We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
In 1997, a crypt of skeletons was unearthed during an excavation of Stirling Castle in Scotland. What was originally believed to have been part of the Governor’s Kitchens was revealed to be the ‘lost’ private chapel believed to have been built in the early 1100s. The little chapel of St. Michael fell into disuse after the grander Chapel Royal was built by James IV, perhaps as penance for plotting his father’s death. The crypt contained the skeletons of at least six males, one female, and two infants, all of whom received Christian burials. In the tumultuous Middle Ages, when wars raged between England and Scotland, only the elite were buried indoors. Although it has been over 700 years since these bodies were buried, the team of forensic archeologists at BBC Two’s “History Cold Cases” were confident that they could identify at least one of the souls: the largest and best preserved male.
Stirling Castle, Stirling, Scotland ( dun_deagh / flickr )
The team, led by Professor Sue Black, worked backwards from information derived from the bones and then from knowledge of the era in order to construct a likely identity to the large male, the rugby player as they affectionately called him. The man had been an exceptionally strong nobleman (lower classes would not have been buried in the chapel). His skeleton suggests that he was 5 feet, 7 inches (1.7 meters) tall with a hardy physique. Deep grooves in his shoulder bones suggest he had developed large muscles even while he was still growing, perhaps starting from his early teens.
Dr Jo Buckberry of Bradford University, who carried out research into the Stirling Castle skeletons. © Historic Scotland
Between his special status as buried in the chapel and his powerful build, Professor Black concludes that the man was most likely a knight. Training for a young noble’s son would have begun in earnest around the age of 15. At this time, even while his body was still growing, the boy would be expected to wear heavy chainmail armor while wielding heavy swords and shields. Further skeletal evidence suggests that this knight spent much of his time on horseback. While his upper body, particularly the back and shoulders, were exceptionally muscular, his lower body does not appear especially strong. The suggestion that he was a knight on horseback is further supported by signs of repeated trauma in his anklebones. In the show, Professor Black meets with men who still joust in real life in order to keep the tradition alive. They explain how jousting is a perilous sport and it is not uncommon for participants to be knocked from their horses. If the foot is caught in the stirrup, it can lead to a nasty ankle injury. The constant horseback riding of knighthood and occasional falls of jousting damage the spine over time. The knight’s skeleton reflects these in its obvious signs of wear and tear.
The man’s body showed signs of serious wounds from earlier fights. Most strikingly was a dent in the front of his skull where he was presumably struck by an ax or sword. This blow did not kill him, however, it most likely caused him a serious concussion. Rather, the researchers believed that the man was killed by an arrow wound.
The joust between the Knight of the Red Rose and the Lord of the Tournament, as engraved by Thomas Hodgson
One of the aspects the team was most interested in uncovering was whether the man was Scottish or English. Radiocarbon dating put the man’s existence around 1290 to 1350 A.D. Within even this narrow window of time, Stirling Castle (located on the frontlines between the England and Scotland) changed hands several times. In addition, French forces were known to have played a role in the conflict, often fighting with the Scottish against the English.
“Techniques have advanced a long way since the skeletons were discovered in 1997 and we can now tell much more about where people came from, their lifestyles and causes of death,” said Dr. Jo Buckberry, a biological anthropologist. “As the castle changed hands a number of times these are people who could have come from Scotland, England or even France and one of my hopes is that we will be able to find out where at least some of them originated.”
Dr Jo Buckberry with the skeleton of the Stirling knight. © Historic Scotland
Analysis of minerals in the teeth and bones revealed a diet that contained a great deal of salted fish – strange given how far Stirling is from the sea. Preserved fish was, however, the primary means of feeding English troops fighting away from home. Further mineral analysis suggests the man grew up in a region in southern England or western France. Finally, Professor Black meets with historians who are experts on this time period. Based on the given time parameters, the historians rule out the possibility of the man being French because French troops were not near Stirling Castle at that point in time. Thus, the team concludes that the man was an English knight, killed by a Scottish arrow, while the English held Stirling Castle.
The BBC may have even found out the man’s name. Records indicate that, while occupying the castle, a Sir John de Stricheley died in 1341. This would be in keeping with everything else Professor Black uncovered. However, more evidence is needed to confirm whether Sir John is indeed the Stirling Knight.
Face of Stirling Castle warrior reconstructed
Experts are now attempting to discover the identity of the warrior, who is likely to have been killed in the 13th or 14th Century.
The skeleton is one of 10 excavated from the site of a lost royal chapel at the castle. The skeleton of a woman was found near the knight.
Forensic anthropologist Professor Sue Black is leading the investigation.
It is believed the knight could have been killed during Scotland's Wars of Independence with England.
The castle changed hands several times and scientific tests have been used to work out whether the knight might have been a Scot, an Englishman or even French.
Efforts by Prof Black, of Dundee University, to find out more about the warrior's life and death will be featured in BBC Two's History Cold Case series on Thursday.
Richard Strachan, senior archaeologist with Historic Scotland, said the facial reconstruction gives a "powerful impression" of what the knight may have looked like.
"He was a very strong and fit nobleman, with the physique of a professional rugby player, who would have been trained since boyhood to handle heavy swords and other weapons and who would have spent a great deal of time on horseback," he said.
Historic Scotland, which cares for the castle, has announced it is commissioning further research to find out more about the 10 skeletons, which include two infants.
They date from the 13th to 15th Centuries and were found during preparatory work for a £12m refurbishment of the castle's Renaissance royal palace.
Biological anthropologist Dr Jo Buckberry, of the University of Bradford, is part of the team which will carry out the research.
She said: "Techniques have advanced a long way since the skeletons were discovered in 1997 and we can now tell much more about where people came from, their lifestyles and causes of death.
"This group is highly unusual, because of where and when the people were buried, suggesting that they might have been socially important and have died during extreme events such as sieges."
The facial reconstruction and other research results, will feature in a permanent exhibition due to open at Stirling Castle next spring.
History Cold Case - Stirling Man is being shown on BBC2 Scotland at 2100 BST on Thursday.
Sir William Wallace, or The Wallace, is one of the most powerful, most evocative, and most well recognised figures from Scottish history. It is a fair bet that today his name is better known worldwide than most if not all of Scotland's monarchs. Yet he was never a king his notable deeds took place over a very short period of time, part of which he actually spent in France he fought just two major battles and emerged with a score of won one and lost one he resigned from his job and in the end he was betrayed and executed. The wider picture in Scotland at the time is set out in our Historical Timeline.
There's a contradiction here. Behind it lies the stunningly good press that William Wallace has received over the centuries. Most notably, the bard Blind Harry wrote an epic 1470 poem, The Acts and Deeds of Sir William Wallace, Knight of Elderslie. This introduced the story of Wallace as the heroic figure we now all know, at times without too much regard for the actual historical facts. When the Victorians got hold of the story the outcome was the construction of the magnificent National Wallace Monument near Stirling. Wallace's reputation in his native Scotland was secure.
But it was not Blind Harry who brought Wallace's story to the attention of a worldwide audience, it was Mel Gibson. His 1995 film Braveheart added another layer of artistic license to the one already applied by Blind Harry. The result has been criticised for its lack of historical accuracy. But critics of what is, without doubt, a superbly entertaining and enormously popular film, miss the point.
The point is that the historical accuracy of the film doesn't really matter. What matters is the fact that it sparked a resurgence in a sense of Scottish national identity that during much of the 20th Century had appealed to only a minority of Scots. Two years after the film's release, on 1 September 1997 (and on the 700th anniversary of William Wallace & Andrew Murray's victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridge) the UK's new Labour Government held a referendum in which the Scottish people could vote whether to establish a devolved Government for Scotland: what would be the first Scottish Parliament since 1707. We share the believe that the "Yes" vote in that referendum owed a great deal to the effect of Braveheart on our image of ourselves as Scots.
So that's the ultimate contradiction in the Wallace story. Wallace's victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridge only kept Edward I and the English at bay for a few months. But exactly 700 years later the myth that had built up around Wallace was powerful enough to persuade Scots to establish their own devolved government. Wallace the myth turned out to have far more historical significance than Wallace the man. But without the man there would have been no myth.
William Wallace was born during the 1270s: most say 1272. Arguments continue about his background and his place of birth, with both Elderslie in Renfrewshire and Ellerslie in Ayrshire laying claim to him. Wallace is said to have started his education with an uncle who was a priest at Dunipace near Stirling. He went on to complete his education at Dundee.
At some point fairly early in his life Wallace became an outlaw. This seems to have been for the killing of an Englishman called Selby, son of the English constable of the castle, who insulted him in Dundee. He then killed two English soldiers in Ayrshire who challenged him over his poaching of fish.
Wallace's transformation from common outlaw to freedom fighter came in May 1297. According to some sources Wallace had secretly married Marion Braidfoot. He was visiting her and their baby daughter in Lanark when English soldiers became aware of him. He escaped, but the Sheriff of Lanark, Sir William Heselrig, had Marion executed. That same night Wallace and his men entered Lanark Castle, and killed Heselrig and every English soldier present.
Scotland at the time was without a king. John Balliol had been forced to abdicate by Edward I of England in 1296 and was being held prisoner in the Tower of London. Scotland was being ruled as a province of England. An "official" revolt of Scottish nobles was under way, but this fizzled out at Irvine on 1 July 1297 without ever coming to a fight, but another revolt against the English was under way in Moray and Easter Ross led by Andrew Murray. Wallace always said that his struggle was on behalf of the deposed King John Balliol, though there was never any indication Balliol supported the rebellion.
Wallace became public enemy number one after the massacre at Lanark, and went on to besiege Dundee Castle. Meanwhile Edward I sent a large army north to ensure that the English fortress of Stirling Castle was not captured: and to suppress the rebellion. William Wallace and Andrew Murray met up en route to face the advancing English at Stirling.
The Battle of Stirling Bridge on 11 September 1297 took place around the original wooden bridge over the River Forth at Stirling, in the shadow of Stirling Castle. This lay a short distance upstream from the stone bridge known today as Old Stirling Bridge and shown in the header image. The Scots attacked when the English were half deployed across the bridge and won an overwhelming victory. After the battle, Wallace was knighted by an unnamed Earl and became Sir William Wallace "Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland and leader of its armies." Andrew Murray fared less well, dying some time later from wounds received during the battle. Wallace followed up the victory by leading the Scots into Northumberland and Cumbria, retreating only when the weather became too bad to continue the campaign.
The English returned to Scotland in early 1298, trying to draw Wallace into open battle. This eventually happened at the Battle of Falkirk, on 22 July 1298. Wallace placed his faith in massed groups, or schiltrons, of spearmen to repel the English knights. Unfortunately for him the English made much greater use of longbowmen than they had in the past, a weapon against which the Scots had little defence. When the Scottish cavalry abandoned the fight, perhaps through treachery, an English victory was assured.
Wallace survived the Battle of Falkirk, but resigned the guardianship of Scotland in September 1298 in favour of Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick, and John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch. It seems that William Wallace then spent some time in France, possibly seeking French support against the English.
On 3 August 1305, Wallace, now back in Scotland, was captured by the English in a barn at Robroyston in part of what is now Glasgow. He was betrayed to the English by a man he thought was a friend, Sir John Mentieth, who led him into a trap on the premise they were going to meet Robert the Bruce. Wallace was taken to Dumbarton Castle before being led on a 17 day journey though England in chains. On 23 August 1305, Wallace arrived for his trial in Westminster Hall and charged with range of charges. These included the murder of Sir William Heselrig at Lanark and treason.
Wallace was found guilty, stripped, and dragged on a hurdle behind two horses by a roundabout route through London to the gallows at Smithfield. Here he was hanged until almost dead through strangulation revived emasculated then had his intestines and other internal organs "drawn" from his body before being burned. His body was decapitated, then quartered, with the quarters going to be displayed in Newcastle, Berwick, Stirling and Perth. His head was placed on a spike on London Bridge.
Wallace is today remembered in many ways, including in the National Wallace Monument near Stirling in the William Wallace Statue in the Scottish Borders in a statue at Edinburgh Castle and perhaps most famously (though not very accurately) in the film "Braveheart".
Knights of the Fallen Empire
"The mighty Wookiee gladiator named Bowdaar has spent over a century facing countless opponents without ever losing a match. He solidified his title as the galaxy's greatest gladiator when he defeated notorious Wookiee-hunter Karssk on Ord Mantell. The more gullible underworld scum whisper that Bowdaar is an immortal creature who can't be killed, but those who have faced him and lived know that he is simply the best there is.
On the surface, Bowdaar may seem like a simple-minded brute, but nothing could be further from the truth. Case in point: Bowdaar eventually discovered the identity of the Trandoshans who first captured and enslaved him. One night in an arena on Loovria, Bowdaar learned that his former captors were sitting in the stands. An unfortunate "weapons malfunction" caused the drunken Trandoshan slavers to meet an untimely--and extremely messy--end." ―The Wookiee Gladiator [src]
Stirling Castle knight revealed as English nobleman
A skeleton discovered at Stirling Castle may have been an English knight who died in the 14th Century.
Sir John de Stricheley died in 1341, when the English held the castle.
An investigation into the skeleton by forensic anthropologist Professor Sue Black and her team from the University of Dundee was featured on BBC Two's History Cold Case series on Thursday.
The battle-scared knight probably died from an arrow wound inflicted by the Scots.
The skeleton was one of 10 excavated from the site of a lost royal chapel at the castle during refurbishment works in 1997. The skeleton of a woman whose head had apparently been smashed with a mace was found near the knight.
Documents uncovered by the team showed that Sir John, a Buckinghamshire lord, was a senior member of the garrison. He died on 10 October 1341 and his family line has since died out.
Prof Black said piecing together the potential identity of the knight was "absolutely unexpected".
"When you start with something that was less than optimal, the chances of getting it back to even a possible name is much better that we could even have expected."
However the identity of the woman buried next to him will probably never be known as women were not deemed important enough for their deaths to be recorded.
A reconstruction revealed what the knight, who was a "very strong and fit nobleman, with the physique of a professional rugby player", may have looked like.
Forensic examinations of his bones showed the 5ft 7in (1.7m) man probably grew up in southern England, was an experienced soldier, had survived serious injuries in previous battles and probably died in his mid-20s.
Richard Strachan, senior archaeologist with Historic Scotland, said the facial reconstruction gave a "powerful impression" of what the knight's appearance would have been.
The facial reconstruction and other research results will feature in a permanent exhibition due to open at Stirling Castle next spring.
Historic Scotland, which cares for the castle, has announced it is commissioning further research to find out more about the 10 skeletons, which include two infants.
They date from the 13th to 15th Centuries and were found during preparatory work for a £12m refurbishment of the castle's Renaissance royal palace.
SARS-CoV-2 genomic evolution
The unprecedented scale of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing offers unique opportunities for tracking SARS-CoV-2 evolution online and detecting the emergence and spread of new VOI and VOC 42 ( Figure 2 ). Due to SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing and consequent bioinformatics analysis it was shown that because of an intrinsic RNA proofreading mechanism, coronaviruses exhibit lower mutation rates than do many other RNA viruses, such as Ebola virus and HIV 45 . In addition, their evolutionary (i.e., nucleotide substitution) rate partly reflects the action of host-dependent RNA-editing enzymes (e.g., APOBEC) 49 . Coronaviruses undergo a mean rate of approximately 1.12 × 10 𢄣 nucleotide substitutions per site per year. This is comparable to the SARS-CoV-1 mutation rate from 0.8 × 10 𢄣 to 2.38 × 10 𢄣 , Ebolavirus’s mutation rate of 1.3 × 10 𢄣 and is lower than seasonal influenza mutation rate of 6.7 × 10 𢄣 and HIV mutation rate of 4.4 × 10 𢄣 45,50 .
(a) The locations where VOCs and VOIs were initially detected. (b) The timeline showing when VOCs and VOIs initially appeared in the sequencing data (not the time when they were declared as VOCs and VOIs).
Another important aspect of SARS-CoV-2 evolution is that SARS-CoV-2, like many other RNA viruses, can live in the host as a swarm of closely related variants within individual hosts and has a tendency for recombinations 53 . Genomic studies have demonstrated the presence of such intra-host diversity inside hosts 54 , with one study having identified between 1 and 52 haplotype variants in each of 25 clinical patients 54 . Identifying the factors that shape these intra-host viral population structures can promote a better understanding of short-term viral evolution, in addition to providing insights into host adaptation and drug and vaccine design. For example, evidence of intra-host recombination 61 may enable estimating the role of recombination in the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2 14 and the emergence of novel viral variants 62 .
Over the first year of the epidemic, SARS-CoV-2 has gradually accumulated mutations and developed into several viral lineages as it has spread through the human population 7,65 . However, from the advent of the pandemic through approximately September 2020, there was no statistical evidence that any of the numerous characterized SARS-CoV-2 mutations had resulted in a loss or gain of function 45 . For example, one study analyzed all 48,454 SARS-CoV-2 genomes available from GISAID from late July of 2020 that had been sequenced throughout the world and identified 12,706 mutations, 398 of which were recurrent, and none of which were associated with a significant change in transmissibility 69 . During the summer of 2020, the D614G mutation in the viral S protein sparked attention because this new variant globally superseded the original SARS-CoV-2 strain globally. Phylogenetic analyses and clinical evidence indicated that, although the D614G variant was associated with both increased viral load and infectivity 68,70 , it was also more susceptible to neutralizing antisera and was not linked to any change in vaccine efficacy or increased pathogenicity 71 .
The first SARS-CoV-2 viral variant of concern (VOC) for public health, known as variant B.1.1.7, was first detected in the UK in September 2020. Genomic analysis revealed that this B.1.1.7 variant had first arisen in late Summer or early Fall 2020, and then quickly spread through many countries, including Australia, Denmark, Italy, Iceland, the Netherlands, and now the US 72 . However, the full pathogenic potential of this variant was not recognized until December 2020 72 . The B.1.1.7 variant strain harbors at least 12 mutations, including 2 in the S protein: N501Y, which increases the ability of SARS-CoV-2 binding to its cellular receptor, ACE2, and P618H, which adjoins the furin cleavage site in the S protein 75 . Both mutations have been associated with a 40% increase in the transmissibility of this variant as compared to previous SARS-CoV-2 strains 72 . More recently, the B.1.1.7 variant was found to be associated with greater disease severity and an increased risk of death as compared to other variants 78 . In addition, the variant carries a deletion that results in detection failure by some SARS-CoV-2 molecular tests, which can limit the successful tracing of this VOC 79 . However, there is no evidence thus far that this variant reduces vaccine efficacy.
The second VOC was discovered in, UK, in September 2020, and was characterized by several mutations, including E484K in the RBD of the S protein. This mutation, which was later discovered to have arisen independently in other viral variants around the world 80 , is associated with reduced neutralizing activity of human convalescent and post-vaccination sera. Additional VOCs related to B.1.1.7 include B.1.351, which was first detected in South Africa in November 2020, 81 where it spread rapidly. Although the latest reports indicate that this variant has also spread to Zambia and the US, there is no evidence that this mutation impacts disease severity 82 . This variant also harbors multiple mutations in the S protein, such as K417N, E484K, and N501Y.
The third VOC, P.1, was detected in four travelers who arrived in Japan from Brazil in January 2021 83 . P.1 carries similar mutations in the RBD domain as B.1.351 (K417T, E484K, N501Y), the latter of which can increase transmissibility and help the virus evade neutralizing antibodies. The impact of the K417T mutation is not known. More recently, another genetic variant B.1.427/B.1.429 was declared as VOC because of its prevalence in the outbreak that happened in California. This variant is harboring the L452R mutation in the S protein that is suspected to confer SARS-CoV-2 antibody resistance, although it is less severe than the E484K mutation, which is associated with greatly reduced viral susceptibility to antibody neutralization 86 . The full and actual list of all VOI and VOC can be found at the official CDC page 87 .
Some of these variants were first independently identified in immunodeficient individuals in different countries, suggesting that their emergence may be the result of convergent evolution followed by rapid spread. For example, the appearance of the ΔH69/ΔV70 deletion was documented in an immunosuppressed individual through deep viral genome sequencing at 23 time points during the course of infection (101 days) 64 . A weakened host immune response can permit the virus to replicate with little or no control, increasing the likelihood for mutations to occur. The independent evolution of a given mutation in different geographic locations suggests that this mutation may confer an adaptive advantage to the virus, such as immune evasion or increased transmissibility, which is corroborated by clinical studies. Given the likely public health importance of these VOCs and VUIs, global surveillance for these and other new variants is expanding, as information for all SARS-CoV-2 lineages is now collected and made available online for the rapid evaluation of their epidemiologic and vaccine impact and short-term evolution based on individual data points 7,88 . In order to gain better control over emerging VOC and VOI, A European Commission Recommendation dated 19 January 2021 stated that 𠇊ll EU Member States should reach a capacity of sequencing at least 5% - and preferably 10% - of positive test results. In most Member States, the sequencing capacity for identification of SARS-CoV-2 variants is below the recommendation set by the European Commission to sequence 5% of SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens” ( Figure 1d ).
Unlocking the Identity of the Stirling Knight - History
The Wars of Independence -
An Introduction (II)
Edwards response was swift. The Scottish border-town of Berwick, second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain, was sacked. Edwards army quickly stormed its wooden walls with horrific consequences for all inside.
When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred. So that mills could be turned round by the flow of their blood.
Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bowers Scotichronicon
Marching north, Edward crushed the Scots army at Dunbar before penetrating into the scottish heartland, north of the Forth. King John Balliol was forced to surrender and was humiliated at Stracathro Churchyard. There he was stripped of the crown, his insignia ripped from his coat (giving him the nickname toom tabard, meaning empty coat), before he and much of the Scots nobility were imprisoned in England. However, for Edward 'Longshanks', conquest and ritual humiliation were not enough.
He set about stripping Scotland of its lodestones of identity, just as he had done to the Welsh in 1282. The Stone of Destiny, on which the Scottish Kings were inaugurated, the crown, and one of the Scots holiest relics, the Black Rood of St Margaret (believed to be a piece of the True Cross), were all taken south. His aim was nothing less than the destruction of the Scots nation and its total incorporation into his kingdom. As he left Scotland, Edward was reported to remark - A man does good work when he rids himself of shit.
William Wallace, Guardian of Scotland
Edwards conquest was not yet secure. Within a year, in 1297, he had lost control of Scotland. Risings led by two knights, William Wallace in the south and Andrew Murray in the north, loosened his grip. The grip was finally broken at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.
Wallace and Murray's victory was a stunning achievement, not just because the Scots had not defeated the English in battle for centuries, but because for the first time in the history of medieval battles a superior force of heavily armed knights had been defeated by a small army of spearmen. Unfortunately Murray was fatally wounded, but Wallace was proclaimed Guardian of Scotland and took the war to English soil, raiding deep into northern England.
Humbled, the English nobility united behind Edward. In 1298 he invaded Scotland again and this time defeated Wallace at The Battle of Falkirk. In defeat, Wallace resigned the Guardianship of Scotland, but the struggle continued. Many Scots had resolved to fight until the end.
War and Diplomacy 1298-1304
Every year for six years Edward led his army north to attack Scottish strongholds in a bitter war that laid waste to the south of Scotland.
From Edwards point of view the war was bearing little fruit. Even more worrying was the fact that the Scots appeared to be winning on the diplomatic front. William Wallace was dispatched to the court of Philip IV in France to drum up support. The Scottish Church, directed by Bishop Lamberton, appealed directly to the papacy (the equivalent of the UN in medieval Christendom) and seemed to be getting a sympathetic hearing. By 1302 it seemed that the Scots were on the verge of victory, with the exiled Balliol ready to return to claim the crown.
However, events would soon turn against the Scots. In the politics of the Scottish Guardianship, the Comyns, supporters of Balliol, had sidelined the Bruces, who, faced with Balliols return, again submitted to Edward I.
Eventually Edward prevailed in the diplomatic game with the French and the Pope, who needed the English for his latest Crusade against Islam more than he needed the Scots. By 1304 it looked like Balliol was not to return after all, and, exhausted after seven years of war and diplomatic defeat, the Scots nobility capitulated and cut a deal. Edward had triumphed.
Quick Matches or Rank Matches consist of five players. With one player as a Hunter, and the remaining four as Survivors. Each survivor is roughly classified into 4 different categories: Decode types, Assist types, Contain types, and Rescue types. The Hunter's objective is to find and eliminate all of the Survivors before they can escape. To do this, the Hunter must pursue each Survivor individually, then eliminate them by placing them down on a Rocket Chair. Meanwhile, the Survivor's objective is to try to escape via two Exit Gates by deciphering five Cipher Machines, or the Dungeon if there's one Survivor left. The Hunter is able to win the match by eliminating at least three Survivors, while the Survivors are able to win should three Survivors escape. If only two Survivors are eliminated and two have escaped, the match will end in a tie. Rewards vary based on the game mode.
There are various characters to choose from, each having their own abilities in game. Apart from standard character's skills in game, there's another skill system called the Secondary Skills, available only for the Hunter and helping them track down survivors.
Other game modes Edit
Other modes exist with different rules. In Duo Hunters, two Hunters team up against a group of eight Survivors. Blackjack plays like regular Blackjack, with one of the players becoming a Hunter with each round. In Tarot, a team of three Survivors (two Squires and a King) and one Hunter (playing as their team's Knight) face off against another team of the same composition, whose goal is to eliminate the opposing King before their rivals do. A temporary fourth mode (added in 2021), known as Nightmare Shadows or Chasing Shadows features six Survivors who have to race against each other in an obstacle course.
Other features Edit
Ranked matches Edit
Identity V features two different ranking systems, in the form of Character Points and Tier Divisions. Both are used only in Ranked Matches, available at specific time slots during the day.
Character Points are earned by playing ranked matches while using a specific character, and are used to determine one's spot on the leaderboards. Wins award +55 points to the victor(s), draws give +11 points, and a loss results in −11 points. Character points are specific to each character and will slowly decrease over time.
Identity V also features eight Tiers split into subdivisions, which players can be sent up and down depending on their performance. Winning Ranked matches earns Rank Points and losses loses Rank Points. Once certain number of Rank Points is reached, the player can go up to the next subdivision if they win their next ranked match. The tier bracket the player ends up in will determine what reward they get once the season ends.
- I–III → I–III
- I–II → I–II
- I–I → I–I
- II–IV → II–IV
- II–III → II–III
- II–II → II–II
- II–I → II–I
- III–V → II–I
- III–IV → III–V
- III–III → III–IV
- III–II → III–III
- III–I → III–III
- IV–V → III–II
- IV–IV → III–I
- IV–III → III–I
- IV–II → IV–V
- IV–I → IV–IV
- V–V → IV–IV
- V–IV → IV–III
- V–III → IV–II
- V–II → IV–II
- VI–V → IV–I
- VI–IV → V–V
- VI–III → V–V
- VI–II → V–IV
- VI–I → V–IV
- VII → VI–I
- Peak Tier VII → VII
Unlocking characters Edit
Identity V features many different characters, but only a few characters are available to use at first. Unlocking new characters requires Clues, which are obtained through playing matches and finishing quests. One to two characters on both factions are available for trial use each day.
Logic Path Edit
The Logic Path is a gacha-like system in which players can earn Clues, Essences and other items by rolling dice. Dice are obtained by playing and winning matches. Essences can be viewed and opened within the Logic Path. Each Essence has a set prize pool of obtainable items, which may include costumes, accessories, profile pictures, and other items.
Most cities would be very happy to have a skyline as distinctive as Stirling's. It is home to two world famous landmarks, each in its own way is a reminder of Scotland's long and often bloody history. High on an outcrop of volcanic rock on the south side of the plain of the looping River Forth stands the magnificent Stirling Castle. Standing even higher on its own outcrop of volcanic rock on the north side of the river is The National Wallace Monument. Whatever your direction of approach to Stirling you cannot fail to be impressed by one or the other, or both, of these features: with the castle, spreading across its rock like a sleeping lion, providing a perfect counterpoint to the visually striking exclamation mark of the Wallace Monument.
The National Wallace Monument commemorates Sir William Wallace. You can read a fuller account of his life here, but in essence he was one of the very few who consistently opposed the efforts of King Edward I of England to impose his will, and ultimately his supremacy, over Scotland and the Scots in the years around 1300.
The Wallace, as he is often known, is one of the most powerful, most evocative, and most well recognised figures from Scottish history. It is a fair bet that today his name is better known worldwide than most, if not all, of Scotland's monarchs.
Yet he was never a king his notable deeds took place over a very short period of time, part of which he actually spent in France he fought just two major battles and emerged with a score of won one and lost one he resigned from his job and in the end he was betrayed and executed. The wider picture in Scotland at the time is set out in our Historical Timeline.
There's a contradiction here. Behind it lies the stunningly good press that William Wallace has received over the centuries. Most notably, the bard Blind Harry wrote an epic 1470 poem, The Acts and Deeds of Sir William Wallace, Knight of Elderslie. This introduced the story of Wallace as the heroic figure we now all know, at times without too much regard for the actual historical facts.
But it was not Blind Harry who brought Wallace's story to the attention of a worldwide audience, it was Mel Gibson. His 1995 film Braveheart added another layer of artistic license to the one already applied by Blind Harry. The result has been criticised for its lack of historical accuracy. But critics of what is, without doubt, a superbly entertaining and enormously popular film, miss the point. The point is that the historical accuracy of the film doesn't really matter, just as the historical accuracy of Blind Harry's poem didn't really matter. People believe what they want to believe, and for a nation in search of national heroes, William Wallace fitted the bill perfectly: and still does.
But let's wind the story back to the mid-1800s. Scotland, with more than a little help from Sir Walter Scott, was going through an earlier phase of the rediscovery of its sense of national pride and identity after a period during which for many it had become "North Britain". Blind Harry's William Wallace was a perfect focus for the celebration of this new sense of identity and as a result statues of him and monuments to him began to spring up all over the country, with more than 20 being built in all.
But many wanted a national monument to William Wallace that could be venerated by everyone in Scotland. Funds were raised from the public, and a competition was launched for a design for the monument after an initial proposal was deemed too anti-English (of a Scottish lion in the act of killing a mythical English creature). 106 entries were submitted and the design that was selected was by the Scots Baronial architect J.T. Rochead.
His approach was to marry together two uniquely Scottish features. He took the traditional design of a Scottish tower house castle, complete with an external stair turret, and stretched it vertically. Then he added to the top a stone crown spire, of the sort seen atop the towers of St Giles' Cathedral in Edinburgh and King's College in Aberdeen.
The question of location had been decided some years earlier. Both Edinburgh and Glasgow wanted to be home to the monument, and Stirling was chosen mainly because it could be seen as neutral territory. Having decided on Stirling, the choice of the rocky outcrop of Abbey Craig was an obvious one for the monument, for three main reasons. Firstly, if you are going to build a monument intended to make a statement, putting it on top of a high outcrop of rock allows it to make the biggest statement possible. Secondly, Abbey Craig could be quarried to provide the stone needed to build the monument.
The third reason for the location was that Abbey Craig overlooks the site of William Wallace's most notable victory over the English, the Battle of Stirling Bridge, which took place on 11 September 1297. This was fought around the original wooden bridge over the River Forth at Stirling, in the shadow of Stirling Castle and just below Abbey Craig. The original bridge lay a short distance upstream from the stone bridge known today as Old Stirling Bridge. The Scots attacked from the Abbey Craig when the English were half deployed across the bridge and won an overwhelming victory. After the battle, Wallace was knighted by an unnamed Earl and became Sir William Wallace "Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland and leader of its armies." His co-leader, Andrew Murray fared less well, dying some time later from wounds received during the battle. Wallace followed up the victory by leading the Scots into Northumberland and Cumbria, retreating only when the weather became too bad to continue the campaign.
The true historical significance of the Battle of Stirling Bridge is debatable. The English returned to Scotland in early 1298, trying to draw Wallace into open battle. This eventually happened at the Battle of Falkirk, on 22 July 1298. Defeat there was the beginning of the end for Wallace who was eventually executed in London on 23 August 1305. But as we've already said, none of this is really about history: the myth of Wallace has a life of its own that remains hugely influential.
The National Wallace Monument you see today was completed in 1869 after eight years' construction. It stands some 220ft or 67m high, and Abbey Craig adds a further 300ft or 91m, meaning that the top of the monument stands 520ft above the (tidal) River Forth below. You start your visit in the attractive visitor centre, shop and cafe next to the car park at the foot of the Abbey Craig. From here you can follow the path to the monument itself, remembering that it is a 300ft climb, or use the monument's own minibus service.
From the top of Abbey Craig, views of the monument itself are obviously foreshortened. It is worth looking out for the Wallace Statue, set into a corner of the monument. It's difficult to appreciate the true scale of the statue, which was added in 1887, but it is a 4m or 13ft tall bronze weighing some three tons. It is a slight hint of "what might have been": an early proposal for the monument had been for a colossal statue of Wallace, on the scale of New York's Statue of Liberty.
In the ground floor of the monument is a reception area, a shop, and a nice little lounge with a vending machine that sells cold drinks: especially welcome to anyone who has climbed Abbey Craig on a hot day. But you will probably want to head straight for the magnificent views awaiting at the top of the monument, a mere 220 feet and 246 steps above you. Most of the steps are enclosed within the corner stair turret and describe a fairly narrow spiral, which can make passing those heading in the opposite direction interesting.
The Monument has four levels above the ground floor, with Level 4 being The Crown or the top. The first 71 steps up to Level 1 bring you to the Hall of Arms, with displays of arms, information about the story of William Wallace and the Battle of Stirling Bridge.
64 more steps will bring you to Level 2 and the Hall of Heroes. Here are displayed marble statues of notable Scotsmen, the result of a worldwide appeal by the custodians in 1885. Also on display is what is said to be the 700 year old Wallace sword, some 5 feet 4 inches long. Coming face to face with such a magnificent piece of metalwork you wonder how anyone could have lifted or carried it, still less fought with it. This level is also a good place to appreciate some of the monument's magnificent collection of eleven stained glass windows
62 steps further lead to Level 3, the Royal Chamber, and a series of illuminated panels giving the background to the monument itself. The final pull leads to The Crown of the Monument with its breathtaking views which make every one of those 246 steps worthwhile.
To the north you are immediately struck by the closest of the Ochil Hills, Dumyat. To the east is the Forth Valley, with the river itself snaking away into the distance. To the south is the historic city of Stirling, dominated by its Castle. To the west are the Trossachs and Loch Lomond and, on a clear day, a far-reaching panorama of many of the southern highlands' most striking mountains.