Paul Beaver

Paul Beaver


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Centennial (miniseries)

Centennial is a 12-episode American television miniseries that aired on NBC from October 1978 to February 1979. The miniseries follows the history of Centennial, Colorado, from 1795 to the 1970s. It was based on the 1974 novel of the same name by James A. Michener, was produced by John Wilder.

It was one of the longest and most ambitious television projects ever attempted at the time (c. 21 hours or 26 hours with commercials). It had a budget of US$25 million, employed four directors and five cinematographers, and featured over 100 speaking parts. [1] Centennial was released on DVD on July 29, 2008.


Contents

Concept, pilot, and premiere Edit

In 1957, the radio, film and television writers Joe Connelly and Bob Mosher developed a concept for a TV show about childhood and family life featuring a fictional suburban couple and their children. Unlike The Adventures of Ozzie & Harriet, Father Knows Best and other sitcoms and domestic comedies of the era, the show would not focus on the parents, but rather on their children, with the series being told from the kids' point of view. [5] Working titles during the show's gestation period included It's a Small World [2] and Wally and the Beaver. The pilot aired April 23, 1957, as "It's a Small World" on the anthology series Heinz Studio 57. [3]

The stars of the pilot were Casey Adams and Paul Sullivan (as father and son Ward and Wally Cleaver). They were replaced as production of the series neared. Six months after the broadcast of the pilot, the series debuted on CBS on Friday October 4, 1957, as Leave It to Beaver, with the episode third in production order, "Beaver Gets 'Spelled". [3] [6] The intended premiere, "Captain Jack", [7] displayed a toilet tank (which didn't pass the censor's office in time for the show's scheduled debut) and aired the week following the premiere. "Captain Jack" has claimed its place in television history as the first American TV show to display a toilet tank. [8] In 1997, it was ranked number 42 in TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time. [9]

Sponsors and budget Edit

Remington Rand was a potential sponsor during the show's conception and counseled against the show's suggested title, Wally and the Beaver, believing viewers would think the show was a nature program. The show was ultimately sponsored by Ralston Purina, with General Electric (the GE logo was clearly visible on all kitchen appliances) and Chrysler Corporation sponsoring the later seasons (Ward Cleaver was often seen driving the newest Plymouth Fury during the opening credits or coming home from work, starting in Season 3. In the first two seasons, he drove a 1957 Ford). [3]

Episodes were budgeted at $30,000 to $40,000 each ($280,000 to $370,000 in 2020 dollars), [10] making the show one of the most costly to produce at the time. High production costs were in part due to many outdoor scenes. The most expensive single episode, "In the Soup" [11] (in which Beaver gets stuck in an advertising billboard with a gigantic make-believe cup of soup, curious as to how "steam" came out of the cup), was budgeted at $50,000. Two billboards were built for the episode: one outside on the back lot, and the other inside the studio. [3]

Characters and casting Edit

Casting directors interviewed hundreds of child actors for the role of Beaver, but kept calling back Jerry Mathers, an eight-year-old with substantial acting experience. At one of many auditions, Mathers wore his Cub Scout uniform and told casting personnel he was eager to leave for his den meeting. Connelly and Mosher were charmed with Mathers' innocent candor and cast him in the title role. [12] Barbara Billingsley, an actress with experience in several B movies and one failed television series (Professional Father), was then hired to play Beaver's mother, June. [3] Preteen Tony Dow accompanied a friend auditioning for Johnny Wildlife to the studio, and, although Dow had no aspirations to an acting career, tried out for the role of Beaver's brother, Wally, and was hired. Several adult candidates then auditioned for the role of Beaver's father, Ward, but Connelly and Mosher finally signed Hugh Beaumont, an actor and Methodist lay minister who had worked with Mathers in a religious film. [2]

Main cast Edit

Recurring cast Edit

    as Eddie Haskell, Wally's mischievous best friend as Larry Mondello, Beaver's apple-eating best friend as Hubert "Whitey" Whitney, Beaver's classmate and friend as Richard Rickover, Beaver's classmate and friend as Gilbert Bates, Beaver's classmate and friend as Judy Hensler, Beaver's classmate and nemesis
  • Patty Turner as Linda Dennison, Beaver's classmate and first love interest
  • Karen Sue Trent as Penny Woods, Beaver's classmate and second love interest
  • Bobby Mittelstaedt as Charlie Fredericks, a high-achieving classmate of Beaver's as Fred Rutherford, Ward's overbearing co-worker as Clarence "Lumpy" Rutherford, Fred's bully of a son and Wally's friend
  • Wendy Winkelman and Veronica Cartwright as Violet Rutherford, Fred's daughter as Chester Anderson, Wally's friend and classmate as Tooey Brown, Wally's friend and classmate as Julie Foster, Wally's first love interest as Mary Ellen Rogers, Wally's second love interest and eventual wife as Uncle Billy Cleaver, Ward's globetrotting and whimsical uncle as Aunt Martha Bronson, June's eccentric spinster aunt as Miss Canfield, Beaver's second-grade teacher as Miss Alice Landers, Beaver's third-grade teacher as Gus, an elderly fireman who acts as a role model for Beaver as Mrs Cornelia Rayburn, the principal of Grant Avenue Grammar School as Mrs Margaret Mondello, Larry's short-tempered and much put-upon mother and George O. Petrie as George Haskell, Eddie's father and Anne Barton as Agnes Haskell, Eddie's mother

Writers and directors Edit

The show's chief writers, Bob Mosher and Joe Connelly, met while working in New York City for the J. Walter Thompson Agency. Once in Hollywood, the men became head writers for the radio show Amos 'n' Andy and continued to write the well-received show when it moved to CBS television in 1950. Although both men initially wrote all the scripts for earlier episodes of Leave It to Beaver, after becoming executive producers they began accepting scripts from other writers, refining them, if necessary. [3]

With Mosher the father of two children and Connelly six, the two had enough source material and inspiration for the show's dialogue and plot lines. Connelly's eight-year-old son, Ricky, served as the model for Beaver and his fourteen-year-old son, Jay, for Wally, while Eddie Haskell and Larry Mondello were based on friends of the Connelly boys. Connelly often took the boys on outings while carrying a notebook to record their conversations and activities. [3]

Other writers who contributed to the show were Bill Manhoff, Mel Diamond, Dale and Katherine Eunson, Ben Gershman, George Tibbles (who later became the head writer on My Three Sons), Fran van Hartesvelt, Bob Ross, Alan Manings, Mathilde and Theodore Ferro, John Whedon and the team of Dick Conway and Roland MacLane, who wrote many of the shows for the last two seasons. [2] Connelly told an interviewer, "If we hire a writer we tell him not to make up situations, but to look into his own background. It's not a 'situation' comedy where you have to create a situation for a particular effect. Our emphasis is on a natural story line." [2]

Connelly and Mosher worked to create humorous characters in simple situations, rather than relying on contrived jokes. The two often adapted real-life situations in the lives of their children. "The Haircut", for example, was directly based on an incident involving Bobby Mosher, who was compelled to wear a stocking cap in a school play after giving himself a ragged haircut. [3] [13] Fourteen-year-old Jay Connelly's preening habits became Wally's frequent hair combing. Seven-year-old Ricky Connelly's habit of dropping the initial syllables of words was incorporated into Beaver's character. [2]

According to Tony Dow, "If any line got too much of a laugh, they'd take it out. They didn't want a big laugh they wanted chuckles." [14]

Norman Tokar, a director with a talent for working with children, was hired to direct most of the episodes for the first three years and developed the characters of Eddie Haskell and Larry Mondello. [3] Other directors included Earl Bellamy, David Butler (who had directed child actress Shirley Temple), Bretaigne Windust, Gene Reynolds and Hugh Beaumont. Norman Abbott directed most of the episodes through the last three years.

Filming Edit

For the first two seasons, Leave It to Beaver was filmed at Republic Studios in Studio City, Los Angeles. [2] For its final four seasons, production moved to Universal Studios. Exteriors, including the façades of the two Cleaver houses, were filmed on the respective studio back lots. Stock footage was often used for establishing shots.

The script for an upcoming episode would be delivered to the cast late in the week, with a read-through the following Monday, awkward lines or other problems being noted for rewrites. On Tuesday afternoon, the script was rehearsed in its entirety for the camera and lighting crew. Over the following three days, individual scenes would be filmed with a single camera.

Filming was limited to one episode per week (rather than the two typical of television production of the period) to accommodate the large number of child actors, who were allowed to work only four hours a day. Scenes with children were usually filmed first, with adult actors having to wait until after 5:00 pm for filming. [2]

Series cinematographers included Mack Stengler with 122 episodes between 1958 and 1962, Jack MacKenzie with 40 episodes between 1962 and 1963, and William A. Sickner with 37 episodes between 1957 and 1959. Fred Mandl (1962), Ray Rennahan (1958), and Ray Flin (1960) served as cinematographers on less than five episodes each.

Opening and closing sequences Edit

In the first season, each episode opens with a teaser, either featuring clips from the episode, or using generic footage from multiple episodes and a voice-over introduction by Beaumont briefly stating the episode's theme. [15] The teaser is followed by the main title and credits in which the show's four main stars are introduced. [15] Midway through the first season, the Beaumont voice-over introduction was discarded in favor of a brief scene extracted from the episode at hand, and, at the end of the first season, the teaser was entirely discarded, moving immediately to the title and credits. In seasons five and six, significant crew are listed in an extension of the opening credits after a commercial break.

Each season had an individually filmed sequence for the opening credits. In season one, for example, a cartoon-like drawing of a freshly laid concrete sidewalk was displayed with the show title and stars' names scratched into its surface, while in the final season, the Cleavers left the house through the front door carrying picnic items (see List of Leave It to Beaver episodes for specific season opening sequences). [15] Billingsley was the first to be introduced in all opening sequences, followed by Beaumont and Dow. Mathers was introduced last, with the voice-over line, ". and Jerry Mathers as The Beaver". [15]

The closing sequence for the first season featured a simple, dark background as the credits rolled. [15] In the second season, Wally and Beaver are seen walking home from school with their schoolbooks and entering the house through the front door. [16] In the third through fifth seasons, Wally and Beaver are seen walking towards the Pine Street house. [17] Beaver carries a baseball glove and limps along the curbstone. [17] In the last season, Beaver, arguing with Wally as the two are walking home, pushes Wally into the street and they start chasing each other around a tree and into the house. [18]

Music Edit

The show's opening and closing sequences are accompanied by an orchestral rendition of the show's bouncy theme music, "The Toy Parade", by David Kahn, Melvyn Leonard, and Mort Greene. For the third season, the tempo was quickened and the tune whistled by a male chorus over an orchestral accompaniment for the closing credits and for the production credits following the opening sequence. For the final season, the song was given a jazz-like arrangement by the veteran composer and arranger Pete Rugolo. Though lyrics exist for the theme tune, an instrumental arrangement was used for the show's entire run. [19] Elements of the theme tune were given a subdued musical arrangement, which was then used as background music for tender and sentimental scenes. Occasionally, a few phrases from well-known musical compositions, such as Chopin's "Funeral March" and "La Marseillaise", the French national anthem, were quoted.

This CBS show required "wall-to-wall" music, a term for productions that utilize musical "tag" pieces between scenes as needed. While "The Toy Parade" theme was written for the show, incidental music was not. This is evident through the progression of the series, as the theme matured, the usual background music did not. This is the equivalent of the "needle-drop" library of prerecorded music that is still prevalent today. This incidental music was likely a product of the CBS Television Orchestra and clearly sounds reminiscent of the early 1950s, especially by 1963. Many of the musical cues were utilized in multiple series, including such varying shows as Lassie, The Munsters, Wagon Train, and The Virginian.

Settings Edit

Time setting Edit

The time setting of Leave It to Beaver is contemporary with its production—the late 1950s and the early 1960s. References to contemporary news issues or topics are infrequent. Communism is mentioned in the episode "Water, Anyone?" [20] The launching of the Russian satellite Sputnik, which coincided with the debut of the series, is mentioned in several episodes, as is the rapidly expanding missile defense sector in the 1962 episode "Stocks and Bonds". In one episode, Eddie makes an allusion to Cassius Clay. In Gilbert's first appearance, he tells Beaver he is in training for the 1968 Olympics.

Contemporary cultural references are more frequent but not overwhelming. The show acknowledges the greaser subculture [21] and, in the last season, "The Twist", a popular song and dance craze of the early 1960s. [22] The dance's promoter, Chubby Checker, is hinted at in the episode's fictional "Chubby Chadwick" and his fictional hit tune, "Surf Board Twist". Wally and his friends perform a tepid version of The Twist at Wally's party in "The Party Spoiler". The 1960 Kirk Douglas vehicle Spartacus is brought up in "Teacher's Daughter", Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev and Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. are mentioned and, in one episode, Beaver's best friend Gilbert says Angela Valentine wore a "Jackie Kennedy wig" to class. Contemporary celebrities mentioned on the show include Rock Hudson, Tuesday Weld, Cary Grant, Sal Mineo, Frank Sinatra, Edd Byrnes, Tony Curtis, Sonny Liston, Cassius Clay, Bob Cousy, Chet Huntley, David Brinkley, Jack Paar, John Glenn, Bennett Cerf, Warren Spahn, Fabian Forte, Bobby Vinton, Frankie Avalon and others. Then current Los Angeles Dodgers celebrity star Don Drysdale appears as himself in the 1962 episode titled "Long Distance Call". When Beaver appears on a TV show, not knowing it is being recorded to air another day, Gilbert compares the misunderstanding with "a Rod Serling Twilight Zone". The 1963 episode "The Poor Loser" opens with a shot of June marking a 1961 wall calendar and in the 1963 episode "Beaver's Graduation," June and Ward inspect the gift they have for Beaver's graduation and read the inscription, ". Class of '63".

Leave It to Beaver is set in the fictitious community of Mayfield and its environs. The principal setting is the Cleaver home. The Cleavers live in two houses over the series' run. However, they lived in another house prior to the start of the series. [23] The move during the series was necessary when the façade of the original house, located at Republic Studios, became unavailable for filming following the production's move to Universal. The new house stood on the Universal backlot. The address of the first house is 485 Mapleton (sometimes Maple) Drive, and the second at 211 Pine Street.

Mapleton Drive house Edit

Surrounded by a picket fence, the Mapleton Drive house is two stories with a first floor kitchen, dining room, living room and adjoining patio, and at least three bedrooms on the second floor—one for the boys, one for the parents, and a guest room into which Beaver moves for a night. [24] The cellar is accessible through a diagonal door in the kitchen. [7] A kitchen door opens onto a small side yard, the driveway, and a single-car garage—a frequent setting for get-togethers between the boys, their father, and the boys' friends. [25] [26] [27] [28]

Toward the close of season two, the Cleavers discuss moving. [29] In the season's closer, Ward tells the boys the Mapleton Drive house has been sold. [30] In the season three opener, the Cleavers are comfortably settled in their new home. [31] No episode features the actual move.

Pine Street house Edit

The Pine Street house consists of several rooms (kitchen and laundry room, dining room, living room, den) on the ground floor and at least three bedrooms on the second floor. None of the furnishings from the Mapleton Drive house appear in the new house. Reproductions of Gainsborough's The Blue Boy and Lawrence's Pinkie hang in the front entry above graceful bergères. An upholstered wing chair at the edge of the hearth in the living room is covered in a chinoiserie print.

During the final episode at the Mapleton Drive house, the boys announce they are excited for the move as the new house will afford them their own separate bedrooms. Yet in subsequent episodes taking place at the Pine Street residence, the brothers apparently still share the same bedroom. Even the arrangement of the furniture is nearly identical, though a portable TV is present by late 1962.

After the move to Pine Street, the boys continue to attend the same schools, frequent the same hang-outs, and visit the same friends. The Pine Street house is in the vicinity of the Mapleton Drive house in one episode, [32] Beaver and Larry walk to the Mapleton Drive house, uproot a small tree, and transport it to the Pine Street house in a wagon.

In the Pine Street house, Ward has a den near the main entry, which serves as a setting for many scenes. The garage at the Pine Street house is used less often as a setting for masculine get-togethers than the Mapleton Drive garage had been. June and Ward's bedroom is seen for the first time in the Pine Street house. They have their own bath, sleep in twin beds and have a portable TV in the room. The Cleavers' phone number is KL5-4763.

Two years before Leave It to Beaver went into production, the Pine Street façade and its neighborhood were employed extensively in the 1955 Humphrey Bogart film The Desperate Hours.

In 1969, the Pine Street house was reused for another Universal-produced television hit, Marcus Welby, M.D. This house can still be seen at Universal Studios, though the original façade was replaced in 1988 for the following year's The 'Burbs and sat in storage elsewhere on the Universal lot. The façade was replaced again for the 1997 Leave It to Beaver movie. The house and the street it sits on were used as the main exterior set for Wisteria Lane of Desperate Housewives, was also previously used as the Pearson family house on The Bill Engvall Show and also for a time shown on CBS daytime's The Young and the Restless as Victoria Newman Abbott and Billy Abbott's home.

Format and content Edit

Leave It to Beaver is light comedy drama with the underlying theme that proper behavior brings rewards while improper behavior results in undesirable consequences. The juvenile viewer finds amusement in Beaver's adventures while learning that certain behaviors and choices (such as skipping school [33] or faking an illness in order to be the recipient of "loot" from parents and schoolmates [34] ) are wrong and invite discussion and lessons-learned. The adult viewer enjoys Beaver's adventures while discovering tips for teaching children correct behavior and methods for successfully handling common childhood problems. Parents are reminded that children view the world from a different perspective and should not be expected to act like miniature adults. The writers urged parents to serve as moral role models. [35]

A typical episode generally follows a simple formula: Beaver or Wally (or both) get into a predicament they then try to get out of, and then face their parents for a lecture regarding the event. Lectures sometimes take the form of fables, [36] [37] with Ward and June allowing the boys to discover their moral meanings and applying those meanings to their lives. Occasionally, when offenses are serious, punishments such as being grounded [38] are dealt the miscreants. The parenting is quite egalitarian for the time period, with Ward and June together debating the best approach to the situation. Other episodes (especially in earlier seasons) even reverse the formula, with Ward or June making a parenting mistake and having to figure out how to make up for it.

While the earlier seasons focus on Beaver's boyhood adventures, the later seasons give greater scope to Wally's high school life, dating, and part-time work. Several episodes follow Wally's acquisition of a driver's license and a car. The show's focus is consistently upon the children June and Ward are depicted from one episode to the next as an untroubled, happily married couple.

Themes Edit

Education, occupation, marriage, and family are presented in Leave It to Beaver as requisites for a happy and productive life. [35]

Beaver and Wally both attend public schools and are encouraged to pursue college educations as a means to prepare for their futures. [39] Ward and June attended prep school and boarding school, respectively, and both attended college their sons are expected to do the same. While both boys consider prep-school educations—Wally at the Bellport Military Academy and Beaver at an eastern school called Fallbrook [40] —both remain at home and attend Mayfield High with their friends. School and homework are often a challenge for Beaver. In "Beaver's Secret Life", the boy decides to become a writer in adulthood because "you don't have to go to school or know nothing . You only have to make up adventures and get paid for it." Beaver's teachers and parents encourage him to value education and the school experience, while helping him to navigate missteps (such as skipping school with Larry Mondello) along the way.

The importance of attending college and having a future is presented as important to the happy life. Ward represents the successful, college-educated, middle-class professional with a steady but obscure office job. Even June, the competent and happy homemaker, had a college degree and came from an upper-class background (her maiden name of "Bronson" is often associated with class in her family). While June and Ward come from middle-class backgrounds and value economic mobility, they encourage Beaver and Wally to value all people. When Beaver befriends the garbage collector's children his parents, especially June, initially express discomfort, but then come to see the importance of such friendships. [41]

According to the social mores represented in the show, a happy marriage is the cornerstone of successful middle-class family life, and June and Ward represent the warm, happily married, co-parenting successful middle class couple. In contrast, Beaver's friend Larry Mondello's father is frequently out of town on business, and Larry's mother struggles single-handedly to raise her children, sometimes depending on (usually reluctant) Ward to help discipline Larry. [42] [43] The one episode dealing with divorce [44] shows it as having negative effects on children and family life.

Religion is lightly touched upon in the series, if only as one of the pillars of traditional Americana. In a sprinkling of episodes, Beaver refers to having attended church earlier on a Sunday or referring to a lesson learned in Sunday School. Ward uses parables—some from the Bible—to impart wisdom to the boys after they've experienced a difficult situation. He also often paraphrased from Greek fables to educate Wally and The Beaver about morality issues.

June and Ward are keenly aware of their duty to impart traditional, but proven, middle-class family values to their boys. They do so by serving as examples in word and deed, rather than using punitive means. Ward and June are models of late-1950s, conscientious parenting, but practice more egalitarian parenting than other shows of the time (such as "Father Knows Best"). Stay-at-home June maintains a loving, nurturing home, while Ward supervises the behavior and moral education of his sons, usually with June's input. While the series portrays the world through the eyes of a young boy, it sometimes dealt with controversial and adult subjects such as alcoholism and divorce. [3]

June remains calm amid household tumult, providing crucial guidance to her sons while shielding them from nefarious outside influences with a matronly force of will. Her protection is frequently needed against the pernicious intrigues of Eddie Haskell, who engages in impulsive, selfish, disruptive, and malevolent schemes. For crafty Eddie, each day is one more step toward the twilight of the adults, which will herald his ascension to neighborhood ruler. [45]

Ward is a Solomon-like figure of quiet dignity who dispenses parental justice tempered with understanding. He sometimes finds himself punishing his sons for deeds he admits he committed as a child. Ward relates to the peer-pressure the boys sometimes face as when he defends them for wanting to view a horror movie with Eddie Haskell. June objects, but Ward responds by telling her he saw hundreds of horror films as a boy and even had a subscription to Weird Tales. Ward often finds himself learning the most in the episode from something his sons, or sometimes his wife, do.

Signature show elements Edit

Slang Edit

The show employs contemporary kid-slang extensively. Wally and Beaver both use "gyp" (to swindle), "mess around" (to play), and "hunka" (meaning "hunk of" in relation to food portions such as "hunka cake" or "hunka milk"). "Junk", "crummy", "gee whiz", "gosh", "wiseguy", "dry up", "grubby", "clobber", "chicken", "rat", and "creep" are frequently heard. The word "beef" was also used at times (mostly by Wally) over the course of the show's run, meaning "disagreement" (as in contemporary hip-hop). Ward and June disapprove. Wally uses "sweat" to his mother's annoyance she prefers "perspiration" and asks him not to use the slang words "flip" or "ape". "Goofy" is one of Beaver's favorite adjectives, and it is applied to anything that lies outside the bounds of 1950s conformism. "Giving me/you/him/her the business" was a phrase used to describe a character being sarcastic with or otherwise teasing another character. "Flake off" or "Pipe Down" was often used by Wally's friends to tell the Beaver to leave them alone. "No foolin'?" was frequently used as a euphemism for "really?"

Punishment Edit

Physical punishment looms large in the boys' imaginations, but such punishment is never seen. Though Ward tells Wally and Beaver he has never physically punished them, both boys remind their father of past incidents when he did. In one episode, Beaver mentioned a time when he spilled ink on a rug and his father spanked him. [6] Ward himself mentions that his father used a belt on him, [46] and Larry's homelife is described as one of being hollered at and hit. In one episode, Larry begs, "Don't hit me! Don't hit me!" when his mother discovers him reading his sister's diary. [47] Punishment in the show is restricted to being grounded, spending time in one's bedroom, losing movie-going or television privileges, or pulling weeds in the yard. [47]

Cleanliness Edit

Recurrent humor is generated on the show by contrasting the 'squeaky-clean' habits of June and Ward with the 'grubby' ones of Wally and Beaver. While Ward and June stress cleanliness, bathing, and good grooming (ordering both boys to wash their faces, hands, and fingernails before dinner), both boys generally prefer being unwashed and dressed in dirty clothes. In the premiere episode, [48] Wally and Beaver fake bathing by rumpling towels and tossing "turtle dirt" in the bathtub. This scene is masterfully played and is a study in irony. The boys run through their fake bathing routine in a way that suggests they have done it hundreds of times before. All the while they are talking about Beaver's school problems (related to a letter that his teacher sent home). Beaver asks Wally to write a fake response to the teacher, but Wally says heck no, he couldn't do that because it would be dishonest. He then asks Beaver for some of his “turtle dirt” (dirt from Beaver's pocket, where he was keeping a turtle). Wally tosses the dirt into the bathtub water and says, sort of as an afterthought “It’ll leave a ring”. In "Cleaning Up Beaver", [24] June and Ward commend Wally on his neat appearance and chide Beaver for his untidiness. When Wally calls Beaver a "pig", Beaver moves into the guest room where he can be his own dirty, messy self without comment or criticism from others. Frightening shadows in the room force him back to his old bedroom and the safety of being with his brother. The two boys strike a middle ground: Beaver will be a bit tidier than he usually is and Wally will be a bit sloppier. By the final season, even Beaver shows signs to being neater, a sign of growing up.

Bathrooms Edit

Leave It to Beaver is unique in 1950s television sitcom history for its extraordinary number of bathroom scenes. Beaver and Wally have an en-suite bathroom, and many scenes are set in it. One early episode, "Child Care", is set almost entirely in their bathroom. [49] Other episodes include major scenes set in the boys' bathroom. [50] [51] Additionally, in almost every scene set in the boys' bedroom, the bathtub, shower curtain, or vanity can be seen through the open bathroom door. Beaver uses the bathroom several times to escape his brother when angry, slamming the door to express his emotions. At such times, June and Ward are called upon to order Beaver to vacate his refuge. In "Beaver's Good Deed", [52] a scene is set in Ward and June's bathroom. A tramp takes a bath in their tub and slips away wearing one of Ward's suits and a pair of his shoes. In the "Captain Jack" episode, Wally and Beaver try to hide a baby alligator they bought by keeping it in their bathroom's toilet tank.

Beaver and girls Edit

Beaver's attitude toward girls is a thread that runs throughout the series, providing comic contrast to his brother's successful dating life and his parents' happy marriage. Beaver tells off his female classmates, telling Violet Rutherford she drinks gutter water, calling Linda Dennison a "smelly old ape" and threatening to punch Judy Hensler if she "gets mushy" on him. Though loathing girls his own age, Beaver develops crushes on schoolteachers Miss Canfield and Miss Landers, and in one episode says he's going to marry a "mother" when the time comes. [53] Beaver disparages marriage saying, "just because you're married doesn't mean you have to like girls." In the later seasons, Beaver has matured into a teen-ager, adjusted his outlook, and dates a few girls, though his dates are rarely as successful as Wally's.

Final episode Edit

In its first season on CBS (1957–58), Leave It To Beaver received disappointing Nielsen ratings and CBS canceled it. ABC then picked up the program, and although the series never entered the list of the top 30 television shows, its ratings were nonetheless solid enough to warrant a five-year run. By the start of the 1962–63 season, the show was reaching an impasse. The series was still popular with audiences, but Jerry Mathers wanted to retire from acting at the end of the sixth year to attend regular high school. As a result, Leave It To Beaver ended its network run on June 20, 1963. The series finale, "Family Scrapbook", was directed by Hugh Beaumont, written by Connelly and Mosher, and is regarded as being one of the first sitcom episodes written expressly as a series finale. [2]

Cast appearances on Lassie Edit

Several Leave It to Beaver performers appeared on the CBS television series Lassie. Hugh Beaumont had yet to snag his role as Ward Cleaver when he appeared in "The Well", one of the two pilots filmed for the series. [54] The episode was filmed in color and aired monochromatically in the series' first season (1954). In 1968, Jerry Mathers appeared in "Lassie and the 4-H Boys", an episode about two teen brothers quarreling over the disposition of a prize-winning bull, [55] while, the same year, Tony Dow appeared with Jan-Michael Vincent as a hippie-type character in a three-part story called "Hanford's Point". [56] Stephen Talbot (Gilbert) was featured in two episodes of "Lassie" in 1959, "The Flying Machine" and "Growing Pains," and a third in 1960, "The Big Race". Before their commitments to Leave It to Beaver, "Tiger" Fafara appeared in one Lassie episode [57] while Madge Blake made appearances in two episodes. [58] [59] In the 1960–61 season, Richard Correll played Steve Johnson, one of Timmy Martin's Calverton friends in two episodes. [60] [61] Ken Osmond played a delivery boy in a season two episode [62] and a smart-aleck kid whose carelessness causes a forest fire in the season four episode "The Cub Scout". [63]

Reunion telemovie (1983) Edit

Except for Beaumont, who had died in 1982, and Stanley Fafara, who was replaced as Whitey by Ed Begley, Jr., the main cast appeared in the reunion telemovie Still the Beaver (1983). The film followed adult Beaver's struggle to reconcile his recent divorce and single parenthood, while facing the possibility of his widowed mother selling their childhood home. June Cleaver is later elected to the Mayfield City Council.

Sequel series (1984–1989) Edit

The enthusiastic reception to Still the Beaver led to a new first-run, made-for-cable TV series, The New Leave It to Beaver (1984–1989), with Beaver and Lumpy Rutherford now running Ward's old firm (where Lumpy's pompous, demanding father – played by Richard Deacon in the original series and reunion movie before his death in 1984 – had been the senior partner), Wally, who married his high school girlfriend Mary Ellen Rogers, as a practicing attorney and expectant father, and June having sold the old house to Beaver himself but living with him as a doting grandmother to Beaver's two young sons. Eddie Haskell runs his own contracting business and has two sons eldest son Freddie (played by Ken Osmond's real-life son, Eric Osmond), who was every inch his father's son – right down to the two-faced personality, and a younger son, Eddie, Jr., aka "Bomber" (played by Osmond's younger real-life son, Christian Osmond), who was often away at military school, but would periodically return home to visit.

Broadcast history Edit

The show proved to be a scheduling headache for CBS and ABC, airing on four different evenings (Wednesday through Saturday) during the series' run. [64]

CBS first broadcast the show on Friday, October 4, 1957, at 7:30 pm (EST) opposite Saber of London on NBC and The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin on ABC. In March 1958, Beaver was moved to Wednesdays at 8:00 pm opposite Wagon Train, then on NBC.

CBS dropped the show after one season. ABC picked it up and ran it for another five seasons, from October 2, 1958, to June 20, 1963. In his memoirs, Jerry Mathers states the move was the decision of the sponsor, Ralston Purina, who arranged a better deal with ABC than with CBS. [3]

On ABC, the show saw several time slots over its run. From October 1958 to June 1959 it aired on Thursdays at 7:30 pm (EST), with summer 1959 reruns airing at 9:00 pm. From October 1959 to September 1962 the show was televised Saturdays at 8:30 pm, and during its last season (1962–63) the show aired Thursdays at 8:30 pm.

The series entered syndication in many cities four days following completion of the ABC summer repeats. By the mid-1970s, the show was only on in a few markets, one of which was Atlanta, Georgia on Ted Turner's Channel 17, WTCG. In 1976, when WTCG went on satellite and became a Superstation available nationwide, Leave It To Beaver was exposed nationwide. From the late 1970s to the mid-1980s, the series gained new popularity. In Chicago, reruns originally aired on second-tier independent station WSNS. But when WSNS began to phase in subscription TV in 1980, they did not renew and WGN-TV, which also became a Superstation, picked it up. So in the early 1980s the show was airing in most large, major, and medium TV markets. It also aired on CBN from 1981 until 1984. Still, TBS and WGN showed it for many years in the late 1980s and into the 90s (TBS sometimes running it back-to-back with the New Leave It to Beaver on occasion), and briefly on Nick at Nite from July 12, 2002, to August 10, 2002, as part of TV Land Sampler. [65] It aired on TV Land from July 1998 to November 2012. Today, NBC Universal Television owns the syndication rights and all properties related to the series.

The show also aired on the digital TV network Retro TV from 2006 to July 2011, when Retro's rights to MCA/Universal product expired. Digital TV network Antenna TV picked the series up and ran it from October 3, 2011, to April 27, 2013, [66] when it moved over to MeTV [67] On January 5, 2015, the series moved back to Antenna TV, airing on weekday afternoons. It returned to MeTV on January 2, 2017.

In early 2014, Netflix video streaming service acquired rights for all six seasons. The broadcast rights were for one year. The seasons were remastered for digital TV. All of 6 seasons are available for purchase through the Amazon Prime video on demand service. In 2020 NBCUniversal launched their own streaming service Peacock which carries all six seasons.

Marketing and merchandise Edit

During the show's first run, merchandise including novels, records, and board games was generated for the juvenile market. With the show's renaissance in popularity decades later, merchandise produced was aimed toward the adult babyboomer/nostalgia collectors market and included pinback buttons, clocks, greeting cards, calendars, non-fiction books about the show's production, memoirs, and miscellaneous items. In 1983, Jerry Mathers and Tony Dow appeared on boxes of Kellogg's Corn Flakes. In 2007, one of the cereal boxes fetched $300 at auction. Promotional photographs from the studio, autographs, original scripts, copies of TV Guide and other magazines from the period featuring articles about the show are all collectibles. Props and costumes from the show with documentation establishing provenance are highly prized.

Books Edit

During the series' run, Little Golden Books published Leave It to Beaver (1959), an inexpensive storybook for young children. Distinguished children's author Beverly Cleary published three softcover novels based on the series, Leave It to Beaver (1960), Here's Beaver! (1961), and Beaver and Wally (1961). Whitman Publishing printed Leave It to Beaver: Fire! (1962), a hardcover novel by Cole Fanin. In 1983, The Beaver Papers (ISBN 0-517-54991-3) by Will Jacobs and Gerard Jones was published. The book is a parody of a lost season comprising twenty-five episodes written in the style of various authors such as Tennessee Williams, Ernest Hemingway, and William Faulkner – a 30th Anniversary Edition was published in 2013 by Atomic Drop Press.

Dell comic books Edit

Dell Comics published six Leave It to Beaver comic books with photo covers of Beaver, Beaver and Wally, or Beaver and Ward. The first comic book (Four Color No. 912) is dated June 1958 and the last (Four Color No. 01-428-207) May–July 1962. In 2004, all six Dell Leave It to Beaver comic books in 'Near Mint' condition were valued in excess of two hundred dollars each. [68]

Hasbro board games Edit

Three Leave It to Beaver juvenile board games were released in 1959 by toymaker Hasbro. The games were typical roll-and-move track games for two to four players. All three game box covers feature photographic portraits of Jerry Mathers as Beaver.

"Leave It to Beaver Money Maker Game" suggests one of the show's recurrent themes – Beaver's attempts to make money. Equipment includes a center-seamed board with illustrations of Beaver and Ward. One player distributes and collects money as "Father".

"Leave It to Beaver Rocket to the Moon Space Game", rather than using dice or a spinner to advance players along the track, employs a rocket-shaped cone that is flipped onto a board to determine the number of spaces to be moved. "Leave It to Beaver Ambush Game" is a track game with an Old West theme.

Feature film adaptation Edit

1997's movie adaptation of the series starred Christopher McDonald as Ward, Janine Turner as June, Erik von Detten as Wally, and Cameron Finley as the Beaver. It was panned by many critics, with the notable exception of Roger Ebert, who gave it a three-star rating. It performed poorly at the box office, earning only $11,713,605. Barbara Billingsley, Ken Osmond, and Frank Bank made cameo appearances in the film.

Home media Edit

Universal Studios released the first two seasons of Leave It to Beaver on DVD in Region 1 in 2005/2006. Season one was released in two versions: an inexpensive cardboard slip-cased collection and a costlier version in which the DVDs were contained in a retro-styled, plastic photo album tucked inside a plaid metal lunch box displaying portraits of the cast on its exterior. Both of these seasons were released in the troublesome DVD-18 format which plagued many of Universal Studios' boxed set releases.

On January 26, 2010, it was announced that Shout! Factory had acquired the rights to the series (under license from Universal). They subsequently released the remaining seasons on DVD as well as a complete series box set. [69]

On January 31, 2012, Shout! Factory released a 20 episode best-of set titled Leave It to Beaver: 20 Timeless Episodes. [70]

DVD name Ep # Release date Ref(s)
The Complete First Season 39 November 22, 2005 [71]
The Complete Second Season 39 May 2, 2006 [72]
Season Three 39 June 15, 2010 [73]
Season Four 39 September 14, 2010 [74]
Season Five 39 December 14, 2010 [75]
Season Six 39 March 1, 2011 [76]
The Complete Series 234 June 29, 2010 [77]

Ratings Edit

In spite of solid and consistent ratings, Leave It to Beaver never climbed into the Nielsen's top-30 though similar sitcoms of the period such as Father Knows Best, The Donna Reed Show, The Real McCoys, and Dennis the Menace managed to do so.

Leave It to Beaver faced stiff competition in its time slots. During its next to last season, for example, the show ran against The Defenders, a program examining highly charged courtroom cases about abortion and the death penalty. In its final season, the show was up against Perry Mason and Dr. Kildare but was in the ABC line-up with television greats The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, The Donna Reed Show, and My Three Sons. [2]

Critical response Edit

Critical reception of the series was generally favorable. In the New York Herald Tribune, John Crosby stated the show was "charming and sincere" and featured "the wonderful candor and directness with which children disconcert and enchant you". Variety favorably compared the premiere episode with the classic Tom Sawyer and noted at the fourth season's opening that the show had "never been a yock show in the sense of generating big and sustained laughs, but it has consistently poured forth warmth, wit and wisdom without condescension or pretense." TV Guide dubbed the show "the sleeper of the 1957–58 season" and later noted that the show was "one of the most honest, most human and most satisfying situation comedies on TV". The New York Times, however, found the show was "too broad and artificial to be persuasive". [2]

A comparison of how children interact with their brothers and sisters on such 1950s situation comedy television programs as Leave It To Beaver and Father Knows Best with those on such 1980s programs as The Cosby Show and Family Ties found that children interacted more positively in the 1950s but were more central to the main story action in the 1980s. [78]

Awards and nominations Edit

The show received two Emmy nominations in 1958 for Best New Program Series of the Year and Best Teleplay Writing—Half Hour or Less (Joe Connelly and Bob Mosher) for the premiere episode, "Beaver Gets 'Spelled". In 1984, Jerry Mathers was awarded the Young Artist's Former Child Star Special Award, and in 1987, Ken Osmond and Tony Dow were both honored with the Young Artist's Former Child Star Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2003, Diane Brewster was nominated for TV Land's Classic TV Teacher of the Year Award while, in 2005, Ken Osmond was nominated for TV Land's Character Most Desperately in Need of a Timeout Award. Leave It to Beaver placed on Time's "The 100 Best TV Shows of All-Time" list. Bravo ranked Beaver 74th on their list of the 100 greatest TV characters. [79] In 1999, TV Guide ranked Eddie Haskell number 20 on its "50 Greatest TV Characters of All Time" list. [80]


OBJECT HISTORY: Beaver Felt Hat

The beaver felt hat was one of the main reasons for the success of the fur trade in northern states, such as Wisconsin, and Canada. But why was this hat more popular than others? Clothing allows for people to choose their own style while still holding the everyday role of providing covering. The pieces you choose to wear can be a public display of your social status. What is social status? It is your position within a community or society and can be based on different factors: age, education, wealth, job, where you live, etc. For Europeans in the 16th century, a broad-brimmed felted beaver hat was considered the latest ‘fad’ or fashion trend and was a “social necessity”. These hats were not only waterproof but also lasted a long time. Beaver hats held both their shape and color longer than objects that were made from another animals’ fur or simply cloth. Is there something in your life that you would call a social necessity?

In order to make one of these hats, the hat maker needed beaver furs or pelts. Because of the high demand in hats, by the late 1500’s, the beaver was extinct in western Europe and was close to extinction in Scandinavia and Russia. But because of European expansion into the Americas, a new source of beaver pelts was found. This sparked what is known as the Fur Trade. Beaver was not only plentiful, but the animals in what is now considered the northern states and into Canada had a denser, richer coat because of the colder climate. Do you choose clothing because of how they feel or by color?

The Europeans who worked for the trading companies had help from the native peoples, who knew the landscape better and could provide tips on how to hunt beaver. Native Americans took their furs to trading posts or buildings that supplied things to trade. This means that people would offer objects, such as beaver furs, in exchange for another item, such as wool, axes, beads, and silk. These buildings provided the native people with items that were unavailable to them before. There were European goods and objects that the Native Americans did not have the technology to create on their own. Today, most items are stamped with the country that made them. Even our clothing has a “made in” label.

By the 1820’s, the beaver population in North America was so low that the Hudson’s Bay Company introduced some of the first conservation measures to help increase the population. But what really saved the animal was a change in European fashion. The silk top hat became popular at the end of the 1830’s. Silk became more fashionable and people no longer wanted beaver hats. Material objects go in and out of fashion over time and these trends can have a greater impact. Is there an item that you used to wear all the time but has been replaced by something new?


Beaver & Krause

Composers and synth players Paul Beaver and Bernie Krause were among the most high-profile electronic music acts of the late '60s, recording a series of LPs distinguished not only by their groundbreaking…
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Artist Biography by Jason Ankeny

Composers and synth players Paul Beaver and Bernie Krause were among the most high-profile electronic music acts of the late '60s, recording a series of LPs distinguished not only by their groundbreaking studio advances but also by the presence of notables including Gerry Mulligan and Mike Bloomfield. Krause -- a onetime member of the legendary folk group the Weavers -- was working as a staff producer at Elektra Records when he met Beaver, a former jazz musician under the name Beaver & Krause, they began assembling electronic pieces employing spoken-word passages, acoustic instruments, tape loops, and improvisational techniques, debuting in 1968 with The Nonesuch Guide to Electronic Music. After 1969's Ragnarok Electric Funk, the duo issued In a Wild Sanctuary a year later 1971's Gandharva -- recorded live in San Francisco's Grace Cathedral and featuring cameos from Mulligan and Bloomfield as well as Bud Shank and Ronnie Montrose -- was the most popular of their releases. After 1972's All Good Men, Beaver recorded the solo LP Perchance to Dream sadly, it was his final work -- he suffered a fatal heart attack on January 16, 1975 at the age of 49. Krause later resurfaced as a noted expert in environmental sound recording.


Beaver

A number of exploring parties had traveled through Beaver Valley before anyone seriously looked at it as a potential location for settlement. In the winter of 1856, George A. Smith, a Mormon apostle and a representative to the territorial legislature from Parowan, noted that the area could potentially provide good pasturage for cattle. Nearby canyons also had abundant timber for lumber and available water for a mill. That same month, February, a colonization party arrived in the Beaver River Valley, leaving their homes in Parowan thirty-five miles to the south. The settlers included Simeon F. Howd, captain Wilson G. Nowers, James P. Anderson, Edward W. Thompson, Ross R. Rogers, H. S. Alexander, John M. Davis, Charles Carter, John Henderson, Barney Carter, James Duke, John Knowles, Joseph Goff, James Low, Benson Lewis, and their families. The next month, George A. Smith arrived to appoint Simeon F. Howd as the presiding elder, the senior religious leader of the group.

The initial land division consisted of sixteen ten-acre lots. By May, water for irrigation had been directed from the river to the east and conducted in a newly constructed ditch to the northeast corner of the survey, crossing the public square on a diagonal. Soon, modest wood frame homes and a wooden fence around the entire surveyed area, with a wooden schoolhouse in the center of town, marked the fledgling community as a place where people had come to stay. Beaver was formally incorporated on 10 January 1867.

That same year, the first Beaver County court was held in Beaver. In 1858 Beaver’s population received a boost from Mormons leaving San Bernardino, California, at the onset of the Utah War. In 1886 the inhabitants of Circleville abandoned their community because of the Black Hawk War and made their homes in Beaver.

In September 1873 the United States Army built a military barracks—Fort Cameron—at Beaver. It was located on the north side of the Beaver River about one mile from the mouth of the canyon. The post included four company barracks, a guard house, commissary, hospital, and officers’ quarters, many of which were constructed with the distinctive black rock taken from the nearby mountains.

Beaver is known for its stone houses and public buildings. The Beaver Co-op was the largest Utah mercantile establishment south of Salt Lake City for a number of years. Constructed with black igneous rock quarried in the mountains east of Beaver in 1872, this two-story store was a branch of the LDS church’s ZCMI. The foundation of the Beaver County Courthouse, built in 1882, is also black rock, but the upper stories are constructed of a beautiful red brick. The building’s clock tower and simple classical detail make it a prominent landmark in Beaver County.

Beaver always played a prominent role in education in the county. Besides local public schools, a number of private institutions were built here. In 1898 the LDS church established the Murdock Academy in the old Fort Cameron structures. This church school was a branch of the Brigham Young Academy at Provo. The Beaver LDS Stake was given the responsibility for the renovation of the properties, and a principal, E. D. Partridge, was sent to Beaver from Provo to lead the school. By the beginning of its second week, one hundred students had enrolled for the two-year high school course. The school functioned until May 1922.

Agriculture and stock raising were the two principal industries during the nineteenth century in Beaver. Nevertheless, in this most significant town south of Provo, Beaver’s retail businesses also played a prominent role in the economic life of the region. Beaver functioned as a supply station for prospectors who were scouring the nearby mountains for ore. A number of woolen mills, tanneries, harness shops, shoe shops, flour mills, photographic galleries, lumber mills, tailors, carding shops, and a variety of other types of local businesses helped Beaver to maintain a thriving local economy.

Beaver is also a significant gateway to local canyons and mountain ranges. The Tushar Range to the east of Beaver, for example, has abundant resources for fishing, hunting, and camping. Puffer Lake and the other lakes situated in the mountains adjoining Beaver are popular destinations for fishermen and sports enthusiasts from around the region. Located on Interstate 15 at an elevation of 5,970 feet, Beaver is a place with a colorful past, a pleasing climate, and ample opportunities for employment. In addition to agriculture, dairying, cattle raising, and service enterprises, mines like the sulphur mines twenty miles to the north continue to augment and diversify the local economy. In 1990 Beaver had a population of 1,998.


Beaver County PA Cemetery Records

NOTE: Additional records that apply to Beaver County are also on the Pennsylvania Cemetery Records page.

Note: Burial locations are often listed in death records and obituaries.

Beaver County Cemetery Records

Beaver Cemetery Billion Graves

Hopewell-Hebron Cemetery Billion Graves

Saint Matthew Lutheran Church Cemetery Billion Graves

Aliquippa Cemetery Records

Mount Olivet Catholic Cemetery Billion Graves

Mount Olivet Presbyterian Church Cemetery Billion Graves

Saint Elijah Serbian Orthodox Cemetery Billion Graves

Ambridge Cemetery Records

Ambridge Heights Cemetery Records

Baden Cemetery Records

Concord Presbyterian Church Cemetery Billion Graves

Hill Cemetery Billion Graves

Saint John Parish Cemetery Billion Graves

Beaver Cemetery Records

Hanover Pioneer US Gen Web Archives

Beaver Falls Cemetery Records

Big Beaver Cemetery Records

Grandview Cemetery Billion Graves

Rocky Spring Cemetery Billion Graves

Cannelton Cemetery Records

Center in Beaver County Cemetery Records

Darlington Cemetery Records

Duff Cemetery US Gen Web Archives

Seceder United Presbyterian Cemetery Billion Graves

East Rochester Cemetery Records

Economy Cemetery Records

Economy Cemetery Billion Graves

Rehoboth Lutheran Church Billion Graves

Ellwood City in Beaver County Cemetery Records

Locust Grove Cemetery Billion Graves

Providence Cemetery Billion Graves

Fombell Cemetery Records

Frankfort Springs Cemetery Records

Frankfort Springs Presbyterian Church Billion Graves

Franklin in Beaver County Cemetery Records

Freedom Cemetery Records

Hendrickson Billion Graves

Georgetown in Beaver County Cemetery Records

Mill Creek Hill Cemetery Billion Graves

Tomlinson Run United Presbyterian Cemetery Billion Graves

Greene in Beaver County Cemetery Records

Old Mill Creek Cemetery Billion Graves

Hanover in Beaver County Cemetery Records

Harshaville Cemetery Records

Holt Cemetery Records

Homewood Cemetery Records

Hookstown Cemetery Records

Hopewell in Beaver County Cemetery Records

Raccoon Church Cemetery Billion Graves

Independence in Beaver County Cemetery Records

Industry Cemetery Records

Oak Grove Cemetery Billion Graves

Kendall Cemetery Records

Koppel Cemetery Records

Lillyville Cemetery Records

Little Beaver Cemetery Records

Midland Cemetery Records

Monaca Cemetery Records

Union Cemetery Billion Graves

New Brighton Cemetery Records

Grove Cemetery Billion Graves

Saint Joseph Cemetery Billion Graves

New Galilee Cemetery Records

Mount Pleasant Cemetery Billion Graves

North Sewickley Cemetery Records

North Sewickley Cemetery Billion Graves

Northern Chippewa Cemetery Records

Old Stone Methodist Episcopal Church US Gen Web Archives

Old Stone Methodist Episcopal Church: Northern Chippewa Twp, Beaver Co, PA US Gen Web Archives

Ohioville Cemetery Records

Raccoon Cemetery Records

Rochester Cemetery Records

Sylvania Hills Memorial Park Billion Graves

Shippingport Cemetery Records

South Beaver Cemetery Records

Stobo Cemetery Records

Wall Rose Cemetery Records

How to Use This Site Video

Pennsylvania Map

Beaver County shown in red

Research Tip

Cemetery records typically list a person's name and birth and death dates. Family members were often buried near each other. Some people buried in a cemetery may not have a current tombstone marker.


Beaver

The original brig Beaver, like the Dartmouth, was built and owned by the Rotch’s, an affluent Nantucket Quaker family. The Beaver was a whaling vessel built in 1772 by Ichabod Thomas at the Brick Kiln Yard on the banks of the North River near Situate, Massachusetts. Similar to other merchant vessels of the time, the Beaver was about 85 feet long with a beam of nearly 24 feet. The draft of the Beaver could not exceed nine feet because Nantucket Harbor had a sand bar across its mouth, which as a result, set the maximum size for vessels of that port. The patriarch of the Rotch family dynasty was Joseph Rotch who was born in Salisbury, England on May 6, 1704, and later immigrated to the American colonies. Joseph Rotch was a shoemaker by trade and moved from Salem, Massachusetts to Nantucket Island in 1725. It was on Nantucket where Joseph Rotch became a Quaker, put shoemaking aside and became involved in the island’s foremost industry – whaling. Joseph Rotch had a reputation for being a fair and honest businessman additionally, he was a leader in his church. Joseph Rotch had three sons, all born on Nantucket Island: William (b. 1734), Joseph Jr. (b. 1743), and Francis (b. 1750), and he brought them into his business in 1753. On the eve of the American Revolution, the Rotch family along with Aaron Lopez, a prominent Portuguese Jew involved in the whaling industry from Newport, Rhode Island, had a fleet of fifteen vessels engaged in the whaling industry. The Rotch family controlled and handled every aspect of the whaling industry. They owned their own fleet of ships, hired captains and crews, scheduled voyages, did their own accounting, assessed monetary exchange rates, graded whale oil, and determined when the most profitable times were to ship whale oil and bone to markets. At the time of the Boston Tea Party, the headquarters and offices of the Rotch family were a brick counting house established in 1772 by William Rotch located at the foot of Main Street on Nantucket Island. The original building still stands today and is now known as The Pacific Club, a name given by captains of the Pacific whaling fleet in 1854.

Captain Hezekiah Coffin, a Quaker mariner, commanded the Beaver at the time of the Boston Tea Party, and her homeport was the whaling capital of New England, Nantucket Island. The maiden voyage of the Beaver was from Nantucket to London, England to deliver a shipment of whale oil. Both the Beaver and Dartmouth were docked in London after delivering their shipments of whale oil. Both ships were looking for return cargos, when their captains unwittingly agreed to transport the British East India Company tea to Boston. The Beaver, with her cargo of 112 chests of British East India Company tea, arrived at Griffin’s Wharf in Boston on Wednesday, December 15, 1773 – the day before the Boston Tea Party. The Beaver was the last of the three Tea Party Ships to arrive in Boston because she was delayed as a result of a case of smallpox which broke out onboard and was held in quarantine for two weeks in Boston’s outer harbor.

After the Boston Tea Party

In February 1774, the Beaver sailed from Nantucket to London, England to deliver a shipment of whale oil. Onboard was British East India Company consignee, Jonathan Clarke. Clarke was summoned to Whitehall by Lord Dartmouth to give testimony regarding the Boston Tea Party – “the late transaction in Boston.” The Beaver’s captain, Hezekiah Coffin, died while in England and the Beaver was sold. There are no records of what happened to the Beaver after the sale.

In 1791, another vessel named the Beaver also from Nantucket and built earlier that year by Ichabod Thomas on the banks of the North River, was the first American whaler to round Cape Horn and sail into Pacific waters. This pioneering whaling voyage around the treacherous Cape Horn and into Pacific waters lasted for seventeen months, and the Beaver was crewed by seventeen men and commanded by Captain Worth.

The Replica

The replica Beaver was originally built as a schooner in 1908 in Marstal on the island of Aero in Denmark. The schooner was used for freighting and fishing. Her voyage to the United States Bicentennial was nearly a disaster when hot exhaust ignited old timbers in the stern. With flames shooting out of the hatches, the fire crept close to the fuel supply. A lengthy bucket brigade finally contained the blaze. Following repairs in Weymouth, England, she finished the voyage to the United States. She first made port in Nantucket and then arrived at her homeport in Boston in 1973.

Major Improvements Being Made

Today, at the nation’s oldest marine railway, Gloucester Marine Railway in Gloucester, Massachusetts, the Beaver is undergoing a major rebuild. The vessel has been given:

  • Completely new frames & bow
  • New hull planks from the water line up
  • New bulwarks, deck, masts and rigging

To better replicate the appearance of the original Beaver, researchers found the ship Columbia, famous in her day for the exploration of the Pacific Northwest, was the same size as the Beaver. The Columbia and the Beaver were built in a neighboring shipyard on the banks of the North River the same year. Since both vessels were built in such close size, proximity and time, we can safely assume the Beaver and Columbia must have looked very much alike. Commanded by Captain John Kendrick, the Columbia explored the mouth of the Columbia River and the Pacific Northwest in 1791. This voyage was the nautical equivalent of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The Columbia was also the first American ship to sail around the world proudly flying the nation’s new flag. Due to her fame, Columbia is well documented. Based on period drawings and sketches of Columbia and her illustrated log books, and other such vessels of her day, the look of the Beaver is being significantly altered during the current reconstruction to more closely resemble her sister ship, Columbia. As a result of the redesign and reconstruction, the Beaver will be more historically accurate than ever before.


Our History

(1853) In December, a charter was granted to Beaver Female Seminary in Beaver, PA., planting the seeds of the future Arcadia University.

(1884) First May Day dance and pageant celebration.

(1889) A four-year degree program is instituted for women in May, and internationally known author Rudyard Kipling visits.

(1907) In July, the Beaver Female Seminary officially changes its name to Beaver College.

(1929) Beaver College acquires the 30-acre Harrison estate in March of this year, allowing the college to grow to offer women more opportunities.

(1948) In June, a group of students journey to Europe to study international development after World War II.

(1953) Beaver College celebrates 100 years and Beaver College's Women's Field Hockey team is undefeated in their season.

(1973) Beaver College becomes co-educational, admitting men to the fall semester, and begins to offer graduate programs.

(1977) A groundbreaking Writing Across the Curriculum program begins at the College. It greatly influences an educational movement throughout the U.S. that encourages writing in classes outside of English courses.

(1984) Grey Towers Castle, the centerpiece of Arcadia's campus, is designated a National Historic Landmark in February.

(1993) Beaver College joins the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III. By 2014, there are 17 women's and men's competing.

(2001) Beaver College attains university status and officially changes its name to Arcadia University, the name of a region of Ancient Greece that reflects the University's commitment to vigorous intellectual exploration.

(2003) Dr. Bette E. Landman receives President Emerita status. She began her tenure in 1985 and reinvigorated the University by doubling enrollment and leading transformative projects such as the construction of seven new buildings.

(2009) In June, the University establishes six academic colleges and schools, including the College of Global Studies as the first full-fledged college of a University dedicated to international education.

(2011) The At Home & In the World campaign reached its successful conclusion, contributing to the building of the University Commons, supported by a leadership gift from Lois E. Haber '71, Board Chair 2005-2010.

(2014) Arcadia University celebrates its first Investiture Ceremony, where Walter and Rosemary Deniken Blankley '57 endow the first Chair for the School of Education.

Two centuries ago, at the bucolic confluence of the Ohio and Beaver Rivers in the westernmost part of Pennsylvania, the French established a trading post, where members of the Delaware, Shawnee, and Iroquois tribes bartered with European traders. The rivers were essential for travel, sustenance, and military defense, and General McIntosh of Washington’s Colonial Army built a fort at this place during the Revolutionary War.

As the area’s population expanded, McIntosh's fort became the town of Beaver, Pa. There, in 1853, an intellectual outpost was formed—a school to teach such liberal arts as ancient history, rhetoric, and logic at a time when there were few higher education institutions open to young women.

The school attained collegiate status in 1872. By 1925, Beaver College had experienced such tremendous growth that the school moved to a more adequate campus in Jenkintown, Pa., with larger facilities and greater opportunities for development. The change resulted in such an increase in enrollment that the Board of Trustees imposed limitations on annual enrollment to maintain the advantages of a small college.

Needing additional property to accommodate its expansion, the Trustees of Beaver College secured a nearby estate known as Grey Towers in 1928. Located in Glenside, Pa., a suburb of metropolitan Philadelphia, the estate offered spacious property and dignified facades. This change in scenery proved its worth when Beaver College became an accredited institution in 1946. The school operated both the Jenkintown and Glenside campuses into the mid-1960s, when it consolidated all activities onto the Grey Towers property.

In July 2001 the school was granted University status, and the Board of Trustees approved a historic decision to change the name of Beaver College to Arcadia University.

Today, as a leader in study abroad and a pioneer in international education, Arcadia University encourages students to engage in integrative, real-world learning opportunities such as internships, evidence-based research, service projects, interdisciplinary study, problem-based learning, and co-curricular experiences that expand beyond the traditional classroom. More than 2,500 undergraduate and 1,400 graduate students are enrolled at Arcadia’s Glenside, Pa., and Christiana, Del., campuses in more than 65 fields of study.

The College of Global Studies at Arcadia University, officially opened in 2009, offers study abroad programs through more than 130 programs in 12 countries to students from colleges and universities across the U.S., in addition to Arcadia undergraduates. The Institute for International Education's Open Doors Report has ranked Arcadia University #1 in the U.S. for study abroad participation for eight consecutive years.

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Commencement 2021

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Marion Rosenbaum ’68 Charles W. Null and Catherine T. Null Memorial Endowed Scholarship recipient, Noxolo Heleni ’21 Kerry Costello-Leraris ’92, ’94MEd, Alumni Association President Fulfilling the Promise Retention Fund recipient, Terrence Finley ’22, and his father, Daniel Finley, connect during the Celebration of Scholarship event.

Donor, Kerry Costello-Leraris ’92, ’94MEd with Charles W. Null and Catherine T. Null Memorial Endowed Scholarship recipient, Noxolo Heleni ’21.

Recipient of the Charles L. Moulton Mathematics Scholarship, Long Nguyen ’20 and donor, Dr. Linda Moulton.

Vice President for Development and Alumni Relations, Brigette A. Bryant Fulfilling the Promise Retention Fund recipient, Stephanie Gonzalez ’22 and Trustee Emerita, Beverly Rappaport Goldberg ’53.

Alma Alabilikian ’58, Barbara Jones Sibley ’58, Vice President for Development and Alumni Relations Brigette A. Bryant, and Pat Fletcher Lyford ’58. Of the six endowed class scholarships, The Class of 1958 has raised the most of any class in Arcadia’s history.

Mrs. Paayal Nair and President Ajay Nair with Child Care of Montgomery County, Inc. Endowed Scholarship recipient, Aliyah Pulley ’23, and Joan Thomas Martin ’64 Scholarship recipient, Aimee Rouff ’22.

Child Care of Montgomery County, Inc. Endowed Scholarship recipient and keynote speaker, Aliyah Pulley ’23, addresses students and donors during the Celebration of Scholarship.

Celebration of Scholarship Event

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The Office of Study away hosted a study abroad fair where students could explore the variety of study abroad programs offered to them.

The Office of Study away hosted a study abroad fair where students could explore the variety of study abroad programs offered to them.

The Office of Study away hosted a study abroad fair where students could explore the variety of study abroad programs offered to them.

Arcadia faculty showcased their musical talents as part of the First Fridays in the Castle concert series which takes place on the first Friday of the month.

Arcadia faculty showcased their musical talents as part of the First Fridays in the Castle concert series which takes place on the first Friday of the month.

On Valentine's Day, students volunteering with Counseling Services dressed as fairies and promoted sexual health.

On Valentine's Day, students volunteering with Counseling Services dressed as fairies and promoted sexual health.

The Arcadia University Alumni Association invited Class of 2020 undergraduate and graduate students to kick off the countdown to graduation with 87 Knights to Commencement. Held 87 days before Commencement, students are encouraged to invite any special and influential faculty or staff members to join them for the celebration to thank them for helping to provide a valuable experience during their time at Arcadia.

The Arcadia University Alumni Association invited Class of 2020 undergraduate and graduate students to kick off the countdown to graduation with 87 Knights to Commencement. Held 87 days before Commencement, students are encouraged to invite any special and influential faculty or staff members to join them for the celebration to thank them for helping to provide a valuable experience during their time at Arcadia.

Arcadia University hosted a semi-formal and formal dress sale from Feb. 21st-March 1st to benefit area high school students. Proceeds from the sale went to The Covenant House, a nonprofit organization that provides shelter and support services for homeless and displaced adolescents.

Arcadia University hosted a semi-formal and formal dress sale from Feb. 21st-March 1st to benefit area high school students. Proceeds from the sale went to The Covenant House, a nonprofit organization that provides shelter and support services for homeless and displaced adolescents.

Arcadia University hosted a semi-formal and formal dress sale from Feb. 21st-March 1st to benefit area high school students. Proceeds from the sale went to The Covenant House, a nonprofit organization that provides shelter and support services for homeless and displaced adolescents.

The Office of Institutional Diversity, ACT 101/ Gateway to Success Program, and the Pan African Studies Department held the African American Read on February 26th. This Read-In is a national event that is dedicated to diversity in literature. It is the first and oldest event to promote literature diversity. It was established in 1990 to make literacy a significant part of Black History Month.

The Office of Institutional Diversity, ACT 101/ Gateway to Success Program, and the Pan African Studies Department held the African American Read on February 26th. This Read-In is a national event that is dedicated to diversity in literature. It is the first and oldest event to promote literature diversity. It was established in 1990 to make literacy a significant part of Black History Month.

The Office of Institutional Diversity, ACT 101/ Gateway to Success Program, and the Pan African Studies Department held the African American Read on February 26th. This Read-In is a national event that is dedicated to diversity in literature. It is the first and oldest event to promote literature diversity. It was established in 1990 to make literacy a significant part of Black History Month.


Beaver/Graham Rivalry

The Beaver-Graham Game (Beaver-Graham) is an annually played game between Bluefield High School and Graham High School. The game is held at Mitchell Stadium and usually brings a capacity crowd. The first game was played in 1911 and was one 17-5 by the Beavers. There have been 90 games between the schools, and Bluefield leads the series 64-24-2(.719). In 1991 the game was featured on ESPN by Scholastic Sports America which features some of the nation's most storied high school football rivalries.

Held annually as the first game of the season in an 80-year-old stadium, the Beaver-Graham football game may very well be one of the longest-running and well-known high school football rivalries in the United States. In the parking lot outside Mitchell Stadium, the atmosphere is more like a happy community reunion that straddles both sides of the West Virginia-Virginia State Line. If it's a heated rivalry on the football field, off the field it's unquestionably a friendly one. The first game between the Graham G-men and the Bluefield Beavers dates back to 1911. The two did not play each other again until 1928, but they have played every year since. The two towns come together for many events, but this is one where they separate and say pick a side.


Watch the video: One Hundred Years of the Royal Air Force. Paul Beaver