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Battle of the Wei River, November 204 BC
The battle of the Wei River (November 204 BC) was a major victory that saw the Han general Han Xin defeat a Chu army that had been sent to defend the kingdom of Qi, allowing the Han to occupy the kingdom of Qi, a strategically important location to the north of the Chu heartland.
Earlier in 204 BC Liu Bang had been forced to escape from the besieged city of Chenggao, and had sought refuge with one of his own armies, commanded by Han Xin. Having secured control of this army, Liu Bang decided to send Han Xin to attack the kingdom of Qi, in the north-east of China.
After sending Han Xin and his army, Liu Bang was convinced by Li Yi Ji, another of his advisors, to attempt to try and convince the king of Qi to change sides peacefully. Li Yi Ji’s mission was a success, but Han Xin either didn’t find out in time or chose to ignore the news, and attacked and defeated the Qi army at Lixia (204 BC). The king of Qi believed he had been betrayed. Li Yi Ji was boiled alive, and Qi then asked for assistance from Xiang Yu king of Chu. Xiang Yu send an army stated to have been 200,000 strong, under the command of Long Ju.
According to the ancient sources Long Ju had a very low opinion of Han Xin, believing him to be a coward (not something supported by his military track record). As a result Long Ju ignored an advisor who suggested that he avoid a battle, denying Han Xin any chance of a victory and hopefully forcing him to retreat.
By November 204 BC the two armies were facing each other across the Wei River, with the Han on the west bank and the Chu on the east bank. Under cover of darkness Han Xin sent part of his army up the river with 10,000 sand bags, which they used to partially dam the river. On the following morning the water levels in the river had dropped so far that Han Xin was able to cross over. He attacked the Chu army, but when Long Ju launched a counterattack Han Xin ordered his men to retreat as if they had been defeated.
Long Ju ordered his men to cross the river in pursuit. At a key moment Han Xin gave the signal and the sandbags were removed. The water levels rose, isolating Long Ju and a small part of his army on the west bank. Han Xin turned back and crushed Long Ju and his isolated men. Long Ju was killed in the battle, while Tian Guang, king of Qi, was captured and killed soon after the battle.
Tian Guang was succeeded by Tian Heng, but he was defeated in battle at Ying (204 BC). Tian Xi, the commander-in-chief of Qi, was defeated and killed at Qiansheng. Finally Tian Ji was attacked and killed, ending resistance in Qi.
In the aftermath of his triumph Han Xin asked to be made King of Qi, claiming that the area would revolt unless he was given this authority. Somewhat reluctantly Liu Bang acknowledged Han Xin as king of Qi. The events of 203-202 BC suggest that Han Xin now saw himself as at least semi-independent, for when Liu Bang summoned him to take part in the final campaign against Chu the new king didn’t turn up until he was offered a major extension to his kingdom.
Stylistic and historical development to 220 ce
The best evidence for early architecture in northern China comes from Neolithic villages such as Banpo, near present-day Xi’an, discovered in 1953 and datable to the 5th–4th millennia bce , revealing building systems not yet traditionally Chinese. Two types of buildings predominated within a village surrounded by a deeply dug moat: circular buildings with conical roofs, built above ground and square buildings with pyramidal roofs, which were semi-subterranean. Already, however, the thatched roofs were suspended by means of columns, beams, and raftering, while the wattle-and-daub walls were not weight-bearing, just as would be the case in later times. And, as at the Banshan Neolithic village in the 3rd millennium bce , cemeteries were already located in south-facing foothills to the north of the village, as was the ideal throughout much of later Chinese history.
Excavations of the Shang era at Luoyang, Zhengzhou, and Anyang have revealed an architecture that begins to take on traditional Chinese form: massive earthen walls surrounding emergent urban centres, rectilinear buildings set up on rammed-earth foundations (layers of earth pounded to stonelike hardness and durability), and postholes of timber buildings with wattle-and-daub walls (woven rods and twigs covered and plastered with clay) and thatched roofs. The largest building yet traced at Anyang is a timber hall about 30 metres (90 feet) long, the wooden pillars of which were set on stone socles, or bases, on a raised platform. Ordinary dwellings were partly sunk beneath ground level, as in Neolithic times, with deeper storage pits inside them. There is no sign of the structural use of brick or stone or of tile roofs in any of the Anyang sites. Along the banks of the Huan River to the northwest of modern Anyang, royal tombs consisted of huge, square, rammed-earth pits approached by two or four sloping ramps. Lined and roofed with timber, the tombs were sunk in the floor of the pit. Tomb walls and coloured impressions left on the earth by carved and painted timbers include zoomorphic motifs very similar to those on ritual bronze vessels (see metalwork: Non-Western). Traces of a painted clay wall found elsewhere at Anyang, in a royal stone- and jade-carving workshop, demonstrate that aboveground buildings were decorated with similar designs and indicate a uniformity of design principles and themes in virtually all media at that time, including ritual bronze decor.
Beginner’s guide to a Chinese classic: Romance of the Three Kingdoms
R omance of the Three Kingdoms is among the most widely-read and influential novels in the world, bringing together centuries of accumulated folk tales and popular elaborations relating to the Three Kingdoms period in ancient China (220–280 AD). The amalgamated version we read today is usually attributed to the fourteenth-century playwright Lo Kuan-Chung. Later editions added to this work, however, and by the seventeenth century the most widely-circulated version had acquired the immortal opening line: ‘Empires wax and wane states cleave asunder and coalesce.’
Partly becaus e the book relates to such a universal phenomenon, it continues to capture imaginations on a global scale. Chinese and Japanese culture has drawn heavily on the Three Kingdoms in poetry, artwork, theater, literature, and politics. In China, the novel has been adapted into multiple serialized television programs, as well as a string of blockbuster films, while in Japan and the West it has inspired a number of popular video games.
For the casual reader, however, the book can present a bewildering challenge. The most popular English edition tops out at 1,360 pages, despite being heavily abridged. Following all the countless narrative threads from start to finish requires multiple readings, especially as some of them seem insignificant at first. The reader is also given a dizzying list of names to memorize, including geographical locations and, for individuals, as many as three different names which may be used interchangeably. The writing style is not what most Western readers will be accustomed to: for example, detailed descriptive passages are used sparingly, and much of the scenery is not described at all. It is a shame for this remarkable story to go under-appreciated for such superficial reasons, but it does require some demystification. So what, exactly, is the book all about, and why does it still matter so much?
U ntil the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China was ruled by a millennia-long succession of imperial families. The history of the country is usually split into chunks named after the dynasty ruling at the time, such as the Zhou (1050–256 BC), the Han (206 BC-220 AD), and the Tang (618–906 AD). Each dynasty ascended to power after a period of upheaval and civil war, and ended in the same fashion after descending into weakness, corruption, and inefficiency. This process gave rise to a sense of inevitability and a feeling that all regimes have a limited lifespan — hence the inclusion of the line ‘Empires wax and wane’ in the edition that was circulated shortly after the fall of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644 AD).
The events of Romance of the Three Kingdoms take place during and after the demise the Han dynasty, which succeeded the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and before that the Zhou. The influence of Confucianism, a deeply hierarchical, patriarchal, and ritualized philosophy of social order formulated in the time of the late Zhou dynasty, can be felt throughout the Romance. Women, for instance, only become key actors when they are used as pawns to seduce enemies and destabilize states, or when they attempt to meddle in politics and thereby doom their own cause. All leading characters, meanwhile, have a strictly hierarchical view of the world. Nowhere are this themes more visible than in the opening chapters.
Readers are presented with a Han state that, through decades of misrule, has fallen into chaos. Instead of listening to learned advisers, recent emperors have let power fall into the hands of a group of eunuchs, leading the Heavens to inflict natural disasters and supernatural events upon China, and a visitation by a ‘monstrous black serpent’ upon the emperor.
We hear from one of the emperor’s ministers, who informs him that the recent happenings were ‘brought about by feminine interference in State affairs’. The social order has been neglected, leading to a general decay in the moral standing of state and country. Into this power vacuum comes a popular rebellion inspired by a mystical movement: the Yellow Turbans. The causes, composition, and objectives of the rebellion are left unexplored, and for the authors these details are inconsequential anyway — it merely serves as a narrative tool to demonstrate the extent of government weakness and set the scene for the introduction of the tale’s central heroes.
The Han government puts out a call to arms to defeat the Yellow turbans, and among those to answer the call is Liu Bei, a shoemaker who claims descent from the Han royal line and, together with his sworn warrior-brothers Guan Yu and Zhang Fei, goes on to found the Shu-Han state in south-western China — one of the Three Kingdoms. Liu Bei is the character with whom the authors seem to sympathize most, being portrayed as a just ruler who surrounds himself with able advisers and noble warriors.
Another to answer the call was Ts’ao Ts’ao, later the founder of the kingdom of Wei in northern China and an altogether more ruthless, cunning, and suspicious character. Although he takes on a villainous aura at times, his state would prove to be the base from which a new dynasty was ultimately founded.
The Yellow Turban rebellion is successfully defeated by this coalition, and the eunuchs too are deposed from their over-powerful position in the royal court. Into the power vacuum, however, comes another menace, Dong Zhuo — gluttonous, cruel, barbaric — who seizes possession of the young emperor Xian and therefore the levers of power. Another coalition of regional warlords, including Liu Bei and Ts’ao Ts’ao, is formed to challenge Dong, and at this point we meet the family behind the third of the Three Kingdoms — Sun Jian and his sons, Ce and Quan. Their kingdom would be called Wu, based south of the Yangtze river.
The coalition against Dong eventually breaks apart and fails, and he is instead killed by his own general when members of his court hatch a plot to involve the two of them in a love triangle. With Dong gone, China once again descends into a violent power-struggle. The list of petty regional lords and pretenders to the throne is gradually whittled down until there remains a triumvirate of challengers — Liu Bei’s Shu-Han, Ts’ao Ts’ao’s Wei, and Wu under the Sun family. What follows is an epic, winding tale of political and military intrigue, plots, assassinations, battles of wit, moral dilemmas, and an ever-changing web of alliances and loyalties. Each kingdom has its moments of triumph and disaster, and their rulers all declare themselves to be the sole legitimate emperor.
T here are four key moments that define the direction of the story following the founding of the Three Kingdoms. The first is the Battle of Red Cliffs (208 AD), fought on the Yangtze river between a Shu-Wu alliance and the vastly more numerous invading forces of Ts’ao Ts’ao. Liu Bei’s strategist, the legendary Zhuge Liang, prays for a favorable wind, enabling the allies to launch a daring fire attack and burn the Wei navy. This victory halts Ts’ao’s momentum, but Shu and Wu eventually fall out over territorial disputes, and one of Sun Quan’s generals later kills Liu Bei’s beloved brother, Guan Yu.
Liu’s rage at the death of his brother prompts him, against the advice of his followers, to invade Wu. The result, the Battle of Xiaoting (222 AD), is the second key turning point in the story. Wu’s forces again deploy fire tactics to destroy the invading army, and the defeated Liu retreats to coalesce and focus his efforts against the more expansive kingdom of Wei.
From 228 to 234 AD, the Shu strategist Zhuge Liang leads a series of northern expeditions against Wei, and these campaigns comprise the third turning point. Although Zhuge uses his superhuman strategic abilities to achieve some remarkable results on the battlefield, none of his expeditions inflict a decisive blow, partly because Wei had by this time found its own talismanic strategist in Sima Yi. A long rivalry ensues between these two great minds, and while Zhuge is portrayed as slightly superior, he is always foiled at the last moment by natural causes or by political failures in Shu following the death of Liu Bei. Zhuge’s own demise then removes the greatest external threat to Wei’s dominance.
Another key player to have passed away by this point is Ts’ao Ts’ao. Like the Han state before it, the kingdom of Wei was now in the hands of far less capable figures than its founder, leaving the way clear for the final key moment in the tale: Sima Yi’s coup against Ts’ao Shuang and his seizure of power in Wei (249 AD). Sima’s descendants go on to conquer Shu-Han (263 AD), declare their own dynasty (the Jin, 266–420 AD), and finally conquer Wu (280 AD).
And so it was that none of the Three Kingdoms survived to unify China. All of them became microcosms of the dysfunction and decay that afflicted the late Han, and they suffered the same end. This is the great irony of the Romance, but it also helps to explain the enduring popularity of this tale, for it concerns not just the fortunes of states but something much more intimate — the apparent powerlessness of human effort when stacked against the will of the Heavens and the crushing inevitability of fate. As the book’s concluding poem states:
All down the ages rings the note of change,
For fate so rules it none escape its sway.
The kingdoms three have vanished as a dream,
The useless misery is ours to grieve.
2. The Battle of Changping and the Great Wall of China
The Battle of Changping took place in 260 BC, in which Qin troops driven by Bai Qi crushed a colossal Zhao army of 400,000 men, effectively wiping out the Zhao fighting force and the state itself. The Qin were now in a position to reunify China, and this was accomplished by their leader Qin Shi Huang. This reunification had been a long time coming, since the Zhou administration had separated into various vassal states. Now, China could develop a centralized government and establish a framework for the unification of China under a single cultural and national identity.
This was the historical backdrop to the building of the Great Wall of China, a project which spanned many centuries. After Qin Shi Huang unified China, he went on to protect his newly established Qin dynasty (221 BC–206 BC) against invasions from Inner Asia by building a wall. By 212 BC, this wall ran from Gansu to southern Manchuria.
Later administrations reinforced and added to the wall. The Ming dynasty (1369 AD–1644 AD) were among those who modified, rebuilt, and extended the wall, often deviating from Qin’s original designations. The Han expanded the stronghold towards the west, while the Qi worked around 1,600 kilometers (990 miles) of new dividers and the Sui employed a million men to further enhance the build. However, the Tang (618 AD–907 AD), the Song (960 AD–1279 AD), the Yuan (1271 AD–1368 AD), and the Qing (1644 AD–1911 AD) for the most part did not add to the wall, preferring to strengthen their defenses against Inner Asian threats through military missions and intelligence. Despite providing a good defense against attack, the Great Wall could not stop all invaders. In 1644 AD, the Manchu Qing broke right through the gates of the Shanhai Pass and overthrew the Ming dynasty.
5 Dian Wei, 197 AD
"The surrounding area littered with many casualties and dead. Dian Wei received over ten cuts, yet he continued to fight despite lacking troops. Dian Wei held onto two traitors underneath his arms, killing them. The remaining traitors dared not to advance any further."
- Chen Shou, Records of the Three Kingdoms
Dian Wei was a monstrous cruise missile of manslaughter, which is something you'd kind of have to be if you were a guy that had a name that was a homophone for "Diane." His skill as a peerless purveyor of battle-raging carnage helped him rise through the ranks of the military of the Kingdom of Wei, until eventually he was hand-selected by the Wei King, a guy named Cao Cao, to serve as his personal bodyguard and the most badass bouncer in Imperial China.
Dian's Last Stand took place during the Battle of Wancheng in 197 AD, when he essentially curbstomped an entire army into submission by himself. Apparently, some local governor had gotten a little pissed off when Cao Cao banged the dude's aunt, and launched a surprise nighttime sneak attack on the Wei King's camp. When the hordes of oncoming warriors approached the gates they found his personal bodyguard standing at the entrance brandishing a hulking pair of 40-pound axes.
Failing to appraise just how ready he was to make them look like the losing end of a bear attack, the would-be assassins charged, and Dian commenced spraying the countryside with distasteful amounts of high-impact blood spatter. After playing giant-axe-whack-a-mole with the unfortunate bastards who reached him first, Wei got super pissed and started cracking spines with his bare hands. He killed at least 20 enemies, perhaps more, before another group of assassins that had entered the building from a different direction attacked him from behind, and he was finally brought down by a rain of blows from every direction.
Dian had achieved his goal however--Cao Cao escaped to fight another day, and ended up almost single-handedly conquering all of China and eventually bringing the Three Kingdoms period to a close.
Chen Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms. Trans. Giao Chau.
Guanzhong Luo. Three Kingdoms. Trans. Moss Roberts. Univ. of California Press, 2004.
Related: Immortality Potions Killed So Many Chinese Emperors
Battle of Lake Trasimene
In northern Italy, an uprising of the Celtic started after the last battle. Number of the rebels increased so much that it doubled the number of the Hannibal’s army. Therefore, in the spring of 217 BC, he left winter camp so that he continued an offensive against Italy.
In Ariminum (todays Rimini) and Arettium (todays Arezzo) were concentrated Roman troops, whose task was to prevent Hannibal’s crossing over the Apennine Mountains, but Hannibal decided to cross through swampy lowlands of the river Arno. Carthaginian army marched 4 days and 3 nights up til waits and chests in the water. Many soldiers were lost, many of them fell of their horses, only one elephant stayed alive. During march Hannibal himself lost an eye, but Hannibal with army managed to go around the fortified positions of the Romans.
Hannibal decided to move further to the south where he destroyed everything around him. Gaius Flaminius Nepos then decided to follow Hannibal without waiting for more army. However, Flaminius actions were well known to Hannibal who had well-organized scouts. Flaminius path led through a narrow valley, which was lying between the mountains and Lake Trasimene.
Hannibal overnight crossed the valley, occupied higher grounds, and deployed troops behind the hills. The next, gloomy morning, when the Roman army broke out, without expecting that anything will happen, the Roman army was attacked from all sides. Flaminius was killed at the beginning of the battle. One part of the Romans had been killed and the other part of the army cavalry thrown into the lake. Only one squad of 6,000 people took the hill, but they were surrounded. They decided to surrender under conditions of free retreat. The total number of dead Romans was around 15.000 people.
Hannibal kept the Romans in captivity and he released Roman allies to their homes. After that, Hannibal decided to move towards the Adriatic Sea in order to provide himself a broken connection with Carthage. By passing through Umbria and Picenum he destroyed villages. In Apulia, Hannibal stayed a bit so that his troops can rest. Then he reorganized the troops according to the Roman model.
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I grew up reading a lot of Chinese historical novels on wars and domination (like Romance of the Three Kingdoms). They are not exactly based on history because it tells the story in more of a literary approach. However, there is one thing in common that is really fascinating. A battle that could change the flow of the war. That battle is usually not about how many soldiers or how good the armors/weapons are, but a strategist who can predict the enemy action and outsmart them in the battle. Sun Tzu, the writer of “Art of War”, wrote this book during his lifetime around 500 BC. Even thought it was written in such an ancient time, the ideas are still being used by people on politics, finance, business, and so on. Being one of the very early books that talks about game theory (not directly because people don’t know about game theory in ancient times), I want to find out how he came up and translated his thoughts into writings that influenced the war history of China (if I may say, forged the ancient Chinese military history). Sun Tzu himself probably wouldn’t know the Game Theory, but what he wrote in the ancient cold weapon era was really close to the interpretation of the Modern Game Theory.
The key idea of “Art of War” is to codify the general strategic character of conflict and, in the process, offer practical advice about how to win military conflicts. Nevertheless, to what extend did Sun Tzu anticipated the implications of the contemporary theory of conflict – the game theory. The essay claimed that he could be credited with having anticipated the concepts of dominant and mixed strategies. However, he failed to intuit the full implications of the notion of equilibrium strategies. An example being his quote “Know thy self, know thy enemy. A thousand battles, a thousand victories.” This advice remains vulnerable to a more complete strategic analysis. If your enemy knows the same theory, what decision shall you make then? But I say this advice is complete enough for the ancient time because people back then lacked the knowledge of probability theory, advanced mathematics and modern technologies. Sun Tzu understood as much as he could for his times and that’s why people call him the God of War in China now (Chinese version of Athena?! LOL). Also, there won’t be a condition where there were no ambiguous information. Spies already existed in the ancient times. So it came to the end that the side with more accurate information would win the battle. But… what is process to victory?
Using a very famous battle example during the Three Kingdoms era called the Battle of Red Cliffs, we can have a better understanding on Sun Tzu’s ideas. This battle involved all three kingdoms where Wu and Shu were allies against Wei. The set up can be summarized into the following seven points:
- The battle happened on the Yangtze River
- Wei was attacking from the north-western side and Wu and Shu defending from the south-eastern side
- If Wei won the battle, it would conquer lands south of the Yangtze River, and probably unity China soon
- Wei had more soldiers (around 800,000) then both Wu and Shu combined
- Most of Wei’s soldiers were from the north, thus no sailing experiences
- Soldiers of Wu and Shu were from the south, thus experts in sailing
- All three sides had military strategists about the same level and each other’s information
Both Wu and Shu wanted to become the biggest beneficiary in this corporations (more lands, soldiers, and resources). Thus, they would come up with their best responses with the information they knew about the opponent and try to gain the best pay off. So like Prisoner’s Dilemma but with a lot more conditions and of course, life and death situation. I am not going to talk much about this corporation, because there is a big battle and strategies ahead. Sun Tzu stated “what is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy’s strategy (III, 4). . . determine the enemy’s plans and you will know which strategy will be successful and which will not (VI, 20).” Sun Tzu’s general intent is clear – to analyze the diversity of interdependent choice situations in warfare and to deduce efficient strategies. And here is how Wu and Shu successfully carried out their strategies that easily won them the battle.
Because Wu and Shu are good at fighting in the water, wei used the strategy of connecting their battle ships altogether with cast iron chains and create a stable battle”ground” to counter (basically made ships into a huge ancient style aircraft carrier that carries horses and people). Since there were seldom South-eastern wind on the river so without the wind blowing towards Wei army, Wu and Shu couldn’t use fire attack to burn all the ships at the same time. Wu and Shu attacked this strategy by delaying the battle till the day of full moon, when the wind changes direction because the moon influenced the tide. It was too late for Wei to untidy their battle ships when Wu and Shu’s suicidal ships with burning materials hit them. Wei lost the battle and flee back north.
Briefly, game theory, which we can view as either a branch of mathematics or of political science and economics, seeks to isolate general, abstract principles of decision-making when the outcomes of people’s choices depend on what others decide and when everyone is aware of their mutual interdependence. Overall, Game theory’s application include not only strategic military planning like “The Art of War” illustrated, but also in different fields like making business decisions, winning elections, and etc. Sun Tzu’s “The Art of War” is just a small part of it. Still, it is very impressive to see an ancient man creating his own idea that could still be deliberated today.
Cloud Ladders were designed for attacking troops to mount and seize control of the city wall.
The first “cloud ladder” is said to be built during the Spring and Autumn era. According to The Strategies of the Warring States (战国策), King of Shu planned to attack the Kingdom of Song and asked master carpentry Shuban from the Kingdom of Lu to build tall landers to break into Song’s capital city.
The “cloudy ladder” was formed with three parts: the wheels to make it mobile, the cart as a foundation of the ladder and the ladder.
In the next 2,000 years, the equipment was frequently used but its efficiency was frequently questioned. From the Ming Dynasty on, “cloud ladder” as military equipment was abandoned.
The Origins of the Ballad
The original source of Mulan’s story came from one folk song in the North Wei Dynasty (386 AD - 557 AD) which was called The Ballad of Mulan . The first known transcription of The Ballad of Mulan comes from the 6th century. Unfortunately, the original work no longer exists and the text of this poem comes from another work known as the Music Bureau Collection.
This is an anthology of lyrics, songs, and poems compiled by Guo Maoqian during the 11th or 12th century. The author explicitly states that the Musical Records of Old and New was his source for the poem about Mulan.
Mulan as depicted in the album ‘Gathering Gems of Beauty.’ ( Public Domain )
The next appearance of Mulan’s tale came in the late Ming Dynasty . In 1593, the playwright Xu Wei dramatized the legend as The Female Mulan or The Heroine Mulan Goes to War in Her Father's Place. It was a play in two acts. The last of the most important versions of the Ballad was incorporated into the Sui-Tang Romance , a historical novel written by Chu Renhuo in the 17th century. Thus, the folk tale about the warrior woman Hua Mulan stayed alive in people’s memories.
|Year 845: The Fall of Wall Maria||Marley sends out Bertolt Hoover, Reiner Braun, Annie Leonhart, and Marcel Galliard from the Liberio internment zone to commence the Paradis Island Operation. ]|
Marcel is eaten by Ymir's Titan after the first night of their journey, and Ymir regains her humanity after having stolen his Jaw Titan power. ] ] ]
Keith Shadis steps down from his position as Commander of the Survey Corps after a devastating expedition with fewer than twenty survivors, ] passing the rank of command on to Erwin Smith. ]
Before leaving for the interior, Grisha Yeager promises his son Eren that he will one day show him the secrets kept within the basement of their home. ]
After arriving at Wall Maria, Bertolt Hoover as the Colossus Titan breaches the outer gate of Shiganshina District, allowing countless Titans to enter the city and shattering the 100-year long peace within the Walls. ]
Dina Fritz's Pure Titan enters the city, finding and eating Grisha's wife Carla in front of Eren and Mikasa. ]
Reiner Braun as the Armored Titan breaches the inner gate, forcing the Eldians of Paradis Island to retreat to Wall Rose. ] ]
Grisha Yeager travels to the Reiss Chapel and urges Frieda Reiss to stop the Titan invasion before Carla and his children are killed, but Frieda rejects his pleas. ] Grisha battles Frieda's Titan and defeats her, taking the Founding Titan from Frieda by devouring her human form. He proceeds to murder all members of the Reiss family but Rod Reiss, who escapes. ]
Grisha takes Eren into a forest where he urges him to return to Shiganshina and enter the basement of their old home, before injecting him with Titan serum. ] As a Pure Titan, Eren eats Grisha, inheriting both the dormant Founding Titan and the power of the Attack Titan. ]
A few days after Wall Maria's fall, Rod Reiss visits his illegitimate daughter Historia Reiss, planning on taking her in to his family. Kenny Ackerman stops them, killing Historia's mother Alma for her role in staining the reputation of the Reiss family. Rod stops him before he kills Historia, and gives her the alias "Krista Lenz." ]
Mr. and Mrs. Arlert attempt to leave the Walls in a hot air balloon, but they are caught and killed by the First Interior Squad led by Djel Sannes. ⎽] They are later presumed to have died during the culling expedition. ]
Eren begins taking fighting lessons from Annie in the 104th Training Corps. ] ]
Eren Yeager is eaten by a Titan, but emerges in his first Attack Titan form and begins to slaughter Titans in the city, the first time a Titan is seen fighting another Titan within the Walls in public. ]
The 104th Training Corps experience actual combat against the Titans for the first time. ]
Eren uses his Titan powers consciously for the first time, biting his hand to create a huge Titan skeleton to protect Mikasa and Armin, and himself from a cannonball. ]
Marco Bott overhears Reiner and Bertolt discuss plans on breaching the gate, prompting them to disarm and leave him to be eaten by a Titan. ]
Eren uses a giant boulder to seal the breach in Trost's outer gate, giving humanity within the walls its first ever victory over the Titans. This also marks the first time humanity within the walls has ever retaken land from the Titans. ]
Twenty-one trainees of the 104th Training Corps join the Survey Corps. Annie Leonhart joins the Military Police Brigade in Stohess District. ]
Annie disrupts the expedition as the Female Titan to search for Eren. ] Commander Erwin leads her into a Titan Forest, and successfully uses special target restraining weapons to capture her. ] However, using her shriek to attract Titans to her, ] she manages to escape, killing four members of the Special Operations Squad in the process. ]
Eren Yeager battles Annie in the Titan Forest but is defeated and kidnapped by Annie. Before she can escape, Mikasa and Levi Ackerman arrive and rescue Eren. ]
The Survey Corps retreat to Karanes District and are ordered to surrender Eren to the Royal Capital. Annie returns to her post at the Military Police Brigade headquarters in Stohess District. ]
The Survey Corps begins to suspect that Annie Leonhart is the Female Titan. Erwin Smith devises a plan to capture her in Stohess District. ]
In Stohess District, the Survey Corps attempts to quietly capture Annie Leonhart, ] but she transforms into a Titan. ] Eren's Titan battles Annie's Female Titan, ] causing great destruction in the district. ]
After failing to escape the district, Annie encases herself in a crystalline substance to avoid capture. ]
Wall Sheena is damaged in the battle, revealing a Titan in the Wall. ]
Zeke Yeager invades Wall Rose as the Beast Titan, using his abilities to turn the residents of Ragako into Titans under his control. ] ]
Invasion Sighted - Mike Zacharias sends Thomas to warn Commander Erwin of the sighting of Titans within Wall Rose, while ordering the Survey Corps members under his command to warn the residents of Wall Rose. ] Mike encounters the Beast Titan, who cripples him before leaving him to be killed by Titans. ]
11 Hours After Sighting - Survey Corps teams led by Gelgar and Nanaba rest at Utgard Castle, but they are soon attacked by Titans which can move at night, forcing the Survey Corps veterans and recruits into a fight for survival throughout the night. ]
12 Hours After Sighting - Thomas arrives in Stohess and warns Erwin Smith, who is being questioned by the Stohess District Mayor for his actions in the Stohess District raid, of the Titan sighting. ]
16 Hours After Sighting - The Survey Corps members from the Stohess operation arrive in Ehrmich District en route to Utgard. There, Minister Nick reveals the importance of Historia Reiss in uncovering the secret of the Walls. ] The Survey Corps also receive information that point to Reiner and Bertolt being in league with Annie Leonhart. ]
Ymir transforms into a Titan to protect the remaining recruits at Utgard. ]
The Stohess operatives arrive at Utgard shortly after the break of dawn, saving the recruits at Utgard. Krista Lenz reveals her true identity as Historia Reiss. ]
The Survey Corps meet up with Hannes' Garrison squad, who reveals that there was no breach in Wall Rose. ]
Reiner Braun and Bertolt Hoover reveal their Titan identities and mission to Eren Yeager and subsequently assume their Titan forms as the Armored and Colossus Titans respectively. ] A battle ensues on Wall Rose. ] ] Eren and Ymir are captured by Reiner and Bertolt, who escape to a Titan Forest. ] ]
Five hours after the battle on Wall Rose, Commander Erwin reunites with the Survey Corps. They set out to rescue Eren and Ymir. ]
Reiner and Bertolt attempt to flee to Wall Maria, but are intercepted by the Survey Corps, who manage to rescue Eren from their grasp. ] ]
The Smiling Titan appears in front of Eren and Mikasa for the first time since the Fall of Shiganshina. ] Hannes attacks the Titan, but is killed in front of Eren. ]
Eren unleashes the power of the Founding Titan unknowingly after striking the Smiling Titan's hand. Using this power, Eren commands nearby Titans to devour the Smiling Titan and attack Reiner and Bertolt. ]
The forty surviving soldiers of the operation retreat to Wall Rose. Erwin falls into a coma due to the loss of his right arm. ]
Reiner and Bertolt retreat to Shiganshina District with Ymir. ]
At some unknown time afterward, Ymir is sent away to Marley, leaving behind a letter to Historia. ] Before she left, Reiner promises Ymir that Historia will be rescued from the future conflicts in Paradis Island. ]
Several recruits from the 104th Trainee Corps are assigned to the new Special Operations Squad to safeguard Eren and Historia. ] Historia reveals her past to her comrades. ]
Hange and Connie Springer return to Ragako to investigate the mysterious event. They realize that the residents of Ragako were the Titans that had invaded Wall Rose. ]
Hange relocates Nick to Trost. ]
Wall Rose is declared Titan-free. Refugees from the Underground are sent back to their homes after anarchy nearly breaks out. ]
Minister Nick is captured and interrogated by the First Interior Squad, who kill him. Learning of his death, Hange begins to suspect a plot against the Survey Corps. They later inform Squad Levi of their suspicions. They decide to continue with their current plans while confronting any forces that would oppose them. ]
Erwin Smith is summoned to the Mitras chancellery to speak with the Assembly. ]
Squad Levi successfully captures Djel Sannes, a member of the First Interior Squad. ]
In Trost, Erwin Smith and Dot Pixis begin to plot against the Royal Government. ] After Erwin receives news about the Reiss family from Nifa, he organizes a plan to locate Rod Reiss so that Historia may be crowned as the true queen of humanity. ] ]
Dimo Reeves arranges for Eren and Historia to be taken by the First Interior Squad so that Rod Reiss can be located. Kenny arrives to collect Eren and Historia, but kills Dimo Reeves to avoid being followed. ]
Erwin is taken into Military Police custody after the Survey Corps is framed for the murder of Dimo Reeves. Before departing, he names Hange to be his successor. ]
Hange convinces the Roy of Berg Newspapers to report the truth about the First Interior Squad and the framing of the Survey Corps to the public. ]
The murder of Dimo Reeves by the First Interior Squad is revealed publicly in Trost District, repairing the Survey Corps' reputation. ]
Erwin Smith is brought before King Fritz and the Assembly. ] As they order him to the gallows, Anka enters the court bringing news that Wall Rose has fallen. When the nobles refuse to allow refugees into Wall Sheena, Darius Zackly intervenes, arresting the nobles and dethroning Fritz. ]
Squad Levi attacks the headquarters of the First Interior Squad, crippling their forces. ] ]
Hange reunites with Squad Levi with news of the Coup d'état's success. Having learned of the history of the Reiss Chapel, Hange suggests they should search there for Eren and Historia. ] ]
Eren awakens in the cave below the Reiss Chapel. By placing their hands on his back, Rod and Historia triggers Eren's memories of Grisha's final hours. ]
Darius Zackly begins torturing nobles, learning of their immunity to the Founding Titan. ]
Historia refuses Rod's offer of reclaiming the Founding Titan, choosing instead to free Eren. Rod Reiss drinks from the Titan serum shattered by Historia, becoming an enormous Pure Titan. ]
Eren ingests an "armor" serum from Rod's bag, creating a hardened Titan for the first time, which he uses to shield Squad Levi from the collapsing cavern. ]
Erwin Smith reunites with Squad Levi, and they head to Orvud to devise a method of defeating Rod Reiss, who is advancing on Orvud District. ] With the combined efforts of the Garrison, Eren, and Squad Levi, Rod Reiss' Titan is defeated at Orvud District, with Historia landing the killing blow. ]
Kenny Ackerman is found by Levi outside of the collapsed cavern. He reveals that he is Levi's uncle, and gives Levi a Titan serum he stole from Rod, before dying. ]
Fragments of glowing stone from the Reiss Chapel cave are used for sources of light, increasing productivity and allowing for nighttime scouting missions to plot out a route to Shiganshina District. ]
Queen Historia brings many orphans from the Underground to the surface world for adoption. ]
Eren's new hardening ability is used to create an Executioner from Hell where Trost's outer gate once stood, which begins to clear Titans from Wall Maria. ]
The Survey Corps' increased popularity causes many young soldiers to enlist or reassign. ]
A council of military leaders decides that Levi Ackerman should be entrusted with Kenny's Titan serum. ]
Zeke arrives in Shiganshina District, meeting Reiner and Bertolt. After a battle with Reiner, he decides that they will remain in Shiganshina District to await the arrival of the Survey Corps in order to retrieve the Founding Titan from Eren. ]
Squad Levi visits Keith Shadis to learn of his involvement with Grisha Yeager. Keith tells them of his past with Grisha. ]
Before the inner gate can be sealed, Zeke as the Beast Titan traps the Survey Corps in Shiganshina with a Titan army, starting a battle between the Warriors and the Survey Corps. ]
Eren and Reiner battle in their Titan forms in Shiganshina. ] During the battle, the Survey Corps attacks Reiner with Thunder Spears, blowing Reiner's head off. ]
Bertolt transforms into the Colossus Titan above Shiganshina, killing most of Hange's squad in the explosive energy of the transformation. ]
The Beast Titan bombards the Survey Corps to the north with a barrage of stones and boulders. ] Erwin Smith leads a last ditch frontal charge into the line of fire as a distraction, which results in the complete annihilation of the cavalry, save for one soldier by the name of Floch Forster. ] ]
Levi successfully ambushes and defeats the Beast Titan, cutting Zeke out of its nape. Before Levi can kill him, Zeke is rescued by Pieck in her Cart Titan form, and the two flee towards Shiganshina. ]
Hange and Squad Levi attack the regenerated Armored Titan. They defeat it with Thunder Spears, with Mikasa landing the finishing blow that blows Reiner out of its nape. ]
Armin Arlert sacrifices himself in a diversionary attack against the Colossus Titan, whom Eren defeats after leaving his Titan form, cutting Bertolt out of its nape. ]
Reiner tells Hange to pass a letter from Ymir to Historia, shortly before Zeke and Pieck arrive to rescue him. ] The three Warriors flee Shiganshina district. ]
Both Armin and Erwin are found to be alive but on the brink of death, creating a difficult choice as to who should be saved with the Titan serum held by Levi. ] Ultimately it is decided by Levi that Armin will be given the serum. Armin, in his new Titan form, eats Bertolt Hoover, and Erwin Smith dies. ]
Eren, Mikasa, Levi, and Hange investigate the basement of the Yeager household, where they discover three books left by Grisha detailing his past in Marley and his knowledge of the Eldian-Marleyan conflict. ] ]
Shortly after the return of the Survey Corps, Queen Historia arrives in Trost District and reads Ymir's letter. Eren and Mikasa are released from their imprisonment early with Commander-in-Chief Darius Zackly's approval, and a meeting is held to discuss the findings from the basement. Eren realizes a loophole in the First King's will involving touching a royal-blooded Titan as he did with Dina, but chooses not to speak of it out of concern for Historia's fate. ] ] The meeting concludes with the decision to make the basement revelations public knowledge. ]
The nine survivors of the battle of Shiganshina District are honored in ceremony by Queen Historia. ]
Near the end of the winter months, it is announced that Wall Maria has been made completely Titan-free. Due to the large influx of Titans over the course of five years, very few Titans remain beyond the Walls on Paradis Island. ] ]
Zeke Yeager meets with Kiyomi Azumabito in private, revealing his true allegiance to Eldia. They discuss plans for the revival of the Eldian empire. ]
Marley sends out their first survey fleet to Paradis Island. ] They are intercepted by the Survey Corps, who intern the soldiers present with the help of Eren and Armin's Titans. The Anti-Marleyan Volunteers on-board defect to the people of the Walls' side, giving them information about Marley and their technology, as well as Zeke's secret plan to save the Eldian people. ] Other Marleyan soldiers are eventually convinced to lend their aid to Paradis Island. ]
Kiyomi reveals that Mikasa Ackerman is a long-lost descendant of the Azumabito clan, making her the equivalent of royalty in Hizuru. ]
Kiyomi explains the three conditions needed to protect Paradis island from external invasion. Eren objects to the third condition of maintaining possession of a Titan with royal blood, as it is not only risky, but would mean sacrificing Historia's children for their own survival. ]
Survey Corps begin to infiltrate Marley.
People of Ymir Preservation Society give speech in an International Speech Forum hosted in Marley.
Meanwhile, the Allies develop anti-Titan artillery to gain a significant advantage on land conflicts. ]
Over the course of three years, 32 scouting ships are sent from Marley to Paradis Island. None of the ships return. ]
Marley's war with the Mid-East Allied Forces culminates at Fort Slava, a coastal fortress. While the Warriors under Marleyan command besiege the fort, Zeke uses his Beast Titan's power to drop parachuting Eldians over Fort Slava, turning them into Titans as an airstrike. Reiner's Armored Titan destroys most of the anti-Titan artillery present at Fort Slava, and the Beast Titan tosses artillery rounds at the nearby Mid-East fleet, destroying it. The result of this battle brings an end to the Marley Mid-East War. ]
A meeting is convened afterward to discuss the global reaction to the Armored Titan's defeat, and Commander Theo Magath concludes that the technological progress of the world is rendering the power of the Titans obsolete. Zeke proposes that the Founding Titan must be reclaimed as soon as possible for Marley to gain full mastery of the Titans while Marley develops conventional weaponry to boost its outdated military. ]
Some time after the conclusion of the war, the forces of Marley return to their homeland. ]
Eren Yeager infiltrates Marley using Eren Kruger's identity. He befriends Falco, whom he uses to help deliver letters to his allies. ] ]
The Tybur family comes to Liberio to make preparations for an upcoming festival of world ambassadors. Willy Tybur meets with Magath, and together they conspire to rid Marley of its troublesome military elite to pave the way for Magath's rise into power. ]
Willy Tybur publicly reveals the truth of the Great Titan War and labels Eren Yeager, usurper of the Founding Titan, as the greatest threat to world peace. ] When Willy Tybur declares war against Paradis Island, Eren transforms into the Attack Titan and kills him, before going on a rampage. ]
The younger sister of Willy transforms into the War Hammer Titan and attacks Eren. When the Attack Titan is overpowered by the War Hammer, Mikasa Ackerman uses a barrage of Thunder Spears to bring the Titan down. ] Eren discovers the War Hammer Titan's true body encased in a crystal below ground and seizes it, but is unable to break the crystal open. ]
The Survey Corps, equipped with anti-personnel vertical maneuvering equipment enter the battle and engage the Marleyan soldiers. The Jaw, Cart, and Beast Titans join the expanding battle shortly after. ]
During the ensuing conflict, the Survey Corps initially face difficulty against the Warriors, however, they gain the upper hand shortly after Armin Arlert uses his Colossus Titan to destroy a docking fleet. ]
Levi neutralizes the Beast Titan, and the Cart Titan is defeated by an attack led by Jean. ] The Jaw Titan fights aggressively against Eren, but is also defeated. Eren uses the Jaw Titan's powerful jaws to crack open the younger sister of Willy's crystal, inheriting the War Hammer Titan. Eren then prepares to eat the Jaw Titan, but is stopped by the Armored Titan, who rescues Galliard before collapsing. ]
Eren and Mikasa reunites with Armin and the rest of the Survey Corps aboard their getaway airship. ] Gabi and Falco also board the airship, where Gabi shoots and kills Sasha. ] They are brought to Zeke Yeager aboard the airship, who is revealed to be on the side of the Paradis Island Eldians all along. ] The Survey Corps proceed to make their escape from Liberio. ]
A Global Alliance Army is formed to prepare a retaliation against Paradis Island. They plan to conduct a scorched-earth operation in six months. ]
Yelena and the Anti-Marleyan Volunteers pass the Titan serums that they stole from Marley to Dot Pixis, but laments being unable to procure the knowledge to create those serums. ]
Eren Yeager is arrested and placed in an underground cell on account of his insubordination. ]
Zeke Yeager is placed under house arrest in a Forest of Giant Trees, and kept under close scrutiny by Levi. ] His Anti-Marleyan Volunteers are also placed under house arrest. ]
Historia Reiss is revealed to be several months pregnant, the father a laborer at her orphanage. ]
Floch Forster and Survey Corps recruits loyal to Eren's cause leak the news of his arrest to the public, leading to protest and disarray. The Survey Corps has Floch's cell arrested. ]
Yelena admits to Pixis that she had secretly met with Eren, legitimizing the Volunteers' arrest. ]
A group of Survey Corps recruits plant a bomb to assassinate Zackly, who was looking to have Eren eaten. The same day, Eren Yeager uses his Titan powers to escape his cell, and his followers are released by sympathetic jailers. Eren meets with Floch's group, and decides to find Zeke. The military initiate a full-scale search for Eren. ]
Pieck successfully infiltrates the Walls once more. ]
Pixis announces the plan to begin negotiations with the Yeagerists, putting Zackly's assassination aside. ]
The Blouse family, with Gabi and Falco, are treated to diner by Niccolo. The Survey Corps arrive at the same restaurant shortly after to question him. Gabi reveals she is a Marleyan warrior and that she killed Sasha to Niccolo, making him hit Falco with a wine bottle. The Survey Corps breaks up the conflict, and Niccolo reveals that Zeke's spinal fluid had been inside numerous wine bottles served by Marleyan workers to many in the military elite, including the one Falco was hit by. ]
Yeagerists enter the restaurant, taking Survey Corps soldiers captive. The Yeagerists, who have refused Pixis's invitation to negotiate, demand Hange to take them to Zeke's location. ]
Meanwhile, Eren meets with Mikasa and Armin, but the discussion goes awry and both of the latter are also taken captive as per Eren's orders. ]
Zeke attempts to escape from Levi by transforming the Survey Corps guarding him into Titans. ] However, Levi defeats Zeke after killing all the Titans and captures him again. ] As Levi rides back to the Walls, Zeke detonates a Thunder Spear, catching both Levi and himself in the resulting blast. ] Before Zeke can succumb to his wounds, he is saved when a pure Titan stuffs him inside of its stomach, allowing Ymir Fritz ] to rebuild his body in the Paths dimension. ]
The Yeagerists stop by the 109th Training Corps training camp in Shiganshina to get more followers among the trainees, badly beating Keith Shadis in the process. ] A group led by Floch then have Hange lead them to Zeke. They find Zeke emerging from a Titan's carcass, and prepare to rendezvous with Eren in Shiganshina. Meanwhile, Hange escapes with Levi's body into a river. ]
The Yeagerists label everyone who consumed Zeke's spinal fluid with red armbands. Yelena visits the Survey Corps soldiers in their cell and explains Zeke's euthanasia plan.
Pieck, who is posing as a Survey Corps soldier, ambushes Eren while the latter attempts to interrogate Gabi Braun. Pieck tries convincing Eren into believing she has defected to Eldia and promises to reveal the location of the Marleyan infiltrators as proof. Pieck and Gabi are taken to the roof to point out the location of said Marleyan infiltrators, when Porco in his Jaw Titan form attacks Eren as part of a Marleyan surprise attack. Eren narrowly avoiding getting eaten before transforming.
Reiner Braun and Porco Galliard engage Eren Yeager in combat using their Armored and Jaw Titans respectively, while Pieck escorts Gabi out of immediate danger.
Onyankopon releases the imprisoned soldiers in the hopes that they will help protect Eren from being killed by the invading forces.
Soldiers from all branches of the military assemble in an effort to relieve Eren from the assault.
Zeke Yeager arrives atop the Wall of Shiganshina District, assisting the Eldian counterattack by throwing rocks at Marleyan airships, downing all of them.
The Beast Titan is brought down by Theo Magath, operating anti-Titan artillery mounted on the Cart Titan's back. The Beast Titan's nape is obliterated, although General Magath barely fails to deliver the killing blow to Zeke.
Nile Dok reunites Falco with his brother Colt.
Colt tries to reason with Zeke not to scream, as Falco has ingested his spinal fluid. Zeke ultimately decides to go through with his plan, apologizing to Colt before letting out a loud roar.
Falco, along with everyone who drank the wine is transformed into a Pure Titan.
Zeke orders Falco to eat Reiner, who is grappling with Eren. A mortally wounded Porco exits his Titan and lets Falco's pure Titan devour him, saving Reiner in the process.
Eren escapes his Titan form and rushes towards Zeke. Picking up Colt's anti-Titan riffle, Gabi shoots Eren through the neck, blowing his head cleanly off the rest of his body, moments before Zeke and Eren make contact. Zeke catches Eren's head before the latter's brain activity ceases, transporting both of them into the Paths realm.
Inside the Paths, Eren reveals to Zeke that he will not go through with the euthanasia plan, however Eren finds that he is unable to use the Founding Titan's power via Ymir Fritz. Zeke accesses Grisha Yeager's memories through Eren's Attack Titan.
While viewing Grisha's memories, the two brothers witness Grisha inside the cavern bellow the Reiss Chapel pleading with Frieda Reiss to save the people of Shiganshina from the Titan advance into the city. When Frieda refuses, Grisha is unable to transform, as he thinks himself unable to kill children, regardless of their Reiss bloodline. Eren approaches his father, demanding he stand and reminding him of his late sister.
Upon killing the majority of the Reiss family, Grisha sees Zeke outside the chapel. Grisha tearfully embraces his son, begging him to stop Eren. Inside paths, Zeke orders Ymir Fritz to take away Eldian's ability to reproduce. Eren rushes to catch up with her, and as he makes contact with her, he sees her memories, along the torturous life she was forced to live, working as a slave even after death, serving the royal family for all eternity. Eren proclaims that he will destroy the entire world beyond Paradis while expressing sympath towards Ymir, telling her that she does not need to serve anyone, that she can make the choice of what comes next.
The anomalous creature that granted Ymir her Titan powers emerges from Eren's body and connects to his head. A massive skeletal figure appears from where Eren's body was lying. All the Walls on the island start to crumble as the Wall Titans emerge and the Rumbling is set into motion.
Mikasa dwells on a past decision as she notices Eren's Founding Titan emerge from his battle with Reiner and Porco.
Armin tells Mikasa that Eren defeated Zeke in the Paths and is gonna destroy the Global Alliance, he then realizes that Eren is going overboard after seeing Wall Maria being destroyed as well.
Eren telepathically speaks to all Eldians across the world and explains that he will destroy the entire world for Eldia's safety. The eldians on Marley start panicking and rush to the Gate Guards to warn them of the approaching danger. The guards don't believe them and rounds them all up, but are swiftly overpowered by Mr. Leonhart and a group of rebel Eldians.
At the same time, all hardening is come undone and Annie Leonhart is set free from her crystal.
Reiner is put out of commission after getting his armor stripped and Gabi Braun goes out to save Falco Grice.
Up on a building Jean, Armin, Mikasa, and Connie discuss the current situation, before being attacked by Zeke's titans and Connie getting away with a unconscious Falco.
The titans are soon dealt with and the Anti-Marleyan Volunteers are restrained by the Yeagerists. Dot Pixis, Nile Dok, Roeg, and countless other infected soldiers are killed in the process.