Swearer DE-186 - History

Swearer DE-186 - History


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Swearer
(DE-186: dp. 1,240; 1. 306'0~; b. 36'7"; dr. 11'87; S.
20.9 k. (tl.); cpl. 216; a. 3 3", 5 40mm.; cl. Cannon)

Swearer (DE-186) was laid down on 12 August 1943 by the Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., at Newark, N.J., launched on 31 October 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Walter F. Swearer; and commissioned on 24 November 1943, Lt. K. N. Hannan, USNR, in command.

From commissioning until mid-January 1944 Swearer was attached to the Operational Training Command, Atlantic Fleet, for shakedown training and post-shakedown availability. On 19 January 1944, she put to sea from New York City in the screen of a convoy of troop transports bound for the Panama Canal. She transited the canal at the end of January and continued on to Hawaii. Swearer arrived in Pearl Harbor on 15 February and remained until the 29th, conducting training and undergoing repairs. On the 29th, she set sail for Eniwetok Atoll in the screen of a convoy and, after a stop at Kwajalein, reached her destination on 8 March.

For a little more than 10 months, Swearer contributed to America's war effort in the Pacific by shepherding the logistics groups which supported the fighting. During the bulk of the time, she operated from Eniwetok and Ulithi atolls, screening the fueling group of the 3a/5th fleet to and from fueling rendezvous. In being so engaged, the destroyer escort participated in the raids on Palau, Yap, Woleui, Truk, Satawan, and Ponape in March and April of 1944. In early April, she also screened escort carriers from Manus to resupply rendezvous with the larger carriers then engaged in operations in western New Guinea. After a month at Pearl Harbor in repairs, she returned to the central Pacific and to screening duty with the fueling group. She participated in the capture and occupation of the Mariana Islands between June and August, then moved south to Manus to screen escort carriers during the western Carolines and Leyte operations. In November, Swearer resumed duty with the fueling group. During this last three months with the fueling groups, she supported the fast carriers as they struck Luzon in the Philippines and as they made their sweep of Formosa, the China coast, and of the Nansei Shoto.

After repairs and upkeep at Ulithi in the western Carolines, from 21 January to 6 February 1945, Swearer joined a convoy of cargo and troopships bound for the invasion of Iwo Jima. The convoy stopped at Guam for a week, then headed for Iwo Jima on 16 February. Swearer and her convoy arrived off Iwo Jima on 19 February, the date of the assault. For five days, she patrolled the transport area and helped fight off Japanese air attacks, before departing on the 23d for Leyte Gulf on the Philippines. The destroyer escort remained in San Pedro Bay until 19 March, preparing for the invasion of Okinawa. Between 19 and 26 March, she screened a convoy of cargo, troop, and amphibious warfare ships to the Okinawa staging area at Kerama Retto. Swearer remained in the vicinity of Okinawa for three months, patrolling, screening, escorting, and fighting off kamikaze attacks. She was attacked by a "Zeke" on the day of the invasion, but her gunners brought him down before he could crash her. On 16 April, a "Val" tried to crash-dive Swearer, but again her gunners brought him down. The destroyer escort continued to patrol Kerama Retto until 5 July. She suffered two more air attacks during that time, one by a bomber on 13 May and another by a torpedo bomber on 27 June. In both cases, however, neither plane nor ship inflicted damage upon the other.

Swearer returned to Eniwetok on 12 July and headed for the United States on the following day. After a stop at Pearl Harbor, she entered San Diego on 27 July and commenced overhaul. Three months later, she headed south to the Panama Canal, transited it on 4 November, and headed north to Norfolk, where she arrived on 10 November. On 25 February 1946, Swearer was placed out of commission and berthed at Green Cove Springs, Fla. She remained there until the spring of 1950, when she was moved to Philadelphia to prepare for turnover to the Republic of France. On 16 September 1950, she joined the French Navy as Bambara (F-719), and her name was struck from the Navy list on 20 October 1950.

Swearer earned nine battle stars during World War II.


HAVE A PROUD AND HAPPY JUNETEENTH!

Juneteenth is the oldest nationally celebrated commemoration of the ending of slavery in the United States.

From its Galveston, Texas origin in 1865, the observance of June 19th as the African American Emancipation Day has spread across the United States and beyond.

Today Juneteenth commemorates African American freedom and emphasizes education and achievement. It is a day, a week, and in some areas a month marked with celebrations, guest speakers, picnics and family gatherings. It is a time for reflection and rejoicing. It is a time for assessment, self-improvement and for planning the future. Its growing popularity signifies a level of maturity and dignity in America long over due. In cities across the country, people of all races, nationalities and religions are joining hands to truthfully acknowledge a period in our history that shaped and continues to influence our society today. Sensitized to the conditions and experiences of others, only then can we make significant and lasting improvements in our society.

Join the Juneteenth Yard Sign Campaign

BUSHEY

Bisseia, viii cent. Bissheye, xiv. cent.

The parish of Bushey, formerly called also Hartshead (Hertesheved, twelfth century), was apparently separated from the parish of Watford, of which it formed a part, about 1166. (fn. 1) It lies to the south of the county, and is bounded by the River Colne on the north, and the Middlesex county boundary on the south. The town now practically joins Watford. It is about 330 ft. above the ordnance datum, comprising 3,208 acres of land, and 10 acres of land covered by water, and contains the hamlets of Great Bushey, Little Bushey, Bushey Heath, Bushey Hartsbourne, and New Bushey. The soil is principally of chalk with gravel and clay, and the subsoil is of clay and chalk. It comprises 505 acres of arable land, 1,939 acres of pasture, and 84 acres of woodland. (fn. 2)

The parish was divided for civil purposes under the Local Government Act, 1894, the urban district being included in the Watford Urban District and now called Oxhey Ward, and Bushey Rural District comprising the remainder. In 1906 the latter was made into an urban district. There was formerly an extensive common called Bushey Heath and the Warren, which were inclosed under an award of 1809, (fn. 3) and are now largely built over. There are parks at Bushey Grange and Haydon Hill. The town of Bushey lies along the road running from the Watling Street at Edgware to Watford, where it branches out to Berkhampstead, Rickmansworth and St. Albans, from which road other roads branch off to Elstree and Aldenham, and there are numerous cross roads. New roads were made under the Bushey Heath inclosure award above referred to, and old ones were stopped and diverted. There is a railway station on the London and North-Western Railway main line.

The parish of Bushey lies for the most part on the slope of the hill rising from the eastern bank of the River Colne, and has magnificent views over well-planted meadow and pasture to St. Albans tower on the north, the wooded hills of Buckinghamshire on the west, Harrow spire on the south, and the smoke-enveloped towers and chimneys of London on the south-east. The village stands along the road from Watford to London, here called the High Street or London road. The church is picturesquely situated on the south side of the road beyond the village pond, but is partially hidden by a row of cottages. The houses in the village are mostly of brick, the older with tiled roofs and the later slated. There are a few old half-timbered houses notably 'Friedheim,' and No. 53, High Street, opposite the Bell Inn. The influence of the Herkomer School pervades the village, and is noticeable in the colony of artists, the numerous studios, and in the design of many of the houses. This school was commenced in 1883 as an experiment, by Sir Hubert von Herkomer, C.V.O., M.A., R.A., and Mr. Thomas Eccleston Gibb, F.A.S., of Bushey, to use the words of Sir Hubert von Herkomer, 'with the aim of retaining the English feeling for nature with the addition of some better technique than is encouraged in most English Art Schools,' and further aiming 'at the individual development of each artistic nature.' Four years later a new constitution was adopted, but in 1905 the school was abandoned, the buildings being taken by the Bushey Art School under Miss L. Kemp-Welch. Sir Hubert von Herkomer's house, 'Lululand,' lies behind the school down Melbourne Road, and is a large building of red and white stone, with a slate roof. The style is original, and perhaps approaches the Byzantine more than any other. A little to the west of the church on the north side of High Street is the Manor House, a large red brick building with a slated roof, the property of General Forestier-Walker. Opposite the church is 'Kingsley,' where Miss Kemp-Welch, R.B.A., the well-known artist, lives and further east are Bourne Hall in the occupation of Mrs. Milner, and the 'Cloisters,' an eccentric building in the occupation of Mr. Richard Thomas. Bushey House, a large house covered with plaster painted white with a slate roof, on the south side of High Street, belonged to Mr. Thomas Clutterbuck, who died in 1837. (fn. 4) He was succeeded by his son Thomas, who died a few months after his father, when Bushey House came to his brother William, (fn. 5) who died in 1866. (fn. 6) In 1873 it was the residence of Mr. George Lake, (fn. 7) from whom it passed after 1899 to Mr. Edward Hedley Cuthbertson. Still further east are 'Cleveland,' a brick house with the upper story rough-cast, the residence and property of Mrs. Kynaston Hogarth House, built in a like manner, the property of Mr. Barry Pain and 'Claybury,' a brick house with slated roof the residence of Mr. Ricardo Palmer, J.P. Beyond this the district is known as Sparrows Herne, and from this part of the parish the views are particularly fine, especially from 'Hill Mead,' a white brick house with a slate roof, in the occupation of Mr. James Farmiloe. Sparrows Herne House in the High Street is the residence of Mr. A. Frewin, and on the opposite side of the road are the extensive grounds of Sparrows Herne Hall. Past Sparrows Herne is Bushey Heath, which leads on to the county boundary. Before the inclosure of 1809, this district was open heath land, and was described, in 1547, as a 'suspect' place where many robberies had been committed. (fn. 8) The land is now mostly laid out in streets, and built over with small houses.

Little Bushey lies to the north of Clayhill, and is a small hamlet consisting of a few houses along the road to Aldenham. Holly Grove House is the residence of Mr. H. W. Pennington. The Little Bushey estate and other lands here are being cut up into building plots.

New Bushey is the district adjoining Bushey Station, and consists of streets of modern houses mostly occupied by those whose work takes them daily to London. The Bushey Grove estate on the north side of the London Road is now being developed for building, and streets are being laid out, and suburban villas erected.

Bushey Grange was in 1837 the residence of Basil Burchell, (fn. 9) son of John Blount Burchell by Sarah his wife, sister of Sir William Herne. Basil died in 1838, leaving a son and heir Humphrey Harper Burchell, who as grandnephew and heir of Sir William Herne assumed the additional surname of Herne. He died in 1868, and left a son, the Rev. Humphrey Frederick Herne Burchell-Herne, now of Bushey Grange. (fn. 10)

Herne. Sable a cheveron ermine between three berns argent.

Burchell. Argent a cheveron sable between three crosslets fitchy sable with three fleurs de lis argent on the cheveron.

Haydon Hill, a large house built of white brick and slated, lies down the hill to the south of the church, and is occupied by Mr. R. P. Attenborough. A little to the south-east is Merryhill House, a large house formerly belonging to the Coghills of Aldenham, and part of the settlement by Henry Coghill on his wife Anne Nicoll. It followed the descent of Aldenham House and was sold by Henry Hucks Gibbs to Mr. Eley in 1878. It is now the residence of Mr. W. M. Harford. The Royal Masonic School for Boys and Caledonian Asylum and St. Margaret's Clergy Orphan School for Girls are important institutions in this parish.

At Bushey Hall Farm there appears to be a square moat, having an overflow into the River Colne. Bushey Hall is a large modern building, now a hotel. The Bushey Hall Golf Club occupies the greater part of the grounds once belonging to it.

In this parish, half a mile south of Bushey Grange, is the site of an unfinished house and rectangular moat, which is said to date from about 1700. The whole area intended to have been inclosed by it is close upon ten acres. It appears to be supplied by a ditch on the south-east.

Richard Ward, a well-known divine, was incumbent of Bushey from 1647 to 1684. He was presented to the living by Oliver Cromwell, conformed at the Restoration, and was buried in the church. In 1655 he published A Treatise on the Three Theological Graces, Faith, Hope and Charity, and in 1673 Two Very Usefull and Compendious Treatises the First showing the Nature of Wit, Wisdom and Folly, The Second describing the Nature, Use, and Abuse of the Tongue and Speech. This latter volume is dedicated to Colonel Titus.

Silius Titus (? 1623–1704) the son of Silius Titus of Bushey was a keen politician. He first took up arms for the Parliament, and although a strong Presbyterian, afterwards became an ardent Royalist, devoted to Charles I and Charles II. (fn. 11) In 1679 he was M.P. for Herts. Though not eloquent, he would often illustrate his speeches with a humour that rendered them effective. Once, when it was complained that he made sport of the House, Titus retorted that things were not necessarily serious because they were dull. Again, when Charles II, rather than exclude his brother from the throne, offered to impose limitations on a Roman Catholic sovereign, Titus likened such a plan to having a lion in the lobby and then voting to secure ourselves by letting him in and chaining him, rather than by keeping him out. He transferred his allegiance from James II to William III, and in 1704 died and was buried at Bushey.

In the churchyard is the tomb of Thomas Hearne (1744–1817), not the historical antiquary of that name, but the painter who executed the drawings for The Antiquities of Great Britain, undertaken in conjunction with Byrne. Hearne was celebrated for his topographical water-colours, both of landscape and antiquarian remains, a fine collection of which may be seen in the British Museum.

Another tomb in the churchyard is to Henry Edridge, A.R.A., F.S.A., an artist of great talent who died in 1824.

Dr. Thomas Monro, M.D., the well-known patron of young artists, had a country house at Bushey from about 1805. His son, Henry Monro the portrait painter, died at Bushey in 1814.

William Jerdan, journalist, founder of The Literary Gazette, who seized Bellingham, the murderer of Spencer Perceval in the lobby of the House of Commons in 1812, died at Bushey, 11 July, 1869, and is buried in the churchyard.

Samuel Weller Singer, the author, resided for some time at Bushey. He began life as a bookseller in London, but retired to Bushey in 1815, and devoted himself to literary pursuits. His most important original work is Researches into the History of Playing Cards with Illustrations of the Origin of Painting and Engraving upon Wood. The illustrations are very beautiful and add much to the value of the work. Towards the close of 1815 Mark Beaufoy, the astronomer and physicist, came to live at Bushey Heath. Here he made the series of observations on the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites which won for him the Astronomical Society's silver medal in 1827. He died at Bushey in that year, and his instruments were presented to the Astronomical Society. William Falconer, known as the translator of the Geography of Strabo, was rector of Bushey from 1839 till his death in 1885.

MANORS

BUSHEY was, according to the St. Albans chronicles and registers, granted to that monastery by King Offa in the eighth century. (fn. 12) In the time of Edward the Confessor it was held by Lewin, a thane of the king, but was granted by William I to Geoffrey de Mandeville, (fn. 13) in whose heirs, the earls of Essex, the overlordship continued. (fn. 14) The Jarpenville, or Jarkeville, family held the manor of Bushey from an early date. We find that Geoffrey de Jarpenville held one knight's fee, and probably the manor, of Geoffrey de Mandeville, who died in 1166. (fn. 15) From Geoffrey de Jarpenville the manor passed to David his son, (fn. 16) and at his death to Geoffrey de Jarpenville, who was dealing with land here in 1235, (fn. 17) and died about 1240, leaving a son and heir David. (fn. 18) Probably a later Sir David de Jarpenville, who died about 1300, left an only daughter Joan, then under age, but it would seem that Thomas brother of Sir David had seized the manor and granted it to Hugh le Despenser the elder. (fn. 19) Joan married Geoffrey FitzWarren, and upon her claiming the manor Hugh le Despenser so persecuted her and her husband by indicting Geoffrey of various felonies of which he was afterwards acquitted, and then as a justice of the forest imprisoning him for a trespass, that they, as they said, were compelled in 1305 to convey the manor to him by fine. (fn. 20) Geoffrey and Joan had two daughters, Margaret who married Henry de la Marler or atte Marlepitte, and Margery who married Henry de Harpesbourne. These ladies and their husbands unsuccessfully petitioned Parliament in 1347 to reinstate them in the possession of the manor. (fn. 21)

Mandeville. Quarterly or and gules.

Hugh le Despenser the younger and Eleanor his wife conveyed the manor, possibly for the purpose of a settlement, to Hugh de Audley and Margaret his wife, sister of Eleanor, in 1321 (fn. 22) and upon the attainder and execution of the two Despensers, in 1326, Edward II granted it to his brother Edmund of Woodstock earl of Kent. (fn. 23) Edmund of Woodstock was attainted in 1329 for complicity in a plot for the restoration of Edward II, whom he supposed to be still alive, to the throne.

In 1330 a lease for life was granted to Bartholomew de Burgherssh. (fn. 24) In the same year, however, this manor was assigned to Margaret, widow of Edmund of Woodstock earl of Kent, in accordance with a petition from her. (fn. 25)

At her death it passed to her daughter Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent, then married to Sir Thomas Holand, who with his wife in 1353 strengthened their title by taking a conveyance from Henry atte Marlepitte and Margaret his wife, and William de Harpesbourne and Margery his wife, heirs of Joan FitzWarren before referred to. (fn. 26) In 1361 Sir Thomas de Holand earl of Kent died seised of this manor, which he held of the earl of Hereford in right of his wife. (fn. 27) Joan, who married secondly Edward the Black Prince, died in 1385, and was succeeded by her son Thomas Holand, (fn. 28) who died in 1397, (fn. 29) seised of this manor, leaving Thomas his son and heir. Thomas, third earl of Kent, was beheaded and attainted, but notwithstanding the attainder, Edmund his brother succeeded to the title and some of the estates in 1400. The manor of Bushey, however, was assigned to Alice widow of the attainted Thomas. (fn. 30) Alice died in 1416, (fn. 31) when this manor fell to the share of Eleanor, wife of Thomas earl of Salisbury, as one of the sisters of the said Thomas and Edmund, earls of Kent. Thomas, who died in 1428, and Eleanor his wife, earl and countess of Salisbury, had an only daughter Alice, (fn. 32) whose husband, Richard Nevill, became, in right of his wife, earl of Salisbury. He was beheaded in 1460, when he was succeeded by Richard earl of Warwick, the 'King Maker.' Notwithstanding the forfeiture which followed upon the death of the earl of Warwick at the battle of Barnet in 1471, this manor descended probably by settlement to his daughter Anne wife of Richard duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III, (fn. 33) who by Act of Parliament in 1475 exchanged it with King Edward IV for the castle of Scarborough. (fn. 34) In the same year the king granted this manor to Elizabeth his queen, Richard bishop of Salisbury, and William Dudley dean of the chapel of the royal household, (fn. 35) but shortly afterwards it was again exchanged with the king for other lands. (fn. 36) In 1484 it was granted to Francis Lord Lovel, but on his attainder in 1486 it again became forfeited to the crown. In 1486 the manor was granted to John de Vere earl of Oxford and the heirs male of his body, (fn. 37) and he leased it to Thomas Thrale. (fn. 38) In 1511, in default of such heirs, the reversion was granted to Sir Thomas Boleyn, father of the unfortunate Queen Anne Boleyn, and his heirs male. (fn. 39) John earl of Oxford died without issue in 1513, but it is doubtful if Sir Thomas Boleyn ever obtained possession of the manor, as in this year Margaret countess of Salisbury was by Act of Parliament restored in blood, title, and estates, (fn. 40) and entered upon this manor, holding her first court there in May, 1514. (fn. 41) At her attainder and execution in 1541 this manor again came to the crown, and in 1543 the demesne lands, fisheries, mill, coney warren and other royalties then in the tenure of John Wythe were granted to William Milward alias Alexander, (fn. 42) and became known as the Bushey Hall estate, while the rents of assize, perquisites of court, and other profits of the manor were in the following year leased to him for twenty-one years. (fn. 43) In 1554 the manor was granted by Queen Mary to Sir Thomas Hastings (fn. 44) and Lady Winifred his wife, and the heirs of the body of Lady Winifred, with remainder to Lady Catherine wife of Francis earl of Huntingdon, as kinswomen and heirs of Margaret, late countess of Salisbury, being daughters and heirs of Henry Lord Montagu. (fn. 45) Winifred afterwards married Thomas Barrington, who in 1565 obtained a confirmation of the manor from the crown. (fn. 46) In 1566 Thomas Barrington and Winifred his wife conveyed this manor to Andrew Jenoure, (fn. 47) who in 1573 sold it to Robert Blackwell. (fn. 48)

Edmund of Woodstock. The arms of England in a border argent.

At the death of Robert Blackwell in 1580 the manor was divided between his sons—George the elder taking one-third, while his brother Robert had two-thirds, probably, as Chauncy says, in consequence of a lawsuit. (fn. 49) George sold his share in 1583 to Sir Charles Morrison, from whom it passed to his daughter and heir Elizabeth, (fn. 50) who married Arthur Lord Capell, whose son Arthur was created earl of Essex in 1661, and from whom the manor descended to the present earl of Essex.

Some confusion arose at the time the Capells came into possession as to the various interests in the manor of Bushey that is to say, the interest of Henry Hickman in the site of the manor called Bushey Hall, the Capells in one-third part of the manor, and the Blackwells in two-thirds and in 1618 all these interests were, for confirmation of title, surrendered by fine to King James I, who on 21 May in that year granted that Ellis Wynn and Francis King might for the purposes of such confirmation enter upon the manor and advowson of the church, and use all such liberties therein as fully as Margaret countess of Salisbury held them. (fn. 51) The two-thirds belonging to the Blackwells descended in the family to Richard Blackwell, who died without issue in 1677, when they passed to his cousins, Susan wife of Sir William Parkyns, and Anne the wife of Rowland Pitts, daughters of Thomas Blackwell. Rowland Pitts and Anne his wife sold their portion for £1,240 to Sir William Parkyns, one of the chief clerks in Chancery, and Susan his wife, on 20 February, 1684–5. (fn. 52) Sir William Parkyns being convicted of complicity in Sir John Fenwick's plot was executed at Tyburn in 1696. At the time of his attainder he was seised of two third parts of the manor, (fn. 53) but having mortgaged these to his uncle, who had entered upon the lands as mortgagee, (fn. 54) they escaped forfeiture and came to Blackwell Parkyns, who in 1715 sold them to the Rev. William Streng-fellow, (fn. 55) and he in 1719 conveyed them to Richard Capper, whose son Francis, with Mary his wife and Richard their son and heir, barred the entail in 1759. (fn. 56) Robert son of the latter Richard sold this estate to General Frederick Nathaniel Walker in 1814, and it is now held by his grandson, General Sir Frederick William Edward Forestier-Walker, K.C.B., C.M.G.

Morrison. Or a chief gules and therein three wreaths or.

Capell. Gules a lion between three crosslets fitchy or.

Some of the court rolls of this manor are at the Public Record Office, and we find from them that there were two reeves, two constables, and two ale-tasters elected yearly at the court of the manor. (fn. 57) The manor was divided into three tithings, namely, Great Bushey, Little Bushey, and Leavesden in the parish of Watford. (fn. 58) The several fishery of the Colne was from time to time leased by the lord, and in 1428 we find the several water of the lord with the fishery in the same 'from Chalney to le Wassyngstole next Watford,' except what was reserved to the miller, was leased to John Bereford and Nicholas Segrave of Aldenham for seven years at a rent of 20s. and two pike, the lessees being bound to mow 'les wedes' growing in the water twice yearly. (fn. 59) In 1459 Thomas Lanham was presented at the court for having taken five swans from the several water of the lord and selling them in London for 10s. (fn. 60)

Walker. Erminois a pile azure battled with a mural crown between two caltraps or thereon.

By a charter dated 13 February, 1270, David de Jarpenville received a grant of free warren (fn. 61) in his demesne lands, and it would seem that game has always been strictly preserved in the manor, particularly pheasants and rabbits, from about 1426, and partridges from about 1492. (fn. 62) There was a manorial water-mill apparently on the Colne, which was from time to time leased with a stipulation that whenever the lord or lady of the manor should happen to be residing at Bushey the miller should grind their corn free from toll. (fn. 63)

As early as 1141 the Empress Maud granted to Geoffrey de Mandeville a market at Bushey on Thursdays, and a fair lasting for three days beginning on the vigil of St. James. (fn. 64) This grant was confirmed to David de Jarpenville in 1270, (fn. 65) and again in 1280 on the latter occasion the grant was confirmed notwithstanding it had not been fully used. (fn. 66)

The foundation of a magnificent house known as BUSHEY HALL or BUSHEY BURY was laid by Thomas earl of Salisbury in 1428. (fn. 67) This house followed the descent of the manor down to the time of the forfeiture by Margaret countess of Salisbury, when it was in lease with the demesne lands, mill, coney warren, and the advowson of the church to John Wythe for thirty years. (fn. 68) These properties, together with Bushey Hall Park, Hounslow Grove, Bushey Grove, and Bushey Heath, were in 1543 granted to William Milward alias Alexander, (fn. 69) and in the same year there were leased to him the rents of assize, perquisites of court, and other profits of the manor for twenty-one years. (fn. 70) Upon the expiration of this lease the manorial profits appear to have passed to the owners of the manor under a grant to Sir Thomas Hastings and Lady Winifred his wife, in 1554. (fn. 71) William Milward died in 1546, and was succeeded by his son William, (fn. 72) who sold Bushey Hall to Henry Hickman in 1579, (fn. 73) and in the same year he conveyed the advowson of the church, the watermill, free fishery, and coney warren to Anthony Brigham, who immediately sold them to Henry Hickman. (fn. 74) In 1585 Hickman conveyed the property to Richard Franklyn and Robert Millett, (fn. 75) probably for the purpose of a settlement, as we find he died seised of them in 1594, leaving John Scott, son of his sister Margaret, his heir. (fn. 76) John in 1604 conveyed Bushey Hall to Henry Hickman, (fn. 77) who died seised of it in 1622, leaving Henry his son and heir, (fn. 78) to whom livery of the manor was made in 1626. (fn. 79) It would appear that Bushey Hall subsequently came into the possession of Sir George Walker, and passed from him to Sir Robert Marsham, bart., who in 1701 joined with Margaret his wife in selling the estate to Thomas Ewer. (fn. 80) It afterwards came into the hands of Edward Marjoribanks, who held property in Bushey in 1839, (fn. 81) and died in 1879. (fn. 82) Bushey Hall was in 1882 converted into a hydropathic establishment and licensed hotel, in the grounds of which are some well-known golf links.

The manor of BOURNEHALL was held of the earl of Hereford, probably of the Mandeville Fee, and owed suit at the court at Hertford and White Appleton, in London. (fn. 83) In 1231 John de Martham conveyed the manor under the description of a hide of land in Bushey to Ralph son of Bernard. (fn. 84) This Ralph died in 1306, leaving his grandson Thomas son of John his heir. (fn. 85) Thomas granted the manor in 1317 to John de Wengrave and Christiana his wife and John their son, (fn. 86) and in the same year one John Blaket released all claim in it to the said John de Wengrave and Christiana his wife and to John their son, with remainder to Thomas brother of John the younger. (fn. 87) In 1336 John de Wengrave and Christiana and John the son granted the manor to John Hauteyn, of London, and Isabella his wife, and in 1348 John Hauteyn conveyed it to Richard son of Richard de Eccleshale, clerk, and Clementia de Titenhangre of St. Albans, his wife. (fn. 88) It would appear that Clementia was a daughter of John de Wengrave, for on her death Thomas FitzJohn claimed to be her heir. (fn. 89) Clementia, by her will, left this manor to trustees to be alienated in mortmain for the support of a perpetual chantry of four chaplains, (fn. 90) but it would seem that this was not done, but that Richard FitzJohn alienated the manor, probably to William de Gresle, who conveyed it in 1373 to James Bernes of London. (fn. 91) Shortly after, the manor was in the hands of William de la Marche and Thomas Wershepe, who apparently sold it to the celebrated Alice Perrers, mistress of Edward III, (fn. 92) who claimed her estate in the manor from Thomas FitzJohn. (fn. 93) Alice Perrers held it up to the time of her conviction, and after her forfeiture in 1377 Richard II in 1379 granted it, together with the tenements called Harpesbourne, Marlepitts, Latymers, and Halles, to Sir Thomas Peytevyn for his life, (fn. 94) and in the following year he gave the fee simple to Sir William de Wyndesore, then the husband of Alice Perrers. (fn. 95) Sir William de Wyndesore died seised of the manor in 1384, leaving his three sisters, Christiana the wife of William Morers, Margery the wife of John Duket, and Isabella, his heirs. (fn. 96) It would seem, however, that John de Wyndesore, nephew of Sir William, inherited the lands, (fn. 97) and probably sold them to Robert Thorley, at whose death they passed to his daughter Margaret, wife of Sir Reginald West, (fn. 98) who was in 1426 created Baron De La Warr. (fn. 99) In 1450 Lord De La Warr died seised of this manor (held of the earl of Salisbury as of the manor of Bushey), and of the manor of Hartesbourne in this parish, (fn. 100) leaving Richard his son and heir. Richard died seised of these manors in 1476, (fn. 101) and they followed the descent of the barony of De La Warr till 1538, when Sir Thomas West, Lord De La Warr, and Sir Owen West, his half-brother, conveyed them to Michael Lyster, Francis Sawtrey, and others. (fn. 102) In 1556 Richard Lyster granted them to James Pargyter, (fn. 103) who with Katherine his wife in 1568 sold them to Henry Hickman. (fn. 104) In 1594 Hickman died seised of the manor of Bournehall, leaving his nephew John Scott his heir, (fn. 105) who, with Alice his wife, in 1596 conveyed it to George Hickman and Ralph Baldwyn. (fn. 106) George Hickman died seised of the manor in 1635, leaving a son George, (fn. 107) who sold this manor in 1639 to James Mayne of Bovingdon. (fn. 108) At the death of James Mayne in 1642 (fn. 109) the manor was partitioned by his wife Dorothy between his two daughters, namely, Mary, the wife of Thomas Engham, who sold her moiety to Joshua Lomax of Bovingdon (fn. 110) in 1656, and Sarah, the wife of William Glascock, who in 1667 purchased her sister's moiety from Joshua Lomax. (fn. 111) Sarah Glascock was indicted in 1679 as a Popish recusant, and was summoned before the justices of the peace to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and to enter into recognizances to keep the peace. (fn. 112) In 1688 William and Sarah sold the whole manor to John Huxley and Walter Overburgh. (fn. 113) They were probably trustees for George Hadley of East Barnet, for in 1690 they joined with him in conveying the capital messuage and some parcels of land to John Greening and Edward Clerke in trust for Nathan Southen of Hemel Hempstead. (fn. 114) Nathan in 1696 conveyed these premises to Thomas Gratwick and Huntley Bigg, trustees for Edward Barradall. (fn. 115) George Hadley's grandson, John Hadley, sold the manor in 1770 to Richard Capper of Lincoln's Inn, (fn. 116) whose grandson, Rev. Daniel Capper, sold it in 1865 to Richard Harrison of the Hansteads, St. Stephen's. (fn. 117) The manor was afterwards sold to Mr. Arthur Hope Rydon, who now owns it.

West, Lord De La Warr. Argent a fesse dancetty sable.

Manor of HARTESBOURNE (Harpesbourne, Hertysbyrn).

—This manor under the description of a messuage and 200 acres of land in Little Bushey and Harteshead appears to have been held by John Gregory, of Sarratt, who in 1330 conveyed it to Thomas Wyliot and Eleanor his wife. (fn. 118) In 1344 Edmund Wyliot and Ellen his wife granted it to William de la Marche, (fn. 119) from whom it followed the descent of the manor of Bournehall till the end of the sixteenth century, when in 1594 Henry Hickman died seised of the manor described as the manor of Hartesborne or Hasborne, Marcolles, and Slackdeacons, leaving John Scott, a nephew, his heir. (fn. 120) John Scott apparently sold this manor, for we find in 1598 that George Melton and Alice his wife settled it described as above upon themselves and their issue, and in default to Susan the wife of John Andrews, of Broughton (county Bucks.) sister of Alice, for life, then to Francis Duncombe of Eastcote Hall, in the county of Warwick, her brother, and the heirs of his body. (fn. 121) This manor seems again to have been settled in 1602, for we find George Melton then conveyed it to William Stevenson and afterwards to Richard Perrin and Edward Curtis, (fn. 122) probably for the purposes of a trust. George Melton died in 1617 seised of the manor, lordship, or grange of Hartesborne alias Harsborne, Marvells, and Slackdeacons, and left a son and heir George. (fn. 123) Apparently George died without issue, and the manor came to Susan wife of John Andrews under the above settlement. (fn. 124) In 1622 Sir Francis Duncombe died seised of the reversion of the manor after the death of Susan, leaving Thomas his son and heir, (fn. 125) who with his wife Sarah, and Susan Andrews, widow, James Mayne and Mary his wife, and Evan Melton, sold it in the following year to Henry Coghill. (fn. 126) In 1769 Sarah Hucks, widow, sister and heir of Henry Coghill, and Robert Hucks her son, conveyed the manor to William Hucks for a settlement upon Sarah for life with remainder to Robert, (fn. 127) who sold it in 1851 to Mr. Travers. The estate afterwards came into the possession of Joseph Sladen, (fn. 128) eldest son of Joseph Sladen of Lee, who held it in 1873 and died in 1882. (fn. 129) His son sold it two years later to Frederick Charsley, and at some date previous to 1899 Hartsbourne manor passed to the Hon. Copleston Richard George Warwick Bampfylde, who now owns it.

Bampfylde. Or a bend gules and thereon three molets argent.

CHURCHES

The parish church is dedicated in honour of ST. JAMES, and stands to the south of the main road passing through the village, the fall of the ground being towards the west. The walls are of faced flint rubble with Totternhoe ashlar dressings, but very little ancient external work remains, and the modern ashlar is of Bath stone. The roofs are tiled. The church consists of chancel 35 ft. by 17 ft., south vestries and organ-chamber, nave with north and south aisles and north porch, and west tower. It underwent a thorough 'restoration' in 1871 at the hands of Sir Gilbert Scott, when the aisles and organ-chamber were added. Before that time it consisted of a chancel and a long narrow aisleless nave, of the first half of the thirteenth century, and a west tower of the fifteenth. On the north side of the nave was a building with square-headed windows and wooden mullions, apparently c. 1700, which served as a family pew for the lord of the manor.

The chancel has in the east wall three lancet windows, which replace a late Gothic window removed in 1871. The north and south walls have shallow wall-arcades of three bays with pointed arches and simple labels, springing from circular stone capitals with Purbeck marble shafts and moulded stone bases. In each bay on the north side is a plain lancet window on the south side the eastern bay has a similar window, though opening now to a modern vestry in the middle bay is the upper part of a lancet window, with a doorway below, all stonework being modern and in the western bay is a three-light window much repaired, of the second half of the thirteenth century. It now opens to the organ chamber and its glass has been removed. The roof timbers are apparently modern, but the moulded wallplate is of the fifteenth century. The fittings of the chancel are all modern, and there is a modern wooden screen at the west. There is no structural chancel arch, but over the screen is a cambered and moulded beam of the fifteenth century coeval with the nave roof, carrying a plastered partition, on which are painted the arms of Queen Anne, with a diaper of floral pattern and a leaf border. A mediaeval painting may be hidden behind this.

The nave is of five bays and has no ancient features except the fine fifteenth-century roof. This is high pitched with tie-beams and arched braces to the collars, and intermediate trusses with hammer-beams there are heavy wind-braces to the purlins, and the plate, tie-beams, and hammer-beams are moulded. Its date is probably early in the century. The arcades of the nave are of two-chamfered orders with octagonal columns and moulded capitals and bases, copied from an arch destroyed in 1871, which stood where the west bay of the north arcade now is. The south arcade is of five bays, and the north of three, the north aisle not being the full length of the nave. The two eastern bays of the north arcade mark the position of the eighteenth-century building before mentioned.

The aisles, of the same date as the nave arcades (1871), are of fourteenth-century style—the south aisle being considerably wider than the north. There is a modern north porch—its inner doorway has a wooden head and jambs of the fifteenth century—with a four-centred arch and carved spandrels. The west tower, of three stages, is of the fifteenth century and opens to the church by a much-restored arch of two orders. It has a vice at the north-east, which retains its original plain door. The west doorway of the tower is narrow, with a continuous moulding of two hollow chamfers. Over it is a sixteenth-century square-headed window, with two wide lights, to which cinquefoil cusping in Bath stone has been added. The second stage of the tower has small pointed lights, and the belfry windows are of two trefoiled lights under a square head, the stonework of all being modern. There is an embattled parapet and flat lead roof, the vice being carried up above the parapet as a turret.

The fittings of the church are, with two exceptions, modern. The pu'pit is a good specimen of early seventeenth-century date, octagonal with a tester over, carved and panelled, with a projecting book-board carried on carved scroll brackets. It has steps with moulded handrails and twisted balusters, and stands in the north-east angle of the nave, having been on the south side before 1871. In the chancel hangs a fine brass chandelier, the gift of one of the Capper family it was formerly in the nave. The font, at the west end of the nave, is modern, having a square bowl on a central stem and four angle shafts.

In the vestry are a few pieces of seventeenth-century glass, with the arms of Gale, dated 1638, Altham, 1611, and Egerton.

There are eight bells—the treble and 2nd by Warner, 1889, 5th and 6th by William Eldridge, 1664, the 7th is a fifteenth-century bell with the mark of Roger Landon, a Wokingham founder, and inscription in black-letter capitals and smalls sancta TINTITAS UNUS DEUS MISERERD NOBIS, and the 3rd, 4th and tenor are by Warner, 1887.

The church plate consists of a chalice and cover paten of 1633 given by John Gale, a salver of 1671 given by Lady Mary Walker, and a flagon of 1634 given by John Gale, the latter bearing on a fesse three lions' heads couped between three saltires, impaling party palewise and cheveronwise an escutcheon bearing a man's head couped and garlanded. There are also two patens, two chalices, a flagon, and an almsdish, presented by Mr. and Mrs. Edward Marjoribanks in 1871, a silver wine strainer and wafer box, and a plated almsdish given by Dr. Ibbetson, 1754.

The registers begin in 1684. Book i contains baptisms 1684–1812, burials 1735–1812, and marriages 1684–1753. Book ii has marriages to 1812.

Bishop's Transcripts of older registers exist for the years 1581, 1590, 1599, 1674, 1676, 1679, 1681, and 1682. (fn. 130)

The district church of ST. PETER at Bushey Heath was opened in 1838. The living is a vicarage, and Lieut.-Colonel G. A. Elliot was patron in 1889. The advowson is now vested in the bishop of St. Albans. The nave and transepts are built of white bricks with stone quoins, and covered with slate, and the chancel and vestries are of stone with red tiles. The chancel is of two bays with a vestry on the north side, replacing a chancel of the same character as the nave. At the west end of the nave is a bell-cote. The east window is by Kemp, and represents the Crucifixion. The altar frontal is composed of five canopied panels, each containing a figure in beaten brass. There is a stone canopied reredos with paintings, and at the west end of the nave is a gallery.

ADVOWSON

Bushey or 'Hertesheved' was originally part of the parish of Watford. (fn. 131) Its existence as a separate parish probably dates from about 1166, when an agreement was made between Robert abbot of St. Albans, and Geoffrey de Jarpenville as to the church of Hertesheved otherwise called Bussheye. Geoffrey and his heirs were to have by gift of the abbot the chapel of Hertesheved with the churchyard and lands belonging, and a virgate of land which Earl Geoffrey de Mandeville had given to the same chapel. One half of the tithes from Geoffrey's lands was to go to the chapel of Bushey, and the other half to the church of Watford. (fn. 132)

The church of Bushey was always held with the manor (fn. 133) till 1543, when it was granted with Bushey Hall to William Milward, (fn. 134) from whom it passed with the mill and fishery to Henry Hickman, (fn. 135) who died in 1622, when the advowson passed to his son Henry. (fn. 136) In 1618 it had been surrendered with Bushey Hall to the king for the purpose of confirmation. (fn. 137) The king presented in 1662 by reason of a lapse, (fn. 138) and in 1676 Henry Hickman sold the advowson to Richard Smith, (fn. 139) who presented in 1684 and 1693. (fn. 140) He conveyed it in 1700 to his grandson William Smith, (fn. 141) who dying unmarried devised it to his stepmother, Grace Smith. (fn. 142) Grace, who presented to the rectory in 1739, (fn. 143) conveyed it in the same year, under the terms of her stepson William Smith's will, to the rector and scholars of Exeter College, subject to a demise for a term of years to Ebenezer Ibbetson. (fn. 144) Catherine Ibbetson and Samuel Ibbetson presented in 1748 for that turn, (fn. 145) and the advowson came on the death of James Ibbetson in 1781 (fn. 146) to Exeter College, which presented in 1782–85, 1794 and 1797. (fn. 147) At some date between 1879 and 1899 the advowson passed to Mrs. Kynaston of Danes Road, St. Leonard, and it is now vested in Sir C. F. Cory-Wright, bart., D.L., J.P.

The first appearance of Independents in Bushey occurs in 1809, when they registered a building belonging to Joseph Keene for religious worship. In accordance with this registration Joseph Keene of Chesham and William Jennings of Kensington, assisted by Robert Capper, lord of the manor, fitted up and opened an outhouse or lumber-room on the premises of Keene on Clayhill. Preachers were supplied by the London Itinerant Society. This meeting place was enlarged in 1812, and in 1814 Mr. Capper erected a chapel and minister's house on his own freehold. (fn. 148) There are Congregational and Primitive Methodist chapels, and a Roman Catholic chapel dedicated to the Sacred Heart and St. John the Evangelist.

CHARITIES

In 1631 Mrs. Barbara Burnell by her will bequeathed to the Clothworkers' Company, London, £300 to be laid out in the purchase of lands for the performance of divers charitable uses, and among them to pay the annual sum of £4 6s. for distribution of clothing among six poor women of Great Stanmore, Middlesex, one year, and in the next year among two poor women inhabiting the parish of Bushey and those of Harrow and Edgware in the county of Middlesex. Two gowns are given to two poor women of this parish every alternate year.

John Gale, who died in 1695, as appears in the old parish register, 'gave a Haberdine fish (barrelled cod, so called from Aberdeen, which was formerly famous for curing this kind of fish), and half a peck of blue peas to twenty widows and widowers once a year half a peck loaf, and two pounds of cheese to each person are given instead.' In 1894 this charge was redeemed by the transfer to the official trustees of £100 consols, and by a scheme of 1897 the trustees were authorized to apply the dividends by way of supplementing the income of the charity of George Johnson Reveley mentioned below, or otherwise, at their discretion.

In 1708 Mrs. Elizabeth Fuller of Watford Place left (inter alia) '1s. 6d. in twelve wheaten loaves to twelve poor persons of this parish to be delivered upon her tombstone by the churchwardens after morning service on every Sunday for ever.' A sum of £4 is received annually from the trustees of the charity at Watford, and applied in the distribution of bread.

The British School is endowed with a sum of £3,027 2s. India 3½ per cent. stock given by deed, 1857, by Stewart Marjoribanks, and with £2,191 London Brighton and South Coast Railway 4½ per cent. debenture stock arising under the will of Arthur Ashfield, 1861. The sums of stock, which are held by the official trustees, produce about £204 a year.

The Reveley Almshouses were founded by George Johnson Reveley, who by his will, proved on 15 February 1877, directed his trustees to expend £1,500 in the erection of ten almshouses, and to invest £10,000 and apply the yearly income in the repair of the same, and in the maintenance and support of the inmates. The site was given in 1878 by Mr. George Edward Lake and Mr. Reginald John Lake. The charity is regulated by a scheme of the Court of Chancery, dated 4 July 1881 and the endowment funds, which are held by the official trustees, are now represented by £430 Midland Railway Company 2½ per cent. debenture stock as a repair fund, £6,459 like stock, and £4,966 3 per cent. perpetual debenture stock of the London and North Western Railway Company, producing an annual income of about £310.

In 1883 George Clark by his will bequeathed £300 stock to provide six loaves of the value of 6½d. each, to be given from the church porch every Sunday after morning service to the poor of Bushey proper and Clay Hill, the surplus to be given to the person in charge of the bread. The legacy is represented by £270 consols with the official trustees.

In 1894 Miss Mary Smith by will bequeathed to the rector and churchwardens £100 to be invested, and income applied in the purchase of clothing to be distributed among poor people not living in any almshouse. The trust fund consists of £93 os. 6d. consols with the official trustees.

The Bushey Congregational Chapel Trust was formerly administered with the Hackney College endowments, but by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners, of 5 January, 1904, was separated therefrom, and the Hertfordshire Congregational Union (incorporated) were constituted the trustees.

The trust funds now (1906) consist of £201 10s. 2d. consols, £722 3s. 7d. Cape of Good Hope 3½ per cent. stock, and £204 17s. 5d. New Zealand 3½ per cent. stock the income, amounting to about £37, is applied for the purposes of the trust.


Why Is London Imposing ‘Knife Control’? Because Gun Control Hasn’t Worked

It was widely reported earlier this month that London experienced a higher number of murders over the first three months of 2018 than did New York City—the first time in modern history that has occurred.

The United Kingdom has some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world, so the increased murder rate in the British capital is largely a result of a sharp rise in knife-related crime.

The surge in violence prompted London Mayor Sadiq Khan to announce a massive “knife control” campaign eerily reminiscent of those sometimes proffered in the United States in response to firearms-related violence.

The knife control measures will include the deployment of 300 additional London police officers to conduct “stop and frisk” searches of individuals suspected of knife-carrying, a policing tactic once roundly condemned by Khan.

Emergency legislation also appears set to prohibit knives purchased online from being sent to residential addresses. The U.K. already criminalizes the purchase or possession of various types of knives, and the carrying of any knife with a blade longer than 3 inches in public is illegal unless it is carried “with good reason.” Self-defense is not considered a good reason.

This crackdown on knives, and the surrounding rhetoric demonizing those who would carry them in public, should serve as a warning to Americans disconcerted by the vocal anti-Second Amendment activists in our own country. They will not be satisfied by merely taking away your scary “assault weapons.”

A History of Civilian Disarmament in the UK

In theory, the 1689 English Bill of Rights protects the right of individual British subjects to possess arms for purposes of self-defense. In reality, modern Britons have had this right completely stripped from them, to the point where they may be reprimanded for using kitchen knives against home intruders.

Under the 1920 Firearms Act, would-be handgun and rifle owners in the U.K. must obtain a certificate from the local chief of police upon showing that he or she has “good cause” to possess a firearm and is not “unfitted.”

This measure was enacted over fears of communist and anarchist insurgencies, and it had very little to do with concerns over gun-related crime, which was nearly nonexistent in England at the time.

In 1936, Parliament passed laws heavily regulating (and de facto prohibiting) the civilian possession of short-barreled shotguns and fully automatic firearms. The laws also required the “safe storage” of lawfully owned firearms.

Between 1964 and 1969, the Home Office instructions to local police increasingly narrowed the definition of “good cause.”

In 1964, officers were informed that “it should hardly ever be necessary for anyone to possess a firearm for the protection of his house or person” and that “this principle should hold good even in the case of banks and firms who desire to protect valuables or large quantities of money.”

By 1969, the instructions effectively removed self-defense from the definition of good cause, with the Home Office stating that “it should never be necessary for anyone to possess a firearm for the protection of his house or person.”

The purchase and possession of shotguns became heavily regulated in 1988, requiring registration and a showing of costly security arrangements for “safe storage.”

On the heels of a tragic mass shooting in Dunblane, Scotland, in 1996, Parliament banned the civilian possession of semi-automatic firearms and handguns, requiring private citizens to turn in all but muzzle-loading guns, pistols of historic interest, and signal pistols.

Public pressure from the victims’ families led to a complete ban on semi-automatic weapons and handguns, even though only 9 percent of homicides in England at the time were committed with firearms, and only 14 percent of those gun-related homicides were committed with legally possessed firearms.

In the five years prior to the massacre, Scotland experienced only three homicides involving legal, licensed firearms—approximately 0.4 percent of all homicides during that time. Prior to Dunblane, the U.K. had not experienced a mass public shooting in almost a decade.

Current gun laws in the U.K. are so restrictive that Olympic shooting competitors required special permission to travel to the 2002 Commonwealth Games and the 2012 Olympic Games, because possession of necessary firearms for common shooting events was a criminal offense. English, Scottish, and Welsh pistol competitors are still required to train outside of the U.K.

Disarming Law-Abiding Citizens Didn’t Make the UK Safer

The U.K. has never had a serious problem with firearms-related crimes, but that’s not because it has strict gun laws. Further, disarming British citizens did not make the country safer—in fact, in some cases it made it much less safe.

First, it’s important to note that comparisons of homicide rates between the United States and the United Kingdom are difficult because since 1967, the U.K.’s official definition of homicide for crime reports has been relatively unconcerned with the actual number of dead bodies.

Instead, the country only counts as homicides those instances where a person is convicted of murder—meaning justifiable homicides and deaths where no suspect is caught or convicted are excluded.

This is much different than in the U.S., which includes all intentional killings, regardless of whether the killing was legally justified or whether any person was caught or convicted.

If the United States simply removed from its homicide counts those cases where no suspect was arrested—still a more inclusive standard than the one of conviction used by the U.K.—the nation’s overall homicide rate would fall to roughly half of where it currently stands.

The U.K. would still have a slightly lower overall homicide rate, but the gap would be significantly lessened.

Not only is the U.S. homicide rate unremarkable once reporting differences are accounted for, but the murder rate has dropped by 50 percent over the past three decades, despite a nearly identical percentage increase in the number of legally owned firearms in the country.

In other words, there is little statistical relationship between differences in the stringency of gun control laws and differences in homicide rates in the two countries. It can largely be attributed to different reporting standards and to other factors unrelated to firearms access.

That is, in large part, why a city with a de facto ban on firearms can find its homicide rate outpacing a city where firearms ownership is fairly regulated, but also fairly common.

That reality is further evidence by a second fact: Britons are not safer as a result of disarmament. Consider the following:

  • Following the enactment of the 1997 handgun ban, violent crime rates rose sharply, and fell below their 1996 level only once in the next 15 years. By 2009, 12 years after the ban, England’s violent crime rate was the highest in the European Union and nearly five times that of the United States.
  • England and Wales, which are categorized together by Eurostat (the official statistical database of the European Union), have the highest rape rate in the entire EU. In 2015, almost twice as many Britons were raped per 100,000 inhabitants than were Americans.
  • Rates of theft in England and Wales are also higher than in the United States. In 2015, England and Wales experienced a theft rate of it is almost 60 percent, and research heavily indicates British burglars, who know that they are unlikely to confront an armed homeowner, specifically target occupied homes, so that homeowners can be forced to retrieve the most valuable objects in the house even if they are hidden.

Disarming Citizens Is Not Courageous, but Absurd

In England, an anti-knife charity called Only Cowards Carry dedicates itself to “weapons awareness” and places bins around cities for knife disposal, all of which feature the group’s name as a slogan.

With all due respect to CEO Caroline Shearer, who started the organization after her 17-year-old son was stabbed to death in 2012, this campaign should trouble any person who understands the natural right of self-defense, and the right to armed protection enshrined in the 1689 English Bill of Rights and the American Second Amendment.

Reason demands that true courage be defined by a person’s willingness to defend the life and liberty of himself and those around him.

Disarming law-abiding citizens demands, on the other hand, that courage be defined by a person’s trust in the police to imprison the correct suspect after the person is already dead.

That is not only absurd, but dangerous.

It is dangerous because it does not stop criminals, who will never voluntarily discard their weapons, from engaging in violent activity.

It is dangerous because it leaves law-abiding citizens defenseless against both crime and tyranny.

And it is dangerous because, as the mayor of London is now proving, disarmament never stops with the scary-looking guns—because the human capacity for evil does not stop with them either.

Amy Swearer is a visiting legal fellow at the Meese Center for Legal and Judicial Studies at The Heritage Foundation.

Editor's Note: This piece was originally published by The Daily Signal.


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There are 282 military records available for the last name Swearer. For the veterans among your Swearer ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 1,000 census records available for the last name Swearer. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Swearer census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 67 immigration records available for the last name Swearer. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the UK, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 282 military records available for the last name Swearer. For the veterans among your Swearer ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


A slice of Windsor history: Beaumont Estate Hotel

From the beginnings of democracy, to royalty, to education, the majestic Beaumont Estate hotel enjoys a rich and fascinating history. Its 40 acres of stunning parkland house an 18th century Chapel, a beautiful executive wing – The White House – along with 414 stylish bedrooms and 75 conference, training, wedding and event spaces that have been beautifully restored.

It’s no surprise that such an opulent property has an equally opulent past. In fact, there are many facts about the Beaumont Estate that may surprise you.

For example – did you know?
• The swimming pool at the Beaumont Estate was the first heated indoor swimming pool to be built in England
• Beaumont Estate was once a school where Coco Chanel’s nephew was a pupil. It’s said that the school blazer was the inspiration for the 1924 Chanel Suit
• The first motorist in England was the Hon Evelyn Ellis, who in 1885 drove a car from his home to Beaumont
• The Chapel is said to be inspiration for the chapel in English writer Evelyn Waugh’s ‘Brideshead Revisited.’ The current window is a replacement as the original was destroyed by a doodlebug which landed on the school during the 2nd World War

From the signing of the Magna Carta, one of the most famous documents in the world, to royal connections to the Catholic Eton, to the stunning hotel it is today, let’s discover the journey of Beaumont Estate through the ages.

The Early Years in Windsor.

Following Hugo de Remenham, the estate (which was over 91 acres at the time) was then owned for a period by the Tyle family, and subsequently by John Morley, Francis Kibblewhite, and William Christmas.

It then was acquired by Henry Frederick Tynne who had architect James Gibbs – one of Britain’s most influential architects – re-design the house in 1705 and named it Bowman’s Lodge.

By 1714 Thomas Tynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth inherited the property and by the mid- eighteenth century it was acquired by Sophia, Duchess of Kent. In 1751 The Duke of Roxburghe purchased the estate for his son – Marquis of Beaumont (then a boy a Eton College) who renamed it Beaumont Lodge.

In 1786 Warren Hastings, the first Govenor-General of India (Beaumont’s most celebrated tenant), acquired Beaumont Lodge at the cost of £12,000. In 1789 the estate was sold to Henry Griffith (which then still included the Bells of Ousley), who had Henry Emlyn rebuild the house in 1790 as a nine-bay mansion complete with extensive improvements.

The 19th Century & Beyond: Beaumont as St. Stanislaus College

In 1805 the Beaumont property was bought for about £14,000 by Viscount Ashbrook, a friend of George IV.

After his death in 1847, his widow disposed of The Bells of Ousley but continued to reside there until 1854, when she sold it to the Society of Jesus as a training college.
For 7 years it housed Jesuit novices of the (then) English province and on 10th October 1861 it became a Catholic boarding school for boys with the title of St. Stanislaus College, Beaumont, widely known as the ‘Catholic Eton.’

Famous visitors included Queen Victoria, who is known to have visited Beaumont 3 times during the time in which it was a school.

In 1870 a chapel was built by renowned architect Joseph Hansom with a barrel-vaulted ceiling. It was carefully painted in 1902 by William Romaine-Walker who described his style as ‘The Grandchild of the Pompeian.’

The school enjoyed a fine reputation – until 1967 – when the order rejoined the faculty and moved to Stoneyhurst in Lancashire. In the gardens are poignant reminders of the school such as a memorial erected in remembrance of the old boys who lost their lives in the two world wars.

Her Majesty the Queen planted a tree close to the memorial on 15th May 1961 to commemorate Beaumont College’s centenary.

Once the school closed, Beaumont Estate was purchased by British computer company ICL who used it as their training centre. In 2003, Hayley Conference Centres bought the venue and developed it into an upscale conference venue. The original and iconic White House in the grounds and the Chapel were left untouched and under-utilized, until Principal Hayley Hotels acquired Beaumont House in 2007.

In June 2008, Beaumont Estate embarked on an ambitious refurbishment programme to completely renovate The White House and restore the Chapel. Just 5 months and £8.1million later, the beautiful and exclusive White House opened and the magnificent Chapel was unveiled.

The entire estate continues to be operated as a sought-after conference and event hotel that many have come to love today.


Swearer DE-186 - History

278 DE and/or APDs were awarded battle stars for WWII US Navy service, 21 for the Korean War and 4 for Vietnam.

The Navy and Marine Corp Awards Manual, Department of the Navy, NAVPERS 15,790 (REV 1953) provides the following regulations regarding battle stars. These regulations pertained to stars awarded for WWII and the Korean War only. The regulations were changed for Vietnam service.

Stars authorized for actual combat in operations and engagements, as authorized by the Chief of Naval Operations, will be worn on the ribbon bar and suspension ribbon of the respective Area Campaign medals and will be known as engagement stars. For the purpose of this order the following definitions are applicable:

a. An "Operation" is a series of connected military actions occupying a specific area and time and may involve many clashes with the enemy.

b. An "Engagement" is an action with the enemy taking place within a restricted time and area, and of sufficient intensity and significance to justify recognition.

c. An "Area" is one of the three geographical areas, viz: American Area, European-African-Middle Eastern Area, Asiatic-Pacific Area.

The prerequisite to the wearing of a star on an area service ribbon shall be honorable service in a ship, aircraft unit or shore-based force at the time it participated in actual combat with the enemy. In instances in which the duty performed did not result in actual combat with the enemy but is considered equally hazardous, the Chief of Naval Operations may award an operation or engagement star to the units concerned. Not more that one star will be awarded for a single operation or engagement. Units supporting
an engagement or operation, but subject only to the ordinary hazards of war, do not merit an award.
(NOTE: Any ship which has been awarded a Presidential Unit Citation or Navy Unit Commendation for meritorious participation in an action or campaign for which a combat star has been authorized is entitled to that combat star.)

*denotes additional stars were awarded in later wars

11 S tars
BANGUST (DE-739)

Ten S tars
DONALDSON (DE-44)
ENGLAND (DE-635)

Nine S tars
LAMONS (DE-743)
MITCHELL (DE-43)
SWEARER (DE-186)
WEAVER (DE-741)

Eight S tars
COFER (DE-208/APD-62)
HILBERT (DE-742)
LAWRENCE C. TAYLOR (DE-415)
REYNOLDS (DE-42)
SAMUEL S. MILES (DE-183)
WATERMAN (DE-740)

Seven S tars
CABANA (DE-260)
FROST (DE-144)
WESSON (DE-184)
WILLIAM C. MILLER (DE-259)

Six S tars
DEEDE (DE-263)
DIONNE (DE-261)
ELDEN (DE-264)
KYNE (DE-744)
LAKE (DE-301)
RICHARD M. ROWELL (DE-403)
WHITEHURST (DE-634) *
WYMAN (DE-38)

Five S tars - 23 Ships
ACREE (DE-167)
CANFIELD (DE-262)
CHATELAIN (DE-149)
CROWLEY (DE-303)
EDMONDS (DE-406) *
FAIR (DE-35)
FOREMAN (DE-633)
HUSE (DE-145)
JOBB (DE-707)
JOHN C. BUTLER (DE-339)
KEPHART (DE-207/APD-61)
LEVY (DE-162)
LYMAN (DE-302)
MANLOVE (DE-36)
NEWMAN (DE-205/APD-59)
OLIVER MITCHELL (DE-417)
PILLSBURY (DE-133)
RAYMOND (DE-341)
RICHARD S. BULL (DE-402)
RICHARD W. SUESENS (DE-342)
SEDERSTROM (DE-31)
ULVERT M. MOORE (DE-442) *
WILLIAM SEIVERLING (DE-441) *

Four S tars - 34 Ships
ABERCROMBIE (DE-343)
BOWERS (DE-637/APD-40)
BRONSTEIN (DE-189)
BURDEN R. HASTINGS (DE-19)
CHARLES J. KIMMEL (DE-584)
DAY (DE-225)
DENNIS (DE-405)
EICHENBERGER (DE-202)
EMERY (DE-28)
EUGENE E. ELMORE (DE-686)
FLAHERTY (DE-135)
FLEMING (DE-32)
FREDERICK C. DAVIS (DE-136)
GOSS (DE-444)
GRISWOLD (DE-7)
INCH (DE-146)
JAMES E. CRAIG (DE-201)
KENDALL C. CAMPBELL (DE-443)
KLINE (DE-687/APD-120)
LERAY WILSON (DE-414)
LLOYD (DE-209/APD-63)
MANNING (DE-199)
MARTIN, DE-30
McCOY REYNOLDS (DE-440) *
MELVIN R. NAWMAN (DE-416)
O'FLAHERTY (DE-340)
PARKS (DE-165)
SANDERS (DE-40)
STADTFELD (DE-29)
TABBERER (DE-418)
THOMAS (DE-102)
TISDALE (DE-33)
WALTER C. WANN (DE-412)
WILEMAN (DE-22)
WILLMARTH (DE-638)

Three S tars - 43 S hips
BARBER (DE-161/APD-57)
BARON (DE-166)
BARR (DE-576/APD-39)
BATES (DE-68/APD-47)
BLESSMAN (DE-69/APD-48)
BOSTWICK (DE-103)
BRACKETT (DE-41)
BUCKLEY (DE-51)
BULL (DE-693/APD-78)
CLOUES (DE-265)
CONKLIN (DE-439)
COOLBAUGH (DE-217)
DEMPSEY (DE-26)
FINNEGAN (DE-307)
GRADY (DE-445)
GREINER (DE-37)
HALLORAN (DE-305)
HARMON (DE-678)
HERBERT C. JONES (DE-137)
J. DOUGLAS BLACKWOOD (DE-219)
LESLIE L. B. KNOX (DE-580)
LIDDLE (DE-206/APD-60)
LOUGH (DE-586)
LOVELACE (DE-198)
LOVERING (DE-39)
McCLELLAND (DE-750)
McCONNELL (DE-163)
METIVIER (DE-582)
NEUENDORF (DE-200)
OBERRENDER (DE-344)
O'NEILL ( DE-188 )
OSTERHAUS (DE-164)
POPE (DE-134)
PRIDE (DE-323)
RABY (DE-698)
RALL (DE-304)
SNOWDEN (DE-246)
STANTON (DE-247)
STERN (DE-187)
STRAUS (DE-408)
THOMASON (DE-203)
WHITMAN (DE-24)
WINTLE (DE-25)

Two S tars - 45 Ships
AHRENS (DE-575)
ALBERT T. HARRIS (DE-447)
BUNCH (DE-694/APD-79)
CARLSON (DE-9)
CHAFFEE (DE-230)
CHARLES R. GREER (DE-23)
CHASE (DE-158/APD-54)
CONNOLLY (DE-306)
CORBESIER (DE-438)
CURRIER (DE-700) *
DANIEL A. JOY (DE-585)
DARBY (DE-218)
DIACHENKO (DE-690/APD-123) *
DUFFY (DE-27)
EDWIN A. HOWARD (DE-346)
EISELE (DE-34)
EVERSOLE (DE-404)
FESSENDEN (DE-142)
FORMOE (DE-509)
GEORGE (DE-697)
GEORGE A. JOHNSON (DE-583)
GREENWOOD (DE-679)
HAROLD C. THOMAS (DE-21)
HOLT (DE-706)
HORACE A. BASS (DE-691/APD-124) *
HUBBARD (DE-211/APD-53)
JACK MILLER (DE-410)
JENKS (DE-665)
LAPRADE (DE-409)
LEHARDY (DE-20)
LOESER (DE-680)
McNULTY (DE-581)
MENGES (DE-320)
MOSLEY (DE-321)
RILEY (DE-579)
RUDDEROW (DE-224)
SEID (DE-256)
SILVERSTEIN (DE-534) *
SPANGLER (DE-696)
STAFFORD (DE-411)
STEELE (DE-8)
TATUM (DE-789/APD-81)
TINSMAN (DE-589)
VARIAN (DE-798)
WITTER (DE-636)

One Star - 107 S hips
AMESBURY (DE-66/APD-46)
ATHERTON (DE-169)
BAKER (DE-190)
BORUM (DE-790)
BREEMAN (DE-104)
BRIGHT (DE-747)
BROCK (DE-234/APD-93)
BURKE (DE-215/APD-65)
CARTER (DE-112)
CHARLES E. BRANNON (DE-446)
CHARLES LAWRENCE (DE-53/APD-37)
COFFMAN (DE-191)
CROSLEY (DE-226/APD-87)
CROSS (DE-448)
CROUTER (DE-11)
DAMON M. CUMMINGS (DE-643)
DANIEL T. GRIFFIN (DE-54/APD-38)
DECKER (DE-47)
DOBLER (DE-48)
DOYLE C. BARNES (DE-353)
ENRIGHT (DE-216/APD-66)
EVARTS (DE-5)
FALGOUT (DE-324)
FARQUHAR (DE-139)
FECHTELER (DE-157)
FIEBERLING (DE-640)
FISKE (DE-143)
FORSTER (DE-334)
FOWLER (DE-222)
FRAMENT (DE-677/APD-77)
FRANCIS M. ROBINSON (DE-220)
GANDY (DE-764)
GILLIGAN (DE-508)
GILMORE (DE-18)
GOSSELIN (DE-710/APD-126)
GUSTAFSON (DE-182)
HAINES (DE-792/APD-84)
HAVERFIELD (DE-393)
HISSEM (DE-400)
HODGES (DE-231)
HOLDER (DE-401)
HOLLIS (DE-794/APD-86)
HOPPING (DE-155/APD-51)
JACCARD (DE-355)
JACK C. ROBINSON (DE-671/APD-72)
JANSSEN (DE-396)
JESSE RUTHERFORD (DE-347)
JOSEPH E. CAMPBELL (DE-70/APD-49)
JOSEPH E. CONNOLLY (DE-450)
JOYCE (DE-317)
KEITH (DE-241)
KEY (DE-348)
KINZER (DE-232/APD-91)
KNUDSON (DE-591/APD-101)
LANING (DE-159/APD-55)
LELAND E. THOMAS (DE-420)
LOY (DE-160/APD-56)
MALOY (DE-791)
MARSH (DE-699) *
MILLS (DE-383)
NEAL A. SCOTT (DE-769)
NEUNZER (DE-150)
NEWELL (DE-322)
OSMUS (DE-701)
OTTER (DE-210)
PAUL G. BAKER (DE-642)
PAVLIC (DE-669/APD-70)
PEIFFER (DE-588)
PETERSON ( DE - 152 )
PRICE (DE-332)
RAMSDEN (DE-382)
RAYMON W. HERNDON (DE-688/APD-121)
REDNOUR (DE-592/APD-102)
REEVES (DE-156/APD-52)
REGISTER (DE-233/APD-92)
RHODES (DE-384)
RICH (DE-695)
RINGNESS (DE-590/APD-100)
ROBERT BRAZIER (DE-345)
ROBERT I. PAINE (DE-578)
ROBERTS (DE-749)
RUNELS (DE-793/APD-85)
SAMUEL B. ROBERTS (DE-413)
SAVAGE (DE-386) *
SCHMITT (DE-676/APD-76)
SCRIBNER (DE-689/APD-122)
SELLSTROM (DE-255)
SHELTON (DE-407)
SIMS (DE-154/APD-50)
SLOAT (DE-644)
SMARTT (DE-257)
SNYDER (DE-745)
STOCKDALE (DE-399)
STRICKLAND (DE-333)
SWASEY (DE-248)
THADDEUS PARKER (DE-369)
THOMAS F. NICKEL (DE-587)
TOLLBERG (DE-593/APD-103)
TOMICH (DE-242)
VAMMEN (DE-644) *
WALTER S. BROWN (DE-258)
WANTUCK (DE-692/APD-125) *
WEBER (DE-675/APD-75)
WILHOITE (DE-397) *
WILLIAM C. COLE (DE-641)
WILLIS (DE-395)
WYFFELS (DE-6)
YOKES (DE-668/APD-69)

Five S tars
BEGOR (DE-711/APD127)
HANNA (DE- 449)
WANTUCK (DE-692/APD125) (total of six)
WILLIAM SEIVERLING (DE-441) (total of ten)

Four S tars
MARSH (DE-699) (total of five)

Three S tars
DOUGLAS A. MUNRO (DE-422)
McGINTY (DE-365)
NAIFEH (DE-352)
SILVERSTEIN (DE-534) (total of five)
ULVERT M. MOORE (DE-442) (total of eight)
WEISS (DE-719/APD135)
WHITEHURST (DE-634) (total of nine)

Two S tars
EDMONDS (DE-406) (total of seven)
WALTON (DE-361)


Player News

View Complete Notes on Fielding Data

  • Pre-1916 SB & CS data for catchers is estimated from catcher assists, games started and opposition stolen bases.
  • From 1916 on SB, CS, Pickoff, & WP data for catchers and pitchers is taken from play-by-play accounts in the retrosheet files. There are several hundred games without pbp from 1916 to 1972 and for those we may not have any data.
  • CG & GS come from the retrosheet data and should be complete and pretty accurate from 1901 on.
  • Innings played (like SB and CS) come from the retrosheet play-by-play data and should be considered mostly complete from 1916 to 1972 and complete from then on.
  • Stats (PO,A,G, etc) for LF-CF-RF positions (since 1901) is taken from play-by-play or box score data as available.
  • Stats (PO,A,G,etc) for C,P,1B,2B,3B,SS,OF positions is taken from the official reported totals and may have been corrected at various times since their publication.
  • For detailed information on which games retrosheet is missing play-by-play from 1916 to 1972, please see their most wanted games list
  • For detailed information on the availability of data on this site by year, see our data coverage page

Hospitalization for Total Hip Replacement Among Inpatients Aged 45 and Over: United States, 2000–2010

Monica L. Wolford, M.A. Kathleen Palso, M.A. and Anita Bercovitz, M.P.H., Ph.D.

Key findings

Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey

  • In 2010, 310,800 total hip replacements were performed among inpatients aged 45 and over.
  • The number and rate of total hip replacements among inpatients aged 45 and over increased from 2000 to 2010: from 138,700 to 310,800 in number and from a rate of 142.2 to 257.0 per 100,000 population.
  • The age distribution of inpatients aged 45 and over who received total hip replacements changed significantly between 2000 and 2010, with the percentage of total hip replacements increasing for younger age groups and decreasing for older age groups.
  • The average length of stay after total hip replacement among inpatients aged 45 and over decreased from 2000 to 2010, from nearly 5 days to just under 4 days.

Total hip replacement, in which both the head of the femur and its socket are replaced, is done to restore movement to hips damaged by osteoarthritis, late-stage degenerative bone and cartilage disease, or other injuries and disease (1). The number of total hip replacements is expected to increase over the next few decades (2). National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data show trends and estimates of the number and rate of total hip replacements and average length of stay among inpatients aged 45 and over.

Keywords: joint replacement, hospital, National Hospital Discharge Survey

Has the number of total hip replacements changed since 2000?

  • In 2010, 326,100 total hip replacements were performed among inpatients of all ages. Inpatients aged 45 and over accounted for 95% (310,800) of all total hip replacements (data not shown).

Figure 1. Number of total hip replacements among inpatients aged 45 and over, by age group and year: United States, 2000&ndash2010

* Significant linear trend from 2000 through 2010 among all age groups and total number.
NOTES: Total hip replacement is defined as code 81.51 of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD&ndash9&ndashCM) for any of the four collected procedures. Although data on eight procedures were collected in 2010, data from only four procedure codes were collected in 2000&ndash2009. For consistency across years, only the first four listed procedures were included in the analysis for this figure.

SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Hospital Discharge Survey, 2000&ndash2010.

  • The annual number of total hip replacements among inpatients aged 45 and over more than doubled between 2000 and 2010, from 138,700 in 2000 to 310,800 in 2010 (Figure 1).
  • Similarly, the percentage increase in the number of total hip replacements among inpatients aged 45 and over by age ranged from 92% for those 75 and over (from 41,600 in 2000 to 80,000 in 2010) to 205% for those aged 45&ndash54 (from 17,000 to 51,900).

Has the age distribution of total hip replacement among inpatients aged 45 and over changed between 2000 and 2010?

  • In 2000, 12% of all inpatient total hip replacements &lrmwere performed on those aged 45&ndash54 this percentage increased to 17% in 2010. The percentage of total hip replacements performed on those aged 55&ndash64 also increased (from 24% to 29%) (Figure 2).
  • The percentage of all inpatient hip replacements decreased for age groups 65&ndash74 (from 34% in 2000 to 28% in 2010) and 75 and over (from 30% to 26%).
  • In 2000, the percentage of total hip replacement among inpatients aged 55&ndash64 was 24%, which was significantly lower than the percentage in the 75 and over group (30%). In contrast, by 2010, more total hip replacements were performed on inpatients aged 55&ndash64 (29%) than on inpatients 75 and over (26%).

Figure 2. Percent distribution of total hip replacements among inpatients aged 45 and over: United States, 2000 and 2010

1 Significantly different from age groups 55&ndash64 and 65&ndash74 in both 2000 and 2010.
2 Significant differences between 2000 and 2010 for each age group.
NOTES: Total hip replacement is defined as code 81.51 of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD&ndash9&ndashCM) for any of the four collected procedures. Percentages are calculated only for ages 45 and over. Although data on eight procedures were collected in 2010, data from only four procedure codes were collected in 2000&ndash2009. For consistency across years, only the first four listed procedures were included in the analysis for this figure.

SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Hospital Discharge Survey, 2000 and 2010.

Has the rate of total hip replacements in the population aged 45 and over changed since 2000?

  • Between 2000 and 2010, the rate of total hip replacements in the population aged 45 and over increased for each age group (Figure 3).
  • The rate of total hip replacement more than doubled for those aged 45&ndash54 over the 11 years from 2000 through 2010, from 45 to 117 total hip replacements per 100,000 population. However, this rate was still lower than the rates for older age groups.
  • The rate of total hip replacement increased among older age groups as well from 2000 to 2010: by 85% for those aged 55&ndash64 (from 137 to 253), by 62% for those aged 65&ndash74 (from 254 to 412), and by 68% for those aged 75 and over (from 249 to 418).

Figure 3. Rate of hospitalization for total hip replacement among ages 45 and over: United States, 2000&ndash2010

* Significant linear trend from 2000 through 2010 for each age group.
NOTES: Total hip replacement is defined as code 81.51 of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD&ndash9&ndashCM) for any of the four collected procedures. Although data on eight procedures were collected in 2010, data from only four procedure codes were collected for 2000&ndash2009. For consistency across years, only the first four listed procedures were included in the analysis for this figure. The rate was calculated by dividing the number of discharges with any-listed total hip replacement procedure for each age group by the population of that group. The rates per 100,000 population were calculated using U.S. Census Bureau 2000-based postcensal civilian population estimates.

SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Hospital Discharge Survey, 2000&ndash2010.

Has the average length of stay after total hip replacement among inpatients aged 45 and over changed since 2000?

  • The average length of stay following total hip replacement decreased approximately 1 day for inpatients among all age groups 45 and over from 2000 through 2010 (Figure 4).
  • In 2010, inpatients aged 45&ndash54 with total hip replacement stayed an average of 3 days, which was lower than all other age groups.
  • Inpatients aged 75 and over with total hip replacement stayed an average of 4 days in 2010, which was higher than all other age groups.

Figure 4. Average length of stay among inpatients aged 45 and over with total hip replacement: United States, 2000&ndash2010

* Significant linear trend from 2000 through 2010.
NOTES: Total hip replacement is defined as code 81.51 of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD&ndash9&ndashCM) for any of the four collected procedures. Although data on eight procedures were collected in 2010, data from only four procedure codes were collected during 2000&ndash2009. For consistency across years, only the first four listed procedures were included in the analysis for this figure.

SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Hospital Discharge Survey, 2000&ndash2010.

Summary

In 2010, 310,800 total hip replacements were performed among inpatients aged 45 and over.

The number and rate of total hip replacements among inpatients aged 45 and over increased significantly from 2000 through 2010. The greatest increase in absolute numbers was in the 55&ndash64 age group, where the number of total hip replacements almost tripled, whereas the greatest percentage change was in the 45&ndash54 age group, which experienced a 205% increase. The 45&ndash54 age group also had the greatest increase in rate, which more than doubled from 45 to 117 total hip replacements per 100,000 population.

In 2010, the average length of stay was shortest for the youngest age group and longest for the oldest group. Among those aged 45&ndash54, the average stay was 3 days, lower than for each of the other age groups, while the average among those aged 75 and over was 4 days, higher than for each of the other age groups. From 2000 through 2010, the average length of stay decreased for each age group.

The findings in this report are similar to those of other published reports on the demographics of total hip replacements and changes over time (1,3,4). Given the overall aging of the U.S. population and the growing percentage of total hip replacements received by younger groups, monitoring changes in the prevalence of this procedure will continue to be important. In addition, the younger ages at which total hip replacements are performed may result in a greater number of procedures being done to replace artificial hip joints that have worn out over time.

Definitions

Total hip replacement: Surgery for persons with severe hip damage. During a total hip replacement operation, the surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from the hip joint, replacing both the head of the femur and the socket into which it fits with artificial parts. One or both hips may be replaced, although double hip replacements are rare. Partial hip replacement is the procedure where only the head of the femur is replaced these are excluded from this analysis (visit MedlinePlus external icon for more information).

Hospitalization for total hip replacement: Includes those admitted with at least one procedure code for total hip replacement as denoted by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD&ndash9&ndashCM) code 81.51 (5).

Rate: Refers to the number of hospitalizations per unit of population (i.e., per 100,000 population). Using rates removes the influence of different population sizes (e.g., age groups with different population sizes over multiple years) so that data can be compared across these groups. Rates were calculated using U.S. Census Bureau 2000-based postcensal civilian population estimates.

Length of stay: The total number of patient days accumulated at time of discharge by patients discharged from short-stay hospitals during 1 year. A stay of less than 1 day (patient admission and discharge on the same day) is counted as 1 day in the summation of total days of care. For patients admitted and discharged on different days, the number of days of care is computed by counting all days from (and including) the date of admission up to (but excluding) the date of discharge.

Average length of stay: The total number of days of care accumulated at time of discharge, divided by the number of discharges.

Data source and methods

Data for this report are from NHDS, a national probability sample survey of discharges from nonfederal short-stay hospitals or general hospitals in the United States, conducted from 1965 through 2010 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention&rsquos (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Division of Health Care Statistics. Survey data on hospital discharges were obtained from hospitals&rsquo administrative data. Note that if a person is admitted to the hospital multiple times during the survey year, that person could be counted more than once in NHDS.

Because of the complex multistage design of NHDS, the survey data must be inflated or weighted to produce national estimates. Estimates of inpatient care presented in this report are based on discharges of inpatients aged 45 and over unless otherwise noted. More details about the design of NHDS have been published elsewhere (6).

From 2000 through 2009, information on up to four procedures was collected in 2010, the number of procedures was increased to eight for data collection. Trend data are based on data from up to four procedures, and for consistency, data reported for 2010 are also based on data from four procedures. The 2010 data were analyzed using both four listed and eight listed procedures both methods generated an estimated 310,800 total hip replacements.

Statistics are based on the population aged 45 and over, and the denominator used for calculating percentages includes only those aged 45 and over. Inpatients under age 45 accounted for 5.8% of all total hip replacements between 2000 and 2010 the percentages ranged from a high of 8.5% in 2000 to a low of 4.2% in 2008.

Age and days of care were imputed when missing. One percent or fewer of records had age or days of care imputed.

Differences among the subgroups were evaluated with two-tailed t tests and chi-square tests at alpha = 0.05 as the level of significance. Terms that express differences, such as higher, lower, largest, smallest, leading, increased, or decreased, were used only when such differences were statistically significant. When a comparison is described as similar, it means that no statistically significant difference was found. All comparisons reported in the text were statistically significant unless otherwise indicated. Data analyses were performed using the statistical packages SAS version 9.3.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.) and SUDAAN version 11.0.1 (RTI International, Research Triangle Park, N.C.).

About the authors

Monica L. Wolford, Kathleen Palso, and Anita Bercovitz are with CDC&rsquos National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Care Statistics.

References

  1. Blum MA, Ibrahim SA. Race/ethnicity and use of elective joint replacement in the management of end-stage knee/hip osteoarthritis: A review of the literature. Clin Geriatr Med 28(3):521&ndash32. 2012.
  2. Kurtz S, Ong K, Lau E, Mowat F, Halpern M. Projections of primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States from 2005 to 2030. J Bone Joint Surg Am 89(4):780&ndash5. 2007.
  3. Ravi B, Croxford R, Reichmann W, Losina E, Katz JN, Hawker GA. The changing demographics of total joint arthroplasty recipients in the United States and Ontario from 2001 to 2007. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 26(5):637&ndash47. 2012.
  4. Learmonth ID, Young C, Rorabeck C. The operation of the century: Total hip replacement. Lancet 370(9597):1508&ndash19. 2007.
  5. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. International classification of diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification, 6th ed. DHHS Pub No. (PHS) 06&ndash1260. 2006.
  6. Hall MJ, DeFrances CJ, Williams SN, et al. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2007 summary. National health statistics reports, no 29. 2010.

Suggested citation

Wolford ML, Palso K, Bercovitz A. Hospitalization for total hip replacement among inpatients aged 45 and over: United States, 2000&ndash2010. NCHS data brief, no 186. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015.

Copyright information

All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission citation as to source, however, is appreciated.


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