the site left no written records and few clues as to why they bothered to schlep the stones to this spot.

Wild theories about Stonehenge have persisted since the Middle Ages, with 12th-century myths crediting the wizard Merlin with constructing the site. More recently, UFO believers have spun theories about ancient aliens and spacecraft landing pads.

But Stonehenge has inspired a fair number of scientifically reasonable theories as well. Here are five major (and not necessarily mutually exclusive) reasons Stonehenge might exist. [Gallery: Stunning Photos of Stonehenge]

1. A place for burial

Stonehenge may have originally been a cemetery for the elite, according to a new study. Bone fragments were first exhumed from the Stonehenge site more than a century ago, but archaeologists at the time thought the remains were unimportant and reburied them. Now, British researchers have re-exhumed more than 50,000 cremated bone fragments from where they were discarded, representing 63 separate individuals, from Stonehenge. Their analysis, presented on a BBC 4 documentary on March 10, reveals that the people buried at the site were men and women in equal proportions, with some children as well.

The burials occurred in about 3000 B.C., according to study researcher Mike Parker Pearson of the University College London Institute of Archaeology, and the very first stones were brought from Wales at that time to mark the graves. The archaeologists also found a mace head and a bowl possibly used to burn incense, suggesting the people buried in the graves may have been religious or political elite, according to The Guardian newspaper.

2. A place for healing

Another theory suggests that Stone Age people saw Stonehenge as a place with healing properties. In 2008, archaeologists Geoggrey Wainwright and Timothy Darvill reported that a large number of skeletons recovered from around Stonehenge showed signs of illness or injury. The archaeologists also reported discovering fragments of the Stonehenge bluestones &mdash the first stones erected at the site &mdash that had been chipped away by ancient people, perhaps to use as talismans for protective or healing purposes.

3. A soundscape

Or perhaps Stonehenge's circular construction was created to mimic a sound illusion. That's the theory of Steven Waller, a researcher in archaeoacoustics. Waller says that if two pipers were to play their instruments in a field, a listener would notice a strange effect. In certain spots, the sound waves from the dual pipes would cancel each other out, creating quiet spots.

The stones of Stonehenge create a similar effect, except with stones, rather than competing sound waves, blocking sound, Waller reported in 2012 at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Legends associated with Stonehenge also reference pipers, Waller said, and prehistoric circles are traditionally known as "piper stones."

Waller's theory is speculative, but other researchers have confirmed that Stonehenge had amazing acoustics. A study released in May 2012 found that the circle would have caused sound reverberations similar to those in a modern-day cathedral or concert hall.

4. A celestial observatory

No matter why it was built, Stonehenge may have been constructed with the sun in mind. One avenue connecting the monument with the nearby River Aven aligns with the sun on the winter solstice archaeological evidence reveals that pigs were slaughtered at Stonehenge in December and January, suggesting possible celebrations or rituals at the monument around the winter solstice. The site also faces the summer solstice sunrise, and both summer and winter solstices are still celebrated there today. [Gallery: Stunning Summer Solstice Photos]

5. A team-building exercise

Or perhaps Stonehenge was something like an ancient team-building exercise. According to the University College London's Pearson, the beginning of the site's construction coincides with a time of increased unity among the Neolithic people of Britain. Perhaps inspired by the natural flow of the landscape, which seems to connect summer solstice sunrise and winter solstice sunset, these ancient people may have banded together to build the monument, Pearson suggested in June 2012.

"Stonehenge itself was a massive undertaking, requiring the labor of thousands to move stones from as far away as west Wales, shaping them and erecting them," he said in a statement. "Just the work itself, requiring everything literally to pull together, would have been an act of unification."

A History Of Body Hair Removal And Distorted Body Image

For centuries, society has dictated women’s choices over their appearance, by telling them how to dress and be ‘ladylike’. As a direct result of this normalized instruction, women have internalized the misogynistic idea that in order to be seen as presentable, they must self-edit and self-harm.

Exerting dominance over a woman by asserting the unrealistic beauty standards she must attain is just one of the many ways in which patriarchy, globally, has been oppressing women. For instance, the Chinese had a tradition of foot-binding , or ‘lotus-feet’, which persisted for almost 8 centuries. The arches of women’s feet were systematically broken and reshaped by forcing them to wear tiny ‘lotus-shoes’ that didn’t allow their feet to grow beyond 3-4 inches. The smaller the feet, the higher the chances of marriage, as small feet were seen as a status symbol for the elite.

At the same time in Europe, corsets and other equivalent pieces of clothing, that sought to restrict the growth of the waist, were popular, as small waists were seen as the epitome of femininity and female refinement. Even today, there are a plethora of examples all around us which illustrate how society takes it upon itself to decide the ‘appropriate’ look for a woman, and judge how she fares on a scale of expected femininity by attaching ‘positives’ and ‘negatives’ to aspects of her appearance.

The length of her clothes (leading to the atrocious question of how ‘revealing’ they are), the colour of her hair (‘boldly’ coloured short hair may indicate that she is ‘rebellious’ or ‘promiscuous’), the number and locations of her piercings, etc., are all placed under society’s microscope of patriarchy.

Expecting a woman to get rid of all her visible body hair is just another example of how women are expected to conform to the societal perception of an ‘ideal’ image. While many women start removing body hair for social/normative reasons, they continue to do so to appear more feminine/attractive.

Body hair removal emerged as a survival tactic many millennia ago. With time, it was reduced to an aesthetic value, which then served as a foundation for the oppressive, modern and gendered notions of feminine hairlessness.

Older methods and ideas of body hair removal

Removal of body hair has a long and complex history , dating all the way back to The Stone Age, 100,000 years ago. Cavemen used flint blades, seashells and other sharp objects to shave off all body hair. Hair removal was done for practical reasons, such as to prevent frostbites (especially during the Ice Age, when the unending winter would make the water freeze on their body hair) not provide a breeding ground for parasites like mites and lice and to take away any advantage an adversary might get in a brawl by grabbing.

In Ancient Egypt (around 3000 B.C.), men and women were sticklers for cleanliness. They maintained a strict regiment of bathing and removing body hair primarily because of the blistering heat that they lived in, but also because they believed that having body hair was an indicator of being ‘uncivilized’ . Cleopatra , a trendsetter of her time, is one of the individuals to whom the creation of this beauty standard can be attributed. Thus, they used one of the many processes available at the time, such as ‘ sugaring ’, tweezers, shaving, a combination of depilatory creams (such as a mixture of burnt lotus leaf, tortoiseshell and hippo fat) and pumice stones, to remove all hair from their body, except for their eyebrows.

The Romans (around 400 B.C) too, like the Egyptians, viewed body hair as a class issue , wherein the amount of body hair was inversely proportional to one’s status in society. However, unlike the Egyptians, this norm was restricted only to women. The testament to this is that upper–class women in portraits and statues of divine beings were always hairless.

Queen Elizabeth formulated the norm for European women during her reign around the 1500s. She believed that hair on the face must be groomed at all times, requiring the eyebrows to be shaped and, hair on the forehead and upper-lip removed. Europeans developed a fashion of long foreheads , and in adherence, women would remove all hair from the forehead, and were encouraged to raise their hairlines by one inch. Mothers from wealthy families would rub walnut oil, and the less economically privileged would use bandages soaked in ammonia (which they obtained from their feline pets’ faeces) on their daughter’s foreheads to prevent hair growth . However, arm and leg hair did not matter, as clothes always covered them.

Therefore, hairlessness is a value that that has deep roots in many cultures all around the world. Historically, societal perceptions on ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ regarding body hair removal differed. However, when modern notions of body hair entered the picture in the 1900s, the answers to these questions, globally, became more uniform.

Modern methods and ideas of body hair removal

By 1900s, women started wearing sleeveless clothes that exposed more skin, and manufacturers of razors and depilatory creams wasted no time in capitalizing on this change in style of clothing. Gilette, the pioneer for women’s razors, marketed strategically so as to use its product to create the problem and provide a solution: to save women from the “ embarrassing personal problem ”.

In 1915 , Gilette created the first ever razor especially for women, ‘Milady Décolletée’ which promised to remove the “ humiliating growth of hair on face, neck and arms ”. It referred to shaving as a “ refinement that has become a modern necessity ”, and to its product as “ the dainty little Gilette used by the well-groomed woman to keep her underarm white and smooth ”. Looking back, a century later, this proves to be a landmark year in the history of social norms related to women’s body hair.

Advertisements in magazines at the time sought to inform women of the changing fashion trends that demanded women to remove all visible body hair apart from that on the head, labelling it “superfluous”, “ugly”, “unwanted” and “unfashionable” . These advertisements marked the beginning of the ‘ The Great Underarm Campaign’ . 66% of the advertisements found in Harper’s Bazaar’s editions glorified shaving by the planned use of pictures, taglines and markedly increased the frequency of such messages.

They showed women with bare arms and underarms raised above the head, accompanied with taglines such as “ The fastidious woman today must have immaculate underarms if she is to be unembarrassed ” “ Summer Dress and Modern Dancing combine to make it necessary to remove objectionable hair ” and “ If we were the dean of women, we would levy a demerit on every hairy leg on campus ”.

McCall , a popular American magazine with a considerable readership, gave an advertisement accompanied with the tagline, “ Let’s look at your legs – Everyone else does ”. Life , another magazine gave another such advertisement, stating that in order to wear those sleeveless tops that had just come into vogue, “ armpits must be smooth as your cheeks and sweet as your breath ”.

A few more factors added to the normalization of hair removal. In the 1940s, World War II forced women to go out and work. However, due to the nylon shortage, they were forced to do so without pantyhose, thereby requiring them to bare their legs. Women were now imposed with the duty of ensuring their mates’ fidelity by keeping strict a check on their appearance.

Aided by changing fashion trends, skirts became shorter, silk stockings more prevalent and swimsuits more revealing. Manufacturers saw this as an opportunity and marketed even more aggressively for hair removal. Their advertisements encouraged women to abide by the ‘right’ look that was slender, sophisticated, youthful and sensual.

By the 1940s, women did not need to be convinced to remove hair – they had internalized the modern link between attractiveness, femininity and hairlessness. Rather than focusing on the practice itself, advertisements now emphasized on the superiority of their own product.

For instance, Remington came up with the first ever electric razor that was presented as a better alternative to manual shaving and depilatory creams that tended to irritate the skin. By the 1950s, society had accepted that a woman must be hairless in order to be truly feminine. Shaving had changed from being a freak story to the new normal. Waxing was introduced in the 1960s and electrolysis in the 1970s. With the increasing popularity of swimsuits in the 1960s, bikini hair removal gained momentum in the 1970s.

Thus, between 1940-1980, body hair removal crystalized as the norm in the USA. As a result of multiple factors such as increasing globalization, colonialism, ‘modernisation’ and Westernisation, the practice, slowly and gradually permeated into parts of the world as well.

Joysheel is a 4th-year law student at O. P. Jindal Global University, interested in international law and gender studies.

The second part of this article engaging with the contemporary politics of body hair removal can be found here.

The 'Scorpion King' is real — here's what this explorer found in his tomb

The Scorpion King wasn't just a big screen action hero played by The Rock, he was an Egyptian king. Patrick McGovern, the author of "Ancient Brews: Rediscovered and Re-Created," reveals what he found when he entered the king's tomb. Following is a complete transcript of the video.

You want to focus on the Scorpion King, one of the first kings of Egypt. Going back to 3150 BC. Dynasty Zero. We don’t even have the First Dynasty yet.

I’m Pat McGovern. I’m from the University of Pennsylvania Museum. I am the scientific director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project.

Scorpion was a king in southern Egypt that was buried in a very spectacular way. And he was buried with all the things you might expect. Not just this life, but intended for the after life. So he had jars of beer, the clothes that he would need in the afterlife, but also wine. Which was not produced in Egypt, because they did not have the grapevine. It had to be imported from the Jordan Valley and vicinity. And he had 700 jars of wine, about 4500 liters.

And we did the analysis of this and were able to show that it included lots of Levantine spices, like savory, thyme, coriander. And also figs. That’s the only example that we know of figged wine.

It really illustrates how the royalty and the upper class were very much attracted to special fermented beverages. So if you couldn’t get it locally, you would import it. You know it’s sort of like today when we want to show off to our friends.

Macehead with the Name of Anum-mutabil - History

This macehead depicts a King or Chieftain wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt in full ritual dress, with the bull&rsquos tail representing power, hanging from the back of his belt. The multi-pedaled rosette or star at this time was used to identify Egyptian kings and in fact, in neighboring Sumer, signified divinity itself. It is shown in front of his face, along with a clearly drawn scorpion sign, thereby giving his name as Srqt, or Scorpion. In another example of convention in Egyptian art, this kingly, perhaps quasi-divine figure is drawn towering over his companions and attendants.

King Scorpion is shown accompanied by his high officers, who carry standards on which are displayed symbols, which represent districts into which Egypt is divided. Many of these district symbols are familiar throughout Egypt&rsquos history. Two of these interestingly enough are Set (Seth) animals, showing that even at this very early time, followers of Seth supported the royal clan (in later time, civil war will break out between the followers of Seth and the followers of the other preeminent God &ndash Horus.) other symbols represent falcons, a jackal, the god Min, and possibly the mountains. If these are accurately interpreted as regional standards, then there are more shown here than on the Narmer palette (below).

On this mace-head, Scorpion is apparently performing a ceremony using a hoe. Perhaps he is opening the irrigation dykes to begin the flooding of the fields, or perhaps he is cutting the first furrow for a temple or even a city to be built - even today, moving the first shovel-full of dirt in a foundation ritual, is a kingly prerogative. The decorative frieze around the remaining top of the mace-head has lapwing birds hanging by their necks from vertical standards. In hieroglyphics these rekhyts have been interpreted to represent the common people of Egypt, and the frieze seems to indicate that they were conquered by King Scorpion.

However, some authorities have interpreted the rekhyt symbol as only later representing the Egyptian population, whereas early in pre-dynastic history the rekhyts referred to foreigners or non-Egyptians instead. Thus the Scorpion mace-head and Narmer palette may represent the respective rulers as having successfully defeated foreigners.

File:Human-headed bull in the name of King Nam-Mahani of Lagash, dedicated to Nanshe, circa 2100 BCE.jpg

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Narmer Palette:

Narmer's importance as the probable unifier of Lower and Upper Egypt is indicated primarily by the Palette and the Macehead which are attributed to him. His name-rebus appear on both. But his power in the region must have extended further, since Egyptian sherds inscribed with Narmer's name have also been found .
The Narmer Palette was discovered by J.E.Quibell at Hierakonpolis in 1897-98. The obverse is divided into three registers, uppermost of which gives his name in a serekh flanked by human-faced bovines. The second register shows Narmer wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt smiting an enemy. The third register shows dead, nude enemies. On the reverse the upper register showing his name-serekh is repeated. The second register shows Narmer now wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt, inspecting rows of nude, decapitated enemies. The third register shows a man mastering serpent-necked lions, and the fourth register shows a bull destroying a town and trampling a dead enemy.

Narmer may have considered Buto as the central capital of the Delta he had just conquered. On his palette is a hieroglyphic group that could be read as Ta Mehu, the later name for the Delta region. Since Narmer is shown with the Red Crown he was thus the first to ascribe this Crown to the entire Delta and thus Lower Egypt. He may have transferred the Red Crown from Nubt/Naqada to represent the entirety of Lower Egypt.
The Narmer macehead, also discovered at Hierakonpolis, has had three interpretations. Petrie's theory, also held by later scholars, was that the mace head depicted the political marriage of Nithotep, princess of the north, with Narmer. Other scholars feel the macehead depicts a celebration by Narmer of his conquest of the north, while still others regard the macehead as commemorating a Sed-festival of the king. Nithotep's grave has been found at Naqada, with Narmer's name as well as with King Aha's name. Nithotep thus is linked with two kings as wife and mother.

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Polished axehead, oval in shape and rounded quadrangular in section cylindrical perforation at the narrower end of the macehead. Shows slight damage, with a small piece missing from the pointed end, and a larger piece missing from the broad end of one of the flat sides.

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Personal Use – images can be used by the person downloading them for research, study or creating learning resources. Images cannot be used for commercial purposes.

For all other uses and formats please contact [email protected]

Personal Use – images can be used by the person downloading them for research, study or creating learning resources. Images cannot be used for commercial purposes.

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