G. O. Smith

G. O. Smith

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Gilbert Oswald Smith was born in Croydon, Surrey, on 25th November, 1872. He learnt to play football at Charterhouse School. He attended Keble College and was selected for the Oxford University team that defeated Cambridge University in three out of four Varsity football matches.

Smith won his first international cap on 25th February, 1893. England beat Ireland 6-1 and Smith, who played centre-forward, scored two of the goals. In his next game against Wales on 12th March 1894 he scored two more in England's 6-1 victory.

Smith was 5 feet 11 inches tall but was of slight build and was extremely reluctant to head the ball. However, he had a good shot and made a lot of goals for his fellow attackers with his accurate passing.

After leaving university Smith became a school teacher at Lancing College. He played for the Old Carthusians in the 1897-98 season. Later he moved to the Corinthians, one of the best amateur teams in the country.

Ernest Needham was England's captain during Smith's early internationals. He later wrote: "Young players who wish to make a name for themselves as forwards would do well to watch such a player as Mr. G. Smith. In him they will see one of the finest centre-forwards England has ever had to represent her in International matches. He is one of the most brilliant and gentlemanly players who ever stepped on to a football field. He has never been known to do anything that was not scrupulously fair, nor to charge foully. He plays the game with ease and gracefulness; he is clever with the ball; he passes accurately; and he is one of the best shots at goal I have ever seen. When he shoots he seldom fails to hit the mark, and he is, above all, unselfish. There you have the ideal forward."

James Catton, Britain's top football journalist at the time, argued: "On the field he (Smith) was courageous and most unselfish. In his case, mind triumphed over muscle by quickness of decision, the swiftness of his movements, the perfect simplicity of his style, the swerve and balance of his body, and his neatness of footwork."

Smith developed a great playing relationship with Steve Bloomer for England. According to Frederick Wall, the president of the Football Association: "Smith used to call out Steve, and he made the position so favourable that in the twinkling of an eye the ball was in the net."

The London Charity Shield was established for the best professional and amateur teams in England. In 1898 Smith was captain of the Corinthians' team that drew 1-1 with Sheffield United in the final of the competition. In November 1900 he scored the winning goal in his club's 2-1 victory over Aston Villa.

Smith's main problem was that he was slightly built. James Catton pointed out: "Anyone could knock him off the ball if he could get into contact with him. But he was difficult to find, so elusive was he. His value consisted chiefly of wonderfully accurate passes to either wing; either to the inside or the outside man. And his body balance and swerve were such that when he left the arena not a hair of his head was out of place."

During his time playing for Corinthians (1898-1901) he scored 113 goals in 131 games. He also had a good record for England scoring 11 goals in 20 games. Smith played his last game for England on 30th March 1901. Also in the team that day was Ernest Needham, Steve Bloomer, William Oakley and Fred Blackburn. England drew 2-2 with Scotland with Smith and Blackburn getting the goals.

G. Smith retired from football after this international game. His place was taken by Vivian Woodward, another amateur player with a great scoring record.

Smith taught at Ludgrove School with his great friend, William Oakley. Eventually, the two men became joint headmaster of the school.

Gilbert Oswald Smith died in Lymington, Hampshire, on 6th December, 1943.

Young players who wish to make a name for themselves as forwards would do well to watch such a player as Mr. There you have the ideal forward.

Bloomer had an intense admiration for G.O. The Old Carthusian, according to both Goodall and Bloomer, was so easy to play with, and he was a man without petty pride. Smith used to call out "Steve," and he made the position so favourable that in the twinkling of an eye the ball was in the net. And whether you counted it a good shot or not, Bloomer held that there was never a bad shot that scored. I firmly believe that Bloomer in many respects never had a superior...

I am going to make a statement that may be considered startling, but as my opinion is honest, I am not concerned if it does not agree with the views of others. G.O. Smith and Woodward were both great players, but the Tottenham and Chelsea forward was the better. Why was he the better footballer? Woodward was the more versatile, the more consistent, and cleverer with his heading.

The first time I met G.O. Smith was in the grounds of the Crystal Palace, when I was introduced to the famous Oxonian by Mr. J.J. Bentley, and he struck me as rather frail in physique, gentle in manner, and kind in disposition. On the field he was courageous and most unselfish. In his case, mind triumphed over muscle by quickness of decision, the swiftness of his movements, the perfect simplicity of his style, the swerve and balance of his body, and his neatness of footwork.

Anyone could knock him off the ball if he could get into contact with him. And his body balance and swerve were such that when he left the arena not a hair of his head was out of place.

There have been far more prolific scorers - Tinsley Lindley, for instance-but as John Goodall said to me in his bird shop at Watford it was "no trouble to play with him." Good Master John believes that G.O. Smith, irreverently called "Jo," was the finest centre he ever saw or played with, because he was such a master of doing the right act at the right moment. That is really the whole art of football-and yet how many men can so nearly approach the perfect?

Perhaps the name which was most prominent in football circles during 19O2-3 was that of Vivian Woodward. Smith had taken his well-earned laurel wreath into seclusion, and an anxious eye was being cast round for his successor. Few thought he was to be found among the ranks of amateurs until the Spurs brought to light young Woodward, and England decided that what was good enough for the London Cup-fighters was good enough for her. He is a player with a great future before him. Though built somewhat on the light side he is clever and tricky, a master of the art of passing. It is a 1,000 pities that his lack of weight renders him a temptation which the occasionally unscrupulous half-back finds himself unable to resist. His record of goals both in League matches and in Internationals is a flattering one, for, all said and done, the most important duty of a centre forward is to find the net, and find it often.

It must be very satisfactory to the selectors to find Woodward so great a success at centre forward, especially as he is likely to improve for several years to come, and will thus, perhaps, provide them with another "G.O.". At present I see not much likeness between Woodward and G.O. Indeed, the fact that they are both amateurs is about the full extent of the resemblance. But Woodward is a fine player who may become a great one, and he has a style of his own which is sufficiently good in itself... He is to be heartily congratulated on his success. It will be a surprise and a great disappointment now if he does not get his cap against Scotland.

The Republican Party, Racial Hypocrisy, and the 1619 Project

Bills to penalize the teaching of the 1619 Project, named for the arrival of African captives in America, were introduced in Republican-controlled state legislatures this year. Photograph by Julia Rendleman / Reuters

Late last month, when Senator Tim Scott, of South Carolina, delivered the Republican response to President Joe Biden’s first major address to a joint session of Congress, the subtext could scarcely have been closer to the surface: the sole Black Republican in the Senate was speaking on behalf of a Party that, under the increasing influence of the far right, has embraced a brand of belligerent and overt racism that was naïvely thought to have been banished from American politics. In the midst of a fairly straightforward conservative critique of Biden’s policies and priorities, the senator detoured into a complaint about liberals who he said had called him racial epithets—he graciously declined to call them “the real racists”—and claimed that progressives are intent on teaching people that, “if they look a certain way, they’re an oppressor.” He defended the G.O.P. voter-suppression bills that have swept the nation in the wake of Donald Trump’s defeat, and stated his case plainly. “America,” he said, “is not a racist country.”

This was a stunning display of cynicism, even by the standards of the current G.O.P., yet this was not the first time that Scott’s race had been utilized so disingenuously. A month earlier, he said on Fox News that “woke supremacy is as bad as white supremacy,” a kind of equivalence that could be dismissed as political pandering had Scott not been a friend of the late Reverend Clementa Pinckney, the South Carolina state senator and pastor who was gunned down in the Emanuel A.M.E. Church, in 2015, by Dylann Roof, a white supremacist who dreamed of a race war. Scott was also the man whom the G.O.P. turned to when, in the wake of Trump’s comments about the Charlottesville crisis, they decided that the President needed to be tutored in matters of race. (Ahead of that meeting, Scott said, “Racism is real. It is alive.”) The absolution that Scott offered the nation in his rebuttal to Biden sparked an online discussion about how much racism it takes for a country to be considered racist, but, in some ways, that question was beside the point. The real significance in Scott’s words lay in their connection to a broader offensive that the Republican Party has been coördinating since Trump’s reëlection loss, in November.

In a poll in June, 2020, fifty-two per cent of Americans said that they considered Trump a racist. His candidacy famously emboldened white nationalists, as evidenced by the tiki-torch crusade in Charlottesville, the racist motifs of the January 6th attack on the Capitol, and his astounding directive to the Proud Boys, delivered during the first Presidential debate last year, to “stand back and stand by.” Since the murder of George Floyd last May, the nation has grappled publicly with its racist legacy and, to a considerable degree, with the extent to which Trump and the G.O.P. had made matters worse in the preceding three years. Books such as Ibram X. Kendi’s “How to Be an Antiracist” and Robin DiAngelo’s “White Fragility” rocketed up the best-seller lists.

In response, many on the American right decided to change the subject. If they could not market themselves as racists, they could certainly make a profitable brand as anti-anti-racists. (They have oddly chosen to lump all things racial and contemptible under the banner of critical race theory, a school of legal thought concerned primarily with inequality and the failures of civil-rights litigation to ameliorate it.) The objective here is not only to launder the G.O.P.’s reputation—though that is part of it—but also to facilitate the more overtly racist portions of the Party’s agenda. The left, in this light, is not simply advocating equality of people regardless of their backgrounds it’s a cabal seeking to marginalize and browbeat white people for having created a bigoted society that does not actually exist.

Before Trump lost reëlection, he issued an executive order banning federal diversity initiatives that involve anti-racism training. Corollaries to that directive began taking root earlier this year, as bills to ban anti-racism training and to penalize public schools for teaching the 1619 Project were introduced in Republican-controlled state legislatures. (In April, the Iowa senate passed legislation sharply restricting what can be taught in diversity trainings at state and local entities.) Last summer, Senator Tom Cotton, of Arkansas, launched both a Twitter crusade against the 1619 Project and an ultimately failed effort to pass federal legislation that would ban it from being taught in schools nationwide. In an interview with the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, he said that the Founders saw slavery as a “necessary evil,” a point which elicited a response, on Twitter, from the 1619 Project’s creator, Nikole Hannah-Jones, who wrote, “its hard to imagine what cannot be justified” given that Cotton had essentially justified rape, torture, and the selling of human beings.

It is worth noting that the 1619 Project, which first appeared in the Times Magazine almost two years ago, on the four-hundredth anniversary of the arrival of the first African captives in the British colonies in North America, stirred currents that were not entirely unfamiliar. Twenty-six years ago, on the fiftieth anniversary of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, similar discord greeted renewed arguments that the release of two atomic bombs which immolated some hundred thousand people, most of them civilians, was a stain on this nation’s history. Three years before that, the five-hundredth anniversary of Columbus’s arrival in the Western Hemisphere again stirred contentious debate about his role as a herald of colonialism, slavery, and genocide of the indigenous populations of the West Indies.

A very specific divide animated these conflicts, and it underlies the G.O.P.’s current efforts to rescue Americans from an accurate account of their own history. A growing body of progressive white scholars and scholars of color have spent the past several decades fighting for, and largely succeeding in creating, a more honest chronicle of the American past. But these battles and the changes they’ve achieved have, by and large, gone unnoticed by the lay public until benchmark anniversaries occurred, and the scholarship collided with a public unsettled by how distinct that version of history was from the anodyne tales they imbibed in school. Claims of “revisionist history” greeted each of these moments, but this, too, missed the point. History exists in a constant state of revision, as we learn more about the present and the worlds that preceded it. This is why contemporary books about Presidents Ulysses S. Grant and Harry S. Truman take a different, and far more laudatory, view of their subjects than do books written closer to their lifetimes. Revising history is the whole point of having historians. Scholars, including some whose work has offered correctives to the whitewashed history of race, have debated in good faith about some aspects of the 1619 Project. More significant, though, is that the argument the project presented fell within the spectrum of established views.

But the aversion to unflattering truths can be made into political currency. Trumpism established the profitability of telling wholesale lies the G.O.P. has realized that those lies need not be told only about the present. Recently, as the Texas Tribune reported, Texas introduced a bill that prohibits the teaching that any race is superior or inferior to another—an ostensibly respectable principle, but the bill was ultimately concerned with an imaginary world in which white people were actually the victims in need of protection from racism.

The narrative took another turn last week, when it was revealed that the board of trustees of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill declined to extend tenure to Nikole Hannah-Jones. Normally, the byzantine workings of academic-tenure review are of little pertinence to anyone beyond the individuals involved. But the nature of Jones’s work, combined with the ongoing assaults from the right on any scholarly or journalistic examination of race, has given her case particular significance. Jones holds a MacArthur award, a Pulitzer Prize, two Polk Awards, a Peabody Award, and three National Magazine Awards. In many cases, this would be an impressive tally for an entire journalism department. Her tenure as the school’s Knight Chair in Race and Investigative Reporting was supported by the Hussman School of Journalism and Media’s tenure committee, its dean, and the chancellor of the university. The board’s intervention was an override of multiple tiers of faculty governance in a way that to many smacked of politics. In fact, when asked to explain the decision, an unnamed board member used exactly that word—politics—to sum up what had happened.

War Department Collection of Confederate Records

Finding Aids: Elizabeth Bethel, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the War Department Collection of Confederate Records, PI 101 (1957) Henry P. Beers, comp., Guide to the Archives of the Government of the Confederate States of America (1968).

Related Records: Treasury Department Collection of Confederate Records, RG 365.

The War Department Collection of Confederate Records consists of records of the Confederate States of America acquired by capture or surrender at the close of the Civil War and those later acquired by donation or purchase. On July 21, 1865, the Secretary of War established a unit in the Adjutant General's Office for the collection, safekeeping, and publication of the "Rebel Archives." The records were used in protecting the U.S. Government against claims arising from the war, in establishing pension claims, and for historical purposes. After many changes both in location and custody, the records were placed in the Organization Records Section of the Old Records Division of the Adjutant General's Office, from which they were transferred to the National Archives in 1938. Certain federal records relating to Confederate soldiers, maintained with the Confederate records and in part interfiled with them, are included in this record group. Also included are records created by the custodians of the records.


Textual Records (2,750 vols.): Bound volumes classified by the U.S. War Department roughly according to provenance into subgroups designated "chapters," the volumes numbered serially in each chapter. The chapters to which the volumes were assigned are I, Adjutant and Inspector General's Department (SEE 109.7.1) II, Military Commands (SEE 109.9) III, Engineer Department (SEE 109.7.2) IV, Ordnance Department (SEE 109.7.5) V, Quartermaster Department (SEE 109.7.3) VI, Medical Department (SEE 109.8) VII, Legislative Records (SEE 109.4) VIII, Miscellaneous Records (SEE 109.13) IX, Office of the Secretary of War (SEE 109.6) X, Treasury Department (SEE 109.10) XI, Post Office Department (SEE 109.11) and XII, Judiciary (SEE 109.5).

Note: Records included in these volumes are described in the appropriate subgroups that follow. See the references above for specific locations.


Textual Records: Jefferson Davis papers, 1861-65. Returns of electors for President and Vice President, 1861. Journal of the constitutional convention of the Provisional Congress, 1861. Provisional and permanent constitutions of the provisional government and the Confederate States, 1861-62. Statutes at Large of the provisional government, 1861-62. Laws for the army and navy of the Confederate States, 1861. Tariff of the Confederate States, 1861. Indian treaties, 1861.


Textual Records: House journal notes, 1862. Journals and minutes of the Provisional Congress, Senate, and House of Representatives, 1861-65. Memorials and petitions, 1861-65, with registers. Bills and resolutions, 1861-65. Miscellaneous records of the Confederate Congresses, 1861-65. Messages of the President to Congress, 1861-65. Congressional messages, 1862-65. Credentials of members of Congress, 1861-65. Papers relating to elections, 1862-63, including a contested election. Nominations to Congress and related papers, 1861-64. Confirmation and assignment lists, 1861-65. Miscellaneous letters and reports, 1861-65. Copies of amendments, 1862-63. Estimates of funds, 1861- 65. Signatures of members of the House of Representatives, 1862- 65. Pamphlets, 1861-64.


Textual Records (in Atlanta): South Carolina District Court sequestration case files and related records, 1861-64, with a docket. Miscellaneous records, 1861-64.


Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, 1861-65. Letters and telegrams received, 1861-65, with index. Records relating to personnel and accounts, including War Department payrolls and requests for funds, 1861-65. Arrest registers and other records of the Richmond office of the Provost Marshal, 1862-64. Records relating to passports, including records of the passport office at Richmond, 1861-65, and records of passports issued at various locations, 1862-64. Letters sent, 1862-65, and other records of the Agent for the Exchange of Prisoners, including muster rolls of paroled and exchanged Confederates, 1863-65, and letters and reports on the Confederate prison at Andersonville, GA, 1864-65. Miscellaneous records, 1861-65, including record book of persons taking the Confederate oath of allegiance, n.d., and copies of military and naval laws and regulations, 1861-64.

Microfilm Publications: M409, M437, M522, M523, M524, M618, M901.

1861-76 (bulk 1861-65)

109.7.1 Records of the Adjutant and Inspector General's

Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, 1861-65. Letters received, 1861-65, with registers and index. Telegrams received and drafts of telegrams sent, 1861-65. Record of telegrams received, 1862-65. Account book relating to telegrams sent, 1862- 64. Inspection reports, 1863-65, with indexes, n.d. Records relating to courts-martial, 1861-65. General and special orders, 1861-65. Muster and pay rolls of Confederate military units, 1861-65 (510 ft.). Casualty lists, 1861-65. Records relating to appointments of military officers, 1861-65, with registers, rosters of officers, and lists of quartermasters. Records relating to army organization, n.d., with register. Records relating to conscription, exemption, and details, 1862-65. Register of slaves impressed, 1864-65. Miscellaneous records, 1861-76, including powers of attorney, 1861-65 records of boards of surveys, 1861-65 and Troops Tendered to the Confederate War Department, 1876.

Microfilm Publications: M410, M474, M627, M836, M935.

109.7.2 Records of the Engineer Department

Textual Records: Sketch and cash books, 1862-64. Miscellaneous papers, 1862-65. Letters and telegrams sent, 1861-64, with registers. Record of provisions issued from the commissary store of the Engineer Department, Richmond, 1862-64.

Microfilm Publications: M628.

109.7.3 Records of the Quartermaster Department

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1861-65. Letters received, 1861- 65, with registers and endorsements. Telegrams received, 1864. Orders and circulars, 1861-64. Records of the Pay Bureau, including letters received, 1864, and accounts of paymasters and record of payments to military personnel, 1861-65. Clothing, commutation, and miscellaneous rolls, 1861-65. Special requisitions, 1861. Miscellaneous quartermaster and commissary papers, 1861-65. Accounts with railroads, 1861-65. Bounty rolls, 1862-65. Payrolls of War Department civilian employees, 1861-65, with index, 1861-63. Slave payrolls, 1861-65, with index. Payrolls of extra duty men, 1861-65. Records relating to the valuation of horses and their equipment, 1861-65. Telegrams received relating to transportation, 1862-64. Estimates, 1864, and other records relating to the tax in kind, including abstracts of estimates, assessments, and collections of tax in kind received from assessors at Aberdeen, MS, and Tuscaloosa, AL, 1864-65. Description of uniform and dress of the Confederate States Army, 1861. Tax laws, 1863-64.

Microfilm Publications: M410, M469, M900.

109.7.4 Records of the Subsistence Department

Textual Records: Letters, telegrams, and orders received and sent, 1861-63. Regulations, 1861-64.

109.7.5 Records of the Ordnance Department

Textual Records: Letters sent and received, orders, account books, and other records of the Central Laboratory, Arsenal, and Armory (Macon, GA), 1862-65 arsenals at Nashville, TN, 1861-62, and Atlanta, GA, 1862-64 Richmond Arsenal and Virginia State Armory (Richmond, VA), 1861-65 Augusta Powder Factory (Augusta, VA), 1862-65 ordnance officer and depot at Savannah, GA, 1861- 63 ordnance depot at Dalton, GA, 1861-63 New Orleans Arsenal (New Orleans, LA), 1861-62 ordnance depots at Corinth and Columbus, MS, 1862 ordnance office and ordnance works at Tyler, TX, 1862-65 and the Little Rock Arsenal (Little Rock, AR), 1862- 65. Correspondence and reports of the Nitre and Mining Bureau, 1862-65.

Microfilm Publication: M119.


109.8.1 Records of the Surgeon General's Office

Textual Records: Hospital muster and clothing rolls, 1861-65. Letters sent, 1861-65. Issuances, 1861-65. Regulations, 1861-63. Lists of medical officers, 1863-64.

109.8.2 Records of Medical Directors

Textual Records: Records of the Director at Richmond, VA, consisting of correspondence, 1862-65 lists of medical officers, 1861-64 registers and lists of patients in various hospitals, 1862-63 registers of furloughs and discharges, 1862-64 statistical reports, 1862-65 and record books, 1862-65. Records of the Director at Raleigh, NC, consisting of statistical reports concerning patients and attendants, 1863-65.

109.8.3 Records of Medical Purveyors

Textual Records: Records of the Purveyor's Office at Richmond, VA, consisting of accounts of medical and hospital supplies received and issued, 1862-65 and clothing accounts, 1863. Records of the Purveyor's Office at Macon and Savannah, GA, consisting of letters sent, 1862-64 letters, telegrams, and orders received, 1862-65 and records, invoices, inventories, abstracts, and accounts of medical and hospital supplies, 1862- 65. Letters sent by the Medical Purveyor's Office, Macon, GA, and Montgomery, AL, 1863-65.

109.8.4 Records of hospitals

Textual Records: Registers of patients receipt, account, and supply books correspondence issuances prescription books and general record books of hospitals in Alabama, including Fort Morgan Hospital, 1862-64, Ross General Hospital (Mobile), 1861- 65, Shelby Springs General Hospital, 1864-65, and Rock Hotel Hospital, Little Rock, AR, 1862-63 hospitals in Georgia, including Walker General Hospital (Columbus), 1864-65, General Hospital No. 1 (Savannah), 1862-64, and various hospitals at Dalton, 1862-63, and Macon, 1862-65 Bowling Green Hospital, KY, 1861-62 Shreveport General Hospital, LA, 1864-65 hospitals in Mississippi, including Lauderdale Springs General Hospital, 1862- 63, Way and Yandell Hospitals (Meridian), 1865, and St. Mary's Hospital (West Point), 1864-65 hospital at Fort Fillmore and Dona Anna, NM, 1861-62 hospitals in North Carolina, including General Hospital No. 7 and Pettigrew Hospital (Raleigh), 1861-65, Military Prison Hospital (Salisbury), 1864-65, General Hospitals No. 4 and 5 (Wilmington), 1862-65, and other North Carolina hospitals at Charlotte, Fort Fisher, Goldsboro, Greensboro, and Wilson, 1863-65 Overton General Hospital, Memphis, TN, 1861-62 General Hospitals at Franklin and El Paso, TX, 1862, and Galveston and Houston, TX, 1861-65 hospitals in Richmond, VA, including General Hospitals No. 1-27, 1861-65, Chimborazo Hospital and Chimborazo Hospitals No. 1-5, 1861-65, Howard's Grove Hospital, 1862-65, Jackson Hospital, 1861-65, and Camp Winder General Hospital, 1861-65 and other Virginia hospitals, including Danville, 1862-65, Orange and Farmville, 1861-65, Petersburg, 1861-65, and Williamsburg, 1861-64.

109.8.5 Miscellaneous records

Textual Records: Record of Virginia medical officers, 1861-65. Record of vaccinations, 1864-65. Prescription books, 1864-65. Receipts, invoices, and requisitions for medical and hospital supplies, 1861-65. Property returns, 1861-65. Reports of sick and wounded, 1861-65.


109.9.1 General records relating to military commands

Textual Records: General orders, Headquarters of the Armies of the Confederate States, 1865. Post, department, and army returns, rosters, and lists, 1861-65. Battle reports, 1862-64.

Microfilm Publications: M861.

109.9.2 Records of armies and geographical commands

Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, registers of letters received, issuances, and other records of the Army of the Potomac (Confederate), 1861-62 Army and Department of Northern Virginia, 1862-65 Army and Department of the Peninsula, 1861-62 Department of Richmond, 1864-65 Department of Henrico, 1862-63 Department of North Carolina, 1861-62 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 1862-65 Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, 1861-65 Department and District of Georgia, 1861-65 Army of Pensacola, 1861-62 Central Division of Kentucky, 1861-62 Central Army of Kentucky, 1861-62 Army of Kentucky, 1861-62 Army of the Kanawha, 1861 Departments of East Tennessee and Western Virginia, 1861-64 Army and Department of Tennessee, 1862-65 Department of Alabama and West Florida, 1861- 62 District of the Gulf, 1862-65 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 1864-65 Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, 1864-65 Army of Louisiana, 1861 Army of the Mississippi, 1862-65 Department of the West, 1862-63 Army of the West, 1861-62 Western Department, 1861-63 Military Division of the West, 1864-65 Department of Texas, 1861-62 and Trans- Mississippi Department, 1862-65.

Microfilm Publications: M921.

109.9.3 Records of the commands of individual general officers

Textual Records: Letters, telegrams, and orders sent and received record books and other command records of P.G.T. Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, J.C. Breckinridge, James R. Chalmers, T.H. Holmes, James Longstreet, Gideon J. Pillow, Leonidas Polk, Sterling Price, Earl Van Dorn, and others, 1861-65.

109.9.4 Records of Confederate mobile units

Textual Records: Company books, registers of sick and wounded, clothing account books, rosters, quartermaster records, order books, letter books, descriptive lists, and other records of regiments, battalions, and companies of the Confederate Army raised in the states of AL, AR, GA, KY, LA, MS, MO, NC, SC, TN, TX, and VA, 1861-65.

Related Records: Muster and payrolls of Confederate units in records of the Adjutant and Inspector General's Department UNDER 109.7.1.

109.9.5 Records of local commands

Textual Records: Records, principally letters sent and received and orders, of officers serving at fixed installations, or of troops raised exclusively for service within a single state, 1861-65.


Related Records: Additional records of the Confederate Treasury Department in RG 365, Treasury Department Collection of Confederate Records.

109.10.1 Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Treasury

Textual Records: Letters and telegrams sent, 1861-65. Letters received, 1861-65, with register. Orders, circulars, and regulations, 1863-65. Requisitions on the Treasury Department for funds from the War Department, the Navy Department, and Customs, 1861-64. Disbursing journal, 1861-62. Record and stubs of War and Navy Department warrants, 1861-64. Record of balances on hand in depositories of public money, 1861-64. Accounts of Capt. and Assistant Quartermaster John H. Parkhill with the Treasurer, 1862.

Microfilm Publications: T1025.

109.10.2 Records of the Chief Clerk

Textual Records: Receipts for payment of contingent expenses of the Treasury Department, 1862-63.

109.10.3 Records of the Disbursing Clerks

Textual Records: Ledger of accounts, 1861-63.

109.10.4 Records of the Office of the First Auditor

Textual Records: Ledger of accounts for the navy and Marines, 1861-62. Memorandum of moneys received from depositories and list of certificates issued by the Funding Committee, 1863-64.

109.10.5 Records of the Office of the Second Auditor

Textual Records: Register of rolls, 1861-62. Registers of requisitions for army expenses, 1861-65. Register of letters received at Pay Division, 1862-65. Register of payments to officers and soldiers, 1861. Records of payments to soldiers, discharged soldiers, and troop units, 1861-64. Payrolls of officers, 1861-63. Letters sent relating to claims of deceased soldiers, 1862-65. Registers of claims, 1861-65. Returns of deceased soldiers and soldiers from hospitals, regimental and company officers, and others, 1861-65. Record of accounts reported to and returned from the comptroller, 1861-62. Record of bonded quartermasters and commissaries, 1861-65.

109.10.6 Records of the Office of the Comptroller

Textual Records: Accounts of disbursing officers of the Confederate States Army, 1861-65. Register of money received and counted, 1863-65. Digest of the comptroller's decisions, 1863.

109.10.7 Records of the Office of the Register

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1861-65. Journals and ledgers of various loans, 1861-65. Record cards of subscribers to Confederate States loans, 1861-64. Registers of loan subscriptions and unclaimed dividends, 1861. Records of loan interest dividends, 1861-64 maturing stock, 1864 issued coupon bonds, 1861 transferable stock, 1861 and interest issued, 1865.

109.10.8 Records of the War Tax Office and the Office of the Commissioner of Taxes

Textual Records: Letters received, 1861-65, with register. Letters sent, 1861-65. Returns of collectors and assessors of the War Tax, 1861-65. Reports of the Commissioner of Taxes, 1863. Miscellaneous records, 1861-65. List of collectors, sureties, and assessors of the War Tax, 1861-65. Sales tax registers for District No. 10, Richmond, VA, 1863-65.

109.10.9 Records of the Treasury Note Bureau

Textual Records: Registers of treasury notes, 1861-63. Schedule of note plates, 1861-64. Record book of treasury notes signed by J. Walter Jones, 1862. Memorandum of treasury notes, 1862-63. Record book of treasury note redemption, 1862-65. Certifications relating to the counting of notes returned for redemption, 1865. List of schedules of interest paid on 7/30 notes, 1864-65.

109.10.10 Records of depositories of public funds

Textual Records: Records of treasury depositories in various states, 1864-65. Letters received by the depository at Savannah, GA, 1863-64. Record book of cash on hand at Macon, GA, depository, 1863-64. Order book of the Macon, GA, depository for the five hundred million loan, 1864. Schedule of certificates for 4-percent registered bonds received by the depository at Columbus, MS, 1864.

109.10.11 Records relating to Confederate Customs

Textual Records: General records ("Custom Papers"), 1861. Account of bonds taken in the district of Savannah for duties on merchandise warehoused, 1860-62. Account book of the surveyor of the port of New Orleans, LA, 1854-61. Account book of B.F. McDonough, collector at Sabine, TX, 1861-64. Registers of vessels, port of Savannah, GA, 1856-64.

109.10.12 Miscellaneous records

Textual Records: Account of William B. Johnston for bonds sold, 1863-64. Statement book of funded debt for Mississippi, 1864. List of claims, 1861-63. Index to circulars and decisions, n.d.


Textual Records: Military telegraph accounts, 1864. Papers relating to unpaid accounts of mail contractors for carrying U.S. mail, 1861-62. Mail contracts and related records, 1864-65. Letters received by the Post Office Department in the Trans- Mississippi Department, 1864-65. Instructions to postmasters and special agents, 1861. List of post offices, n.d. Route books, 1861-65. Dead letter register, 1864-65.


Textual Records: Letters sent by the Office of Ordnance and Hydrography, 1864-65. Records of a Board for Examining Midshipmen, 1861-62. Printed registers of naval officers, 1862- 64. Payroll for the crew of the steamer Alabama, 1863. Miscellaneous records relating to the navy, 1862-64.

Microfilm Publications: M909.

Related Records: For additional records of the Confederate Navy, SEE RG 45, Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library.

Engineering Drawings (3 items): Plans of the C.S.S. Alabama, 1861. SEE ALSO 109.15.


109.13.1 Records relating to states

Textual Records: Records relating to various states, 1861-65. Proceedings of a convention of the commissioners of appraisement, 1864. Copies of state constitutions legislative journals, statutes, and ordinances of secession correspondence, reports, and accounts of state officials and other records relating to AL, 1858-64 AR, 1859-61 FL, 1860-62 GA, 1858-65 KY, 1847-48 LA, 1856-65 MS, 1861-65 MO, 1861 NC, 1861-65 SC, 1825-63 TN, 1861 TX, 1859-64 and VA, 1859-65.

Microfilm Publications: M359, M998, T731.

109.13.2 Collections of papers of Confederate general officers

Textual Records: Letters and telegrams received by Robert E. Lee, 1861-65. Papers relating to J.B. Floyd, 1861. Papers of P.G.T. Beauregard, 1862-64 J.R. Chalmers, 1861-65 Jubal A. Early, 1861-65 S.G. French, 1861-65 T.C. Hindman, 1861-64 J.B. Hood, 1862-64 B.R. Johnson, 1862-65 Sam Jones, 1861-64 St. John R. Lindell, 1865 J.B. Magruder, 1862-64 Lafayette McLaws, 1861-65 J.C. Pemberton, 1862-64 G.J. Pillow, 1861-64 Leonidas Polk, 1861-64 C.L. Stevenson, 1863-65 E.C. Walthall, 1863-64 Joseph Wheeler, 1863-64 and W.H.C. Whiting, 1862-65.

109.13.3 Other records

Textual Records: "Citizens File," 1861-65 (1,300 ft.). Papers of and relating to military and civilian personnel, 1861-65 (480 ft.). Papers relating to Confederate sympathizers, deserters, guerrillas, and prisoners, 1861-65. "Vessel Papers," 1861-65. Manuscripts, 1861-65, with an index. Papers of George N. Sanders, 1860-63 Clement C. Clay, 1861-65 and Lt. Col. John Withers, 1840-60. Intercepted letters, 1861-65. Collection of Union, Confederate, British, and other foreign pamphlets, publications, and reprints, 1854-64. Original documents, 1860-65, selected for publication in The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington: Government Printing Office, 128 volumes, 1889-1901).

Microfilm Publications: M346, M347, M909.


109.14.1 Records of the Adjutant General's Office relating to
military and naval service of Confederates

Textual Records: "Carded" records showing army service, 1861-65 (5,474 ft.), with indexes. Naval and Marine Corps service records, 1861-65. Hospital and prison records of persons serving in the navy and the Marine Corps, 1862-65.

Microfilm Publications: For a detailed list of microfilm publications of Confederate compiled service records and indexes, please consult the current edition of the National Archives microfilm catalog.

109.14.2 Records relating to prisoners, oaths, and paroles

Textual Records: Letters and orders sent and received relating to prisoners, 1861-65. Records of Confederates in Union prisons, 1861-65 (227 ft.). Registers, rolls, lists, and other records of Confederate, federal, political, and civil prisoners received, transferred, escaped, paroled, died, buried, discharged, and released, 1861-65. Descriptive lists of prisoners, 1862-65. Records relating to Confederates in Union hospitals, 1861-65. Hospital registers, 1864-65. Morning reports of prisoners, 1862- 65. Ledgers of prisoners' accounts, 1862-65. Cash books, 1863-65. Mess books, 1862-63. Records of articles received for and delivered to prisoners, 1864-65. Stubs, receipts, and records of prisoners' money received, 1862-65.

Microfilm Publications: M598.

Related Records: Confederate records relating to Union prisoners of war in RG 249, Records of the Commissary General of Prisoners.

109.14.3 Records of the Archive Office

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1865-80. Letters received, 1865- 81, with register. Report of Francis Lieber, Chief of the Archive Office, 1866. Record of answers to inquiries, 1882-94. Orders and regulations relating to the Archive Office, 1865-81. Memorandum relating to Confederate Archives, 1865-80. Time book of clerks, 1891-94. Newspaper clippings, 1874-94. Report and papers of Marcus J. Wright, 1876-86. Catalogs of Confederate military records, 1878-1900. Records relating to the exchange and treatment of prisoners in southern prisons, 1861-65, with schedules. List of accounts received by the Archive Office, 1865. Copies of miscellaneous correspondence for the period 1862-65, n.d. Index to local Confederate military organizations, n.d. "Index to Field Returns, Morning Reports, Organizations, Etc., C.S. Army, 1861-65," n.d.

109.14.4 Miscellaneous records

Textual Records: "Union Provost Marshal Citizens File," 1861-67 (479 ft.). Correspondence concerning property taken by Confederates in Missouri, 1864-65. Letters sent by Jacob Thompson, U.S. Secretary of the Interior, 1857-60. Ships' papers for vessels operating from various southern ports, 1850-60. Register of maps in possession of or prepared by the Engineer Office of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina (Union), 1865.

Microfilm Publications: M345, M416.


Maps: Civil War campaigns and fortifications, 1861-65.

SEE Engineering Drawings UNDER 109.12.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.

G.O.P. Path Recalls Democrats’ Convention Disaster, in 1924

A presidential candidate who banked on support from the Ku Klux Klan. Blunt demands to ban certain religions and races from playing a full role in society. Violence and disorder at campaign rallies.

And a political party that tore itself apart not only over whom it would nominate for president, but also over whether religious and racial bigotry would be visible in its fabric.

Welcome to the 1924 Democratic National Convention, held at Madison Square Garden in New York, when the most powerful bloc in the Democratic Party was the Klan, fiercely opposed by the Tammany Hall Democrats. It was the longest political convention in American history, going 16 days and requiring 103 ballots before a compromise candidate was selected.

The convulsions of the Democrats in 1924 are, in broad movements, mirrored in the rived and bedraggled pilgrimage of the Republicans in 2016 as they stagger toward their convention behind Donald J. Trump and his rivals.

In 1924, there were fistfights in the aisles and roosters released in the galleys the police were called to break up the rumbles. Tammany backed the candidacy of Gov. Alfred E. Smith of New York, a Roman Catholic, reviled by the Klan for his religion and his stature as a champion of the newest Americans, and by “dry” Democrats for his opposition to Prohibition. The candidate of the Klan, and many other Democrats, was a California lawyer, William G. McAdoo, the son-in-law of former President Woodrow Wilson.

During the convention, 20,000 Klansmen attended a rally in New Jersey to denounce Governor Smith. “They beat an effigy of him into a pulp,” Robert A. Slayton wrote in his biography, “Empire Statesman: The Rise and Redemption of Al Smith.”

An existential battle was at hand, Mr. Slayton wrote: “As the Democratic convention unwittingly set out to fight over the meaning of America, McAdoo served as the perfect opponent for Al Smith.”

Without air-conditioning, the Garden in July 1924 was a steaming, stifling caldron. The Tammany operatives hoped to wear down the opposition by dragging the proceedings on and driving up hotel bills. To keep the Southern delegates from abandoning the city — and to make sure Smith did not win the nomination — the publisher William Randolph Hearst picked up some tabs for lodgings. The galleries were packed with raucous crowds. A pigeon, styled as a “Dove of Peace,” was released into the arena and its presence in the rafters “caused nervous glances to be cast heavenward by the assembled delegates,” Robert K. Murray wrote in “The 103rd Ballot: Democrats and the Disaster in Madison Square Garden.”

“This gathering heard more speeches, listened to more spoken words, experienced more fistfights, spent more time in committee, and witnessed more demonstrations than any other such assemblage in history,” Mr. Murray wrote.

Passions crested when some delegates proposed that the platform include the words, “We pledge the Democratic Party to oppose any effort on the part of the Ku Klux Klan or any organization to interfere with the religious liberty or political freedom of any citizen, or to limit the civic rights of any citizen or body of citizens because of religion, birthplace or racial origin.” The proceedings of the convention, which ran to 1,315 pages, report: “Resounding cheers, applause, rising demonstrations, delegates standing on chairs waving hats, the chairman vainly rapping his gavel for order disorder in the galleries cries of ‘Get out,’ ‘Say it again.’”

Senator Oscar Underwood of Alabama, who supported the anti-Klan plank, was denounced by the Klan as “‘the Jew, jug and Jesuit candidate’ — the ‘jug’ reference meant to disparage Underwood’s opposition to Prohibition,” Terry Golway wrote in “Machine Made: Tammany Hall and the Creation of Modern American Politics.”

The fight went on for hours, and ultimately, the Klan and its allies prevailed in the platform fight as a resolution to condemn them by name lost by less than one vote — 543 and three-twentieths votes to 542 and seven-twentieths votes. (Some delegates could cast fractional votes.)

Neither Governor Smith nor Mr. McAdoo came close to getting two-thirds of the delegates needed for the nomination. The compromise candidate, John W. Davis, got only 29 percent of the vote when he ran in the general election against President Calvin Coolidge.

Four years later, Governor Smith won the Democratic nomination, but the Klan awaited him as he crossed the country, burning crosses and spreading lies. “The Grand Dragon of the Realm of Arkansas, writing to a citizen of that state, urges my defeat because I am a Catholic,” he said in a speech. “During all of our national life, we have prided ourselves throughout the world on the declaration of the fundamental American truth that all men are created equal.”

G. O. Smith - History

took all the crops for about five years, which made it very hard for the early settler, and in 1894, the crops were a total failure in this part of the county. Deer and antelope were plentiful, and prairie fire had to be fought many times to save their crops and homes.
In 1854, Mr. Uecker was married to Miss Mary Timmer. HERMAN AHLMAN .

Among the old settlers of Pierce county, Nebraska, may be mentioned Herman Ahlman, who came to Pierce county from Germany in 1871. Mr. Ahlman was born in Pomerania province, Germany, in 1848, the son of Adam Ahlman, who was born in 1824, and Wilmena (Manske) Ahlman who died eighteen years ago, at the age of seventy-one years.
Mr. Ahlman came to America from Bremen on the steamship "Ohio," and, after landing, came on to West Point, Nebraska, from there walking sixty miles to his claim, a pre-emption claim which he had purchased, and built a sod and log house. He suffered many discouragements during his first years of residence in Nebraska, grasshoppers taking his crops for two year. He well remembers the blizzards of 1873 and 1888.
In 1881, Mr. Ahlman was united in marriage to E. Kollerman, and they are the parents of eight children: Clara, who married Oscar Lahman, and has three children Johona, Paul, Elma, Alma, Ella, Otto and Laurence.
Mr. Alhman now owns four hundred and eighty acres of land in section seven, township twenty-five, range one, twenty-two acres being in trees. He is a member of the German Lutheran church, and votes the democratic ticket.


Charles Bordman Specie [sic], deceased, was born in Columbus, Nebraska, January 8, 1869, a son of Charles A. and Katherine (Becher) Specie (sic). He was fourth in a family of seven children. Two brothers and a one sister reside in Columbus, Nebraska one brother in Chicago, one brother in Kingfisher, Oklahoma, and two sisters in Guthrie, Oklahoma. The parents died in Columbus, the father in July, 1909, and the mother in January, 1909.
Mr. Speice received his education in the local schools, and later engaged in railroading, shortly afterwards going to Oklahoma, and taking up a homestead in January of 1894. He remained there for two years, when he returned to Columbus, Nebraska, and entered the train service of the Union Pacific railroad. On January 1, 1908, he resigned his position as conductor to take charge of the coal business established by his father in the earlier years of Platte county.
Mr. Speice was married, October 19, 1898, in Columbus, Nebraska, to Miss Alice M. Elias, who was born in South Dakota. Mr. and Mrs. Speice had four children, three of whom are living: Letitia A. Charles A., who died in infancy, in 1902 Bordman Elias, and Gustavis Becher.
Mr. Speice died February 9, 1909, in Columbus, survived by his wife and three children. He was one of the younger native pioneers, and was widely and favorably known, enjoying the esteem of all who knew him. He was a member of several fraternal organizations: the Eagles, the Brotherhood of Railroad Conductors, the Mannerchoir, and the Sons of Herman.
The parents of Mrs. Speice, Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Elias, live in Columbus, and also two brothers and three sisters. One sister resides in Los Angeles, California. Mrs. Speice, with her three children, still lives in her Columbus home, surrounded by a large circle of friends.


The subject of this sketch, J. Mittelstaedt, was born in 1849, the son of Martin Mittelstaedt, who was born in 1796, and Dora Pasa Mittelstaedt, natives of Prussia. The father served in the Prussian army during the war with France in 1815.
In 1869, Mr. Mittelstaedt left Germany, and came to America. He spent one year in Wisconsin, being engaged in the fur business in Milwaukee. In 1870, he came to Nebraska, and took up a homestead, and his first home was a dugout, which was replaced by a frame house in 1885. The nearest market was Fremont, one hundred and twenty miles distant. He had no team at first, being obliged to wait until two calves, which he had purchased, became large enough to drive. He bought his first horses in 1876. Mr. Mittelstaedt went through many hardships, grasshoppers taking his crops for three successive years. He went through the blizzards of 1873 and 1888, but they did him no damage, as he had at that time nothing to lose. At one time he suffered the loss of his dugout by prairie fire, but within three hours had made another. Deer and elk were plentiful in those early days, and he made his living trapping in the winter, and making up the furs for sale.
In 1887, Mr. Mittelstaedt was married to Matilda Spreeman, and they are the parents of nine children: Otto, Wildes, Hugo, Clara, Ernest, Helma, Eria, Lillie and Martin. The family reside on the farm in section twenty-five, township twenty-five, range two. Mr. Mittelstaedt having built a fine, modern home in 1900.

Mr. Mittelstaedt is a member of the German Lutheran church, and of the Sons of Herman lodge. H. D. REYNOLDS .

H. D. Reynolds, son of Amos and Louisa (Thatcher) Reynolds, was born in Pine Grove, Warren county, Pennsylvania, July 17, 1838. He was the eldest of nine children, of whom one brother resides in Iowa, one in New York state, two in Nebraska, one sister in Oregon, and one sister, Mrs. Addison Parker, in Nebraska. The father died in New York state in 1860, and the mother May 9, 1909, in Nance county, Nebraska, aged eighty-two years.
When a child, Mr. Reynolds went with his parents to New York state, where he received his education, and later engaged in farming. On August 8, 1862, he enlisted in Company G, One Hundred and Fifth-fourth New York Volunteer Infantry, and, after enduring severe exposures, suffered an attack of typhoid fever, and was discharged in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in February, 1863. In August, 1863, he re-enlisted in Company G, First New York Veteran Cavalry, serving until the close of the war, receiving his honorable discharge in Rochester, New York, in July, 1865. He was engaged in several decisive battles, being with Hunter on the raid to Lynchburg, Pennsylvania, Cedar Creek, New Market, Piedmont, Winchester, Harper's Ferry, and was in many minor skirmishes and battles.
After the war, Mr. Reynolds returned to New York state, and on December 15, 1868, was married to Charlotte C. Loop, who was born in Pennsylvania, and later moved to New York state.
On April 8, 1871, our subject came to Merrick county, Nebraska, where he homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of land, seven miles northeast of what was then known as Lone Tree station, living on same for two years. He then moved to Central City, engaging in the stock and general merchandise business. In 1875, he shipped the first carload of fat hogs ever sent out of Merrick county. He also ran a meat market for thirteen years. During these years, Mr. Reynolds was prosperous and successful, owning one thousand acres of land in Merrick county. In 1904, he sold his business interests and invested in Colorado timber property, and also in mining properties. On October 9, 1909, he filed on a homestead of four hundred and eight acres, in Garfield county, Nebraska, and will now make that his home.
Mr. Reynolds has been a prominent pioneer business man of Merrick county, and is widely and favorably known.


The subject of this sketch, Fred Prahl, was born in Latholf, Germany, in 1842, a son of Fritz Prahl, who was born in 1806, and K. Fettem Prahl.
Mr. Prahl came to Pierce county, Nebraska in 1884 from Germany, and bought land, which he has built up and improved, now owning three quarter-sections in section thirty, township twenty- seven, range two, on which is one acre of fine trees.
In 1869, Mr. Prahl was married and he now has three children: William, Ernest and Fred. He is a member of the Lutheran church.


John W. Bovee, son of John and Sarah (Harlan) Bovee, was born in Wayne county, Illinois, August 16, 1843, the third in a family of six children, four of whom survive: our subject, one brother in Washington county, Nebraska, and one brother and one sister in Wisconsin. The mother died in October 1887, in Iowa, and the father April 2, 1902, in Blair, Nebraska.
In August, 1862, Mr. Bovee enlisted in Company E, Seventh Illinois Infantry, for three years, but after nine months' service, was discharged on account of disability . He participated in the battle at Corinth, October 3 and 4, 1862.
After the war, Mr. Bovee returned to Illinois, and attended the Illinois Wesleyan University at Bloomington for several years, afterwards engaging in teaching.
Mr. Bovee was married on January 1867, to Margery Critchfield, who was born in Ohio, but later came to Illinois. In the spring of 1867, they went to Missouri, where Bovee entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church. In October of 1873, they came to West Point, Nebraska, where he was pastor of the Methodist Episcopal church for one year, when he was transferred to the church at St. Paul, Nebraska.
In June of 1874, Mr. Bovee purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land in Madison county, Nebraska, adjoining Norfolk on the northwest, and in the spring if 1876, moved on this farm, living there until 1907, when he retired and moved to Norfolk, where he purchased a good home.
Mr. and Mrs. Bovee have had nine children, six of whom are living: Addie, married to Ellis Bradford, lives in Shenandoah, Iowa, and has one child Henry H., lives in California William J., lives in Los Angeles, California Anna J., married to Louie Rantenberg, lives in Madison county and Roy A. and Carl, living on the farm near Norfolk.

Mr. and Mrs. Bovee are among the early settlers of Nebraska, and have passed through all of the experiences and hardships of pioneer life. They are widely and favorably known. JACOB SMITH (deceased), AND JOHN SMITH .

Jacob Smith and family of wife and eight children came to Colfax county, Nebraska, in March, 1868, from Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Smith were natives of Germany, and were married in Pennsylvania. Previous to coming to Colfax county, Mr. Smith had purchased land in Colfax county, four and one-half miles southeast of Richland post-office, and upon coming to the county, the family settled upon their three-hundred-acre ranch. Mr. Smith was one of the early pioneer seettlers (sic) of Colfax county, and lived on the original (purchased) homestead farm until the time of his death in the fall of 1880. The death of his wife occurred in the old farm in June, 1907. All of the children are living. Of the sons, John and Charles Smith reside in Colfax county, Jacob Smith lives in Colorado, and William Smith in another state. Of the daughters, Mrs. Catherine Kohler and Mrs. Polly Abort reside in Richland township, Mrs. Jacob Kifer in Schuyler, Mrs. John Mitchell northeast of Schuyler nine miles, and Mrs. Able Freeline lives in Nevada. The Smith family was well known in Colfax county.
John Smith was born in Somerset county, Pennsylvania, Mary 13, 1859, and was the sixth of the nine children of Jacob and Sarah Smith. Coming with his father and family to Colfax county in his ninth year, he grew up on the farm, and went out for himself in 1880. Mr. Smith passed through all the early years of Colfax county, and is a pioneer who has seen the ups and downs of the early settlers. Mr. Smith owns the old home farm, and is also a prosperous and successful business man, engaged in the hardware and implement business in Benton, having a well-stocked store, and doing a fine business. Mr. Smith is an up-to-date merchant, and at the same time a successful farmer and stockman. He is a progressive citizen, always standing for advancement along all lines, and in 1904, 1905, and 1906, served as county commissioner for the first district of Colfax county.
John Smith was married to Miss Lena Yonkie, July 13, 1884, in Schuyler, Nebraska. The Yonkie family were old pioneers of Colfax county. Mr. and Mrs. Smith have eleven children, all of whom were born in Colfax county, and all of whom reside at home. They are named as follows: George, Agnes, Charles, Mable, John, Oliver, Alice, Hazel, Viola, Harold and Donald. Mr. and Mrs. Smith and family are well known, and have the respect and esteem of a large circle of friends.


John Stdre was born in Bohemia in 1838, the son of Joe Stdre, born in 1800, who was a weaver in Bhoemia (sic). In 1863, our subject, with his parents, went to Humbolt, from there going to Huldon, England, where they embarked in the sailboat "Queen Victoria" for Quebec, Canada, the voyage lasting seven weeks and three days. They later came to Michigan, and in 1872 came to Dodge county, Nebraska. From Dodge county, Mr. Stdre homesteaded in section two, township twenty, range six, and built a log house, his nearest market being West Point. For three years, grasshoppers took his crops, and in the blizzard of 1873, he was almost frozen to death. Since coming to Pierce county in 1890, Mr. Stdre has bought the farm he now lives on, in section thirty-three, township twenty-eight, range two, on which he has a fine orchard. In 1894, which was also the dry year, he was hailed out, his crops being a total failure.
In 1870, Mr. Stdre was married to Anna Paul, and they are the parents of six children: Mary, who married Frank Croper Joe, who married Jennie Letherball Charles, who died in 1889 John, who married Kate Bassholt Frank, who married Miss Coupleman and Anna, who married Frank Simmon.


Evan L. Gillham, who was born in Madison county, Illinois, May 20, 1875, is a son of Reverent Lewis J. and Sophronia J. (Floyd) Gillham. The father was born in Madison county, Illinois, April 17, 1852, and now lives in Hall's Summit, Kansas, and the mother was born November 9, 1844, also in Madison county, and died January 22, 1901, in Louisburg, Kansas.
Mr. Gillham's paternal grandparents were Samuel P. and Louise (Gillham) Gillham, who were both born in Madison county, Illinois, the former December 22, 1809, and the latter September 6, 1811. The Gillhams were the first settlers in Madison county, Illinois, the first of the family having come from South Carolina to Madison county in 1795. At one time over five hundred descendants of this family were voters in the county, and they all voted to make Illinois a free state when it was admitted to the union.
James Gillham was the first of the family to come to Illinois, and the reason for his doing so was that in an attack by the Indians, his wife and family were captured, and he started after them, finding his wife and all the children, except one daughter who had been sold to a French family in St. Louis. It took several years after she was located for the family to redeem her. James Gillham was a soldier in the Revolutionary army, and his brother, John, was a captain under General Francis Marion.

The maternal grandparents of our subject were Josiah K. and Elizabeth (Randle) Floyd, both born in North Carolina, the former on May 1, 1819, and the latter February 21, 1820. They both came to Illinois with their parents, and were married in Madison county.
Mr. Gillham's parents were married August 6, 1873, in Madison county, where the father of our subject was a farmer, and where he continued to farm until 1877, when, with his family, he moved to Lawrence, Kansas, where he learned and worked for a number of years at the blacksmiths' trade, after which he entered the Methodist Episcopal ministry, and has since served in that capacity in eastern and southeastern Kansas. Our subject was the first of three children, the others being Ralph R., of Dallas, Texas, and Nita, wife of Chris Williams, of Erie, Kansas.
Evan L. Gillham was educated in the public schools of Kansas, and started for himself when about fourteen years of age, working on a farm during the summer, by the month, and attending school during the winter. When he was nineteen years of age, he secured a position with H. L. Stevens, of Lawrence, Kansas, to learn the implement business, and worked there three years during the summer season. He then went to Paola, Kansas, with the firm of Griffith & Company, in the same business, for three years.
In 1900, Mr. Gillham entered the service of the Deering Harvester Company, as salesman and expert, traveling in north Kansas for nearly two seasons. He was then ordered to South Dakota, and worked out of the Sioux Falls general agency in the same capacity about fourteen months. In the fall of 1902, when the International Harvester Company was formed and the Deering Company was merged into it, Mr. Gillham was retained in the employ of the International Company as a block man, his territory covering northeastern Nebraska and Gregory county, South Dakota. He served in that capacity until February, 1911, with the exception of four months in 1904, when he was sent by the company as salesman to Great Britain, his work being principally in Wales.
Herko Koster the hotel known by his name, at Niobrara, the firm name being Koster and Gillham, and the business being conducted by them up to the present time under the management of Mr. Koster until February, 1911, since which time Mr. Gillham has been devoting his attention to the hotel.
December 28, 1904, Mr. Gillham was married to Minnie K. Koster, a daughter of Herko Koster. To them one child, Mary, has been born.
In politics Mr. Gillham is a republican, and he is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having taken the fourteenth degree, that of the Scottish Rite. He is also a Knight of Pythias. GEORGE E. RICHARDSON .

Among the well-known residents of Madison county, Nebraska, may be mentioned George E. Richardson, who was born in Madison county, near Battle Creek, on the old homestead farm, February 28, 1871, and was the second of twelve children in the family of Frederick W. and Emily Richardson, who had six boys and six girls, five sons and five daughters now living. A sketch of Frederick W. Richardson appears elsewhere in this work.
Our subject received his schooling in the district schools of Madison county, and attended college one year at Shenandoah, Iowa. In his seventeenth year he taught a country school in Madison county, and then farmed the old farm for two years. At the time his father was county clerk of Madison county, in 1891, 1892 and 1893, he was copyist in the county clerk's office. In 1894 he worked for the James B. Hume Lumber Company, and during the hard year (1894) and 1895 and 1896, he taught school in Madison county.
September 2, 1896, Mr. Richardson was married to Miss Maud M. Hodges, at the home of her parents, William S. and Martha M. Hodges. Mr. and Mrs. Hodges became residents of Madison county in 1880, coming from Michigan. Mr. Hodges died in the spring of 1908, and Mrs. Hodges now resides with Mr. and Mrs. Richardson. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Richardson, Miriam Lois and Daniel H., both at home.
In the winter of 1896, Mr. Richardson moved to Norfolk, and worked in the sugar factory, and in March, 1897, went to Meadow Grove, Madison county, as principal of the public schools. In July he returned to Madison, and became assistant postmaster under S. J. Arnett, until October, 1898, purchasing at that time the McBride abstract business. In the fall of 1905, Mr. Richardson was the nominee of the republican party for county clerk of Madison county, being elected, and re-elected in 1907.
Prior to 1905, Mr. Richardson was the justice of the peace for four years, and for eight years was secretary of the Madison County Building and Loan Association. He was city treasurer for two terms, and at the present time is a member of the board of education and director of the Building and Loan Association.
Mr. Richardson has been actively identified with the business, official, educational and social life of Madison county for many years, and is one of the first of the native-born children of the county. He grew up in Madison county, and has many friends.


L. K. Springsteen, who was one of the most respected residents of Pierce county, was born

in 1849, a son of J. R. and Hulda (Hurley) Springsteen, on a homestead some twenty miles from Burlington, Iowa, which was their market place. The father was born in 1821 in Hudson, New York, and died in 1905, and the mother was born in 1821, and died in 1886. Our subject's brother, David R. Springsteen, served in the Civil war, in the Nineteenth Iowa, from 1862 to 1864.
Mr. Springsteen came to Pierce county from Iowa in 1866, and homesteaded in section nine, township twenty-five, range four, his first dwelling being a frame house. He suffered the inconveniences usual to the early settler, being obliged, among other things, to burn hay for fuel.
In 1878, Mr. Springsteen was married to Miss L. E. Parker, and they are the parents of one daughter, Josa. Mrs. Springsteen's father, Hobson Parker, took up a homestead in sections seventeen and twenty-eight, township twenty-five, range four. He served in the Fortieth Iowa during the Civil war, from 1860 to 1864.
Mr. Springsteen owned three hundred and twenty acres of land at the time of his death in 1910. He did his full share toward the upbuilding of his part of the county, and was highly respected in the community. In politics he affiliates with the republican party. WILLIAM DUCHER .

Prominent among the leading old settlers of Boyd county, Nebraska, the gentleman whose name heads this personal history is entitled to a foremost place. Mr. Ducher is a native of Germany, born in Thriger village, Prussia, in 1846. His father, Johann Ducher, who was born in Prussia in 1800, was a farmer, and served in the war of 1829 or 1830. His mother was born in 1809. The elder brothers of our subject and his twin brother also served in the wars in the old country, with Austria, France and Denmark.
In 1872, Mr. Ducher left his native land for America, sailing from Hamburg for New York on the steamship West Farlan. After landing in New York, he went to Chicago, where he remained twelve years. From 1879 to 1882, he was president of a milk company. In 1883, he left Chicago, and came to Garfield county, Nebraska, where he took up a homestead, and built a good frame house. He remained there until 1890, when he came to Boyd county, Nebraska, and took up one hundred and sixty acres of fine land, first living in a dugout, and later building a frame house, twelve by twelve feet. Mr. Ducher has a fine orchard of twenty acres.
In 1888, our subject had quite an experience in one of the great blizzards, as he had started for a load of corn, and was eighteen hours in the storm. He has suffered many discouragements since coming to Nebraska, his crops being destroyed by hail in 1893, 1905 and 1907.
Mr. Ducher was united in marriage to Miss T. Lange in 1875, and they are the parents of eleven children, four of whom are living: Hulda, Mary, Emma and Edmond.


G. O. Schmitt, who resides in section seven, township twenty-one, range two, is a native of Madison county, Nebraska, born in 1882, a son of Christ and Pleeba Schmitt. The father came to Madison county in 1871 from Illinois, traveling by railroad to Columbus, and from there driving to his claim. Our subject was born and raised on this homestead, and lived there with his parents until a few years ago, when he started farming for himself. He now has a beautiful, well-improved home.
In 1904, Mr. Schmitt was united in marriage to Miss Amelia Rubler, and they are the parents of two children, Lyle and Gladis.


E. Liesner, who resides in section eight, township twenty-six, range four, Pierce county, Nebraska, was born in Pomerania province, Germany, a son of August and Hannah (Kruger) Liesner. He received his education in his native county, and later engaged in farming. The elder Liesner served in the German army in 1841, in the war between Germany and Poland.
Mr. Liesner came to America in 1885, and bought land. He is now the owner of two hundred and eighty acres, five acres of which are in trees.
In 1894, our subject was united in marriage to Miss Anna Wonkey, of German descent. Mr. Liesner is a communicant of the Catholic church, and votes the democratic ticket.


Prominent among the leading old settlers of Antelope county, Nebraska, the gentleman whose name heads this personal history is entitled to a foremost place. His home is on section eighteen, township twenty-three, range seven. Mr. Harbottle is a man of active public spirit, always lending his aid and influence for the betterment of conditions in his community. Mr. Harbottle was born in Durham county, England, in 1862. His father, John Harbottle, was born in 1842, and his mother, Alice Harbottle, in 1842. His father was a miner in England. In 1869, our subject, with his parents, left England for America, and started for the west, going to Wyoming, where they remained two years. In 1871, they came to Madison county, Nebraska. The parents took a homestead, three miles northwest of New-

man's Grove, and there built a dugout, in which they lived seven years. Columbus was the market place, forty-five miles away. They experienced the grasshopper seasons, and the blizzard of 1873, when they could not get out of the house to feed stock for three days. In 1884, our subject took a homestead in Platte county, Nebraska, remained there until 1903, when he sold, and bought one hundred and sixty acres of land. He now farms four hundred and eighty acres of land, with the help of his family. In 1894, he lost all his crops by the hot winds. In 1883, Mr. Harbottle was married to Ida Bragger. They are the parents of the following named children: Gust, Arthur, Roy, Fred, Allen, Pearl and Bertha. MIKE VESELY .

The gentleman above named is a pioneer of northeastern Nebraska. He has lived many years in this section of the country, and has been a part of the growth and development of this region.
Mr. Vesely is a native of Bohemia, and was born in 1869, a son of Frank and Katie Vesely. He came to America in 1878 and bought land of a Mr. Myers, who was the homesteader. Mr. Vesely now farms six hundred and eighty acres of land, and has twelve acres of trees, his home being on section seven, township thirty-two, range eight. Three sisters of our subject also live in America.


Crawford Kennedy, son of Joseph and Mary Kennedy, was born in County Down, in Ireland, August 15, 1856, the youngest of thirteen children. He has one sister living in New York City, one sister in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the others being deceased. One brother, James M. Kennedy, who settled in Nebraska in 1880, died in Genoa in 1908. The father died in the early fifties, and the mother in 1869, both in Ireland. The Kennedys were a prominent family, and one of the most ancient Presbyterian families in North Ireland.
In 1871, in company with three sisters, Mr. Kennedy came to America, locating in Jersey City, New Jersey, and being engaged with the Colgate Soap Company until 1877. At that time he came to Boone county, Nebraska, homesteading one hundred and sixty acres in section twenty-six, township twenty-one, range six, which was his home place until 1880, when he was appointed deputy county clerk under John Peters, serving two years.
From September, 1882, until 1893, Mr. Kennedy was in the United States postal service, running over the main line of the Chicago Northwestern, then spending four years in the general freight office of the Northwestern railroad at Omaha. From 1901 to 1905, he served as chief clerk in the post-office of the United States senate in Washington. Since 1905, Mr. Kennedy has made his home in Albion, Boone county.
Mr. Kennedy has always been an ardent republican, and for twenty years has been actively connected with the republican state organization. In 1908 he, as representative of the national republican committee, traveled eighteen thousand miles with President Taft, campaigning in twenty-five states. No man in Nebraska enjoys a larger acquaintance among the leading men of the United States than Mr. Kennedy. He is a man of good attainments, of wide experience and travel, a man whose influence is far-reaching. Mr. Kennedy is interested in various business enterprises in Boone county.


Prominent among the old settlers of Knox county may be mentioned William Block, who has made this region his home since the fall of 1885, and who has done his share in the developing of the agricultural resources of this section of the country. Mr. Block lives in section fourteen, township thirty, range eight, where he has built up a valuable property through his industry and good management.
Mr. Block is a native of Germany, and was born in 1852 in Framwalde village, Pomerania, the son of William and Minnie (Pulshun) Block. Our subject learned the brickmakers' trade in the old country. In 1885, he left his native land and came to America, thinking there were more opportunities to rise in the world in the newer country. Three brothers and two sisters are also living in the United States.
Upon coming west, Mr. Block took up a homestead of eighty acres, and built a sod house. When he became settled, and had built up his home, he sent for his old sweetheart, Maneline Klongband, and they were married in 1886. Mr. and Mrs. Block are the parents of four children: Minnie, Emmett, Agust and William.
Mr. Block met with some discouragements since coming to Nebraska, losing all his crops in the hot winds of 1894, and also being burned out by prairie fires. He has prospered, however, notwithstanding these losses, and now owns five hundred acres of land.


Located very pleasantly in section ten, township twenty-six, range six, is to be found the gentleman whose name heads this biographical writing. His contributions to the making of northern Nebraska, while they have been largely unobtrusive, have been made with such persistent and invariable honesty of purpose and force of

character, and such an earnest desire to live the best American life, that he is widely known through Antelope county.
Joshua Miller is a native of Iowa, and was born in 1863. His father, James Miller, was born in Ohio, of German descent, and still lives at the age of eighty-eight years. He served in the Civil war, enlisting in 1864, and was discharged in 1865. The mother was of Scotch descent.
In 1873, our subject went to Armour, South Dakota, and lived there two years, returning to Iowa. He remained one year in Iowa, and then came to Antelope county, Nebraska, and bought land. He has since made this his home, and now owns four hundred acres of good land. He has thirty acres of the finest grove and orchard in this section of the county. The place is known as Cedar Lawn Farm.
Mr. Miller was married in 1884 to Miss Grace Seclouse, and they are the parents of nine children: Morgan, who married Zetta Kuns Elva, who married Mr. Helt Susie, who married Mr. Bently William, Herman, Dexter, Murrel, Freda and Bettie. A. W. SUKUP .

Located very pleasantly in section thirteen, township twenty-nine, range eight, is to be found the somewhat notable gentleman whose name introduces this biographical writing. He has been identified with the history of Knox county from a very early date.
Mr. Sukup is a native of Nebraska, and was born in 1876. His father, James B. Sukup, was a native of Germany, who came to this county, and settled in Minnesota, later locating in Nebraska -- first in Niobrara, an (sic) then, in 1865, at Norfolk, where he took up a tree claim, and built a good sod house. He afterwards came to Knox county, where he took up a tree claim, and built a log house, which was later destroyed, together with the trees on the claim, by prairie fire. This misfortune caused him to lose the claim. The family also suffered many other hardships in those early days, grasshoppers and hot winds destroying their crops.
Our subject A. W. Sukup, was united in marriage to Mary Chocholousek in 1900, and two children have been born to them.


Delancy L. Culver, a son of A. L. and Abigal Culver, was born in Wisconsin, September 17, 1848, and was fourth in a family of ten children. The mother died in 1862, and the father in 1893. Two brother (sic), Charles and Fred, live in Albion, Iowa,* and one sister in California. The father of our subject was a seeker after gold in California in 1849.
Mr. Culver received his education in his native state, and engaged in farming. February 15, 1865, he enlisted in Company A, Forty-ninth Volunteer Infantry, and served until the close of the war, receiving his honorable discharge, November 25, 1865.
On January 15, 1874, Mr. Culver was married to Mary Elizabeth Jones, who was a teacher in the public schools of Wisconsin. Mr. and Mrs. Culver have had two children: Hugh L., who lives in Council Bluffs, Iowa, married Francis Standerwick, of Boone county, and has two children, both boys and Maud, who married Frank Letson, and has one daughter, lives in Gordon, Nebraska. The father of Mrs. Jones died in 1906, and her mother lives in Grand Island, Wisconsin, one brother in Oklahoma, and two sisters and two brothers in Wisconsin.
In the spring of 1879, Mr. Culver came with his family to Boone county, Nebraska, and homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres of land in the southwest quarter of section five, township nineteen, range five, which remained his home farm until 1902, when he retired from active farm live and moved to Albion, purchasing a fine home, where he now lives. He has been prosperous and successful, and owns three hundred and twenty acres of land, together with valuable property in Albion.

*See article for brother Charles, living in Albion, NE!


Seth Miller, one of the old settlers of Antelope county, occupies a good home and valuable property in section twenty-two, township twenty-six, range eight. He has done his share in the upbuilding of his locality, and is well and favorably known throughout this part of the county.
Mr. Miller is a native of Iowa, and was born in 1862. His father, Earl G. Miller, was born in the state of New York in 1816, of German descent, and his mother, who was Miss Hawley before her marriage, was born in 1823, of French descent.
Our subject lived in his birthplace until he was twenty-eight years of age, receiving his education in the country schools. In 1890, the elder Miller traded his farm in Iowa for the farm on which our subject now resides. Gregory Miller, a brother of our subject, took up a homestead.
In 1904, Mr. Miller was united in marriage to Miss Adams, and they are the parents of two children, Flosy and Earl.


William Krueger, a native of Germany, and son of August Krueger, was a laborer in Germany, and served in the war of 1871. He came to America from Braman province on the steamship Herman, and settled in Madison county, Nebraska, in 1876. In 1884, he came to Pierce county, and now owns three hundred and twenty acres

© 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 for NEGenWeb Project by T&C Miller, P Ebel, P Shipley, L Cook

The young artist left school to record his debut album, Radio, which was a hugely successful mix of conventional song structure and pop-oriented rap. Music fans responded enthusiastically to the album&aposs singles, "I Can&apost Live Without My Radio" and "Rock the Bells," and bought more than 1 million copies of the recording. He appeared as himself in the feature film Krush Groove (1985) around this time, which was a fictionalized version of the early days of Def Jam. The members of Run-D.M.C., Fat Boys and New Edition also appeared in the film. His first speaking role was a small part in the 1986 high school football comedy, Wildcats.

In his follow-up album, 1987&aposs Bigger and Deffer, LL Cool J showed his softer side with the popular ballad, "I Need Love." The song became a hit on both the rap and pop charts. Two years later, he was back on the charts with his album Walking with a Panther.

It was his fourth album, Mama Said Knock You Out (1990), however, that became his biggest seller to date. Projecting a tougher, more "street" persona, LL Cool J won over new fans with the title track. The single was as popular in middle America as it was in the urban environs of his youth. For the song, LL won his first Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance. The album also featured the successful ballad "Around the Way Girl" and the straight-forward rap "The Boomin&apos System."

After stumbling with 1993&aposs "gangsta" style 14 Shots to the Dome, LL Cool J played up his sexy image with 1995&aposs Mr. Smith. The explicit single "Doin&apos It" featured a duet with rapper LeShaun. Another hit from the album, the romantic slow jam "Hey Lover" won a Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance.

By the late 1990s, LL Cool J had officially crossed over to a career as a legitimate actor. He appeared in the 1997 comedy B.A.P.S., starring Halle Berry and directed by Robert Townsend, and the 1998 horror flick Halloween H2O, with Jamie Lee Curtis. In 1999&aposs Any Given Sunday, LL showed off his acting chops, taking on a supporting role across from such heavy-hitting stars as Al Pacino, Dennis Quaid, Cameron Diaz and Jamie Foxx. He starred the crime drama In Too Deep with Omar Epps and Samuel L. Jackson that same year. Also around this time, LL Cool J wrote his autobiography, I Make My Own Rules, which was published in 1997.

Juggling his music and acting projects, LL Cool J released G.O.A.T. in 2000, which debuted at No. 1 on the Billboard chart. He then starred in the 2001 family drama, Kingdom Come, with Jada Pinkett Smith and Vivica A. Fox. Proving he was truly multi-talented, LL also authored a children&aposs book, And the Winner Is, which was published in 2002. Still, he never abandoned his music. In 2003, he released 10, which featured a duet with Jennifer Lopez.

LL continued to thrive as an actor, starring opposite Gabrielle Union in the 2003 romantic comedy Deliver Us From Eva. Taking on grittier fare, he also appeared in Michael Mann&aposs big-budget action flick S.W.A.T (2003), with Samuel L. Jackson and Colin Farrell. He then took on the lead role in the 2005 crime drama Mindhunters, in which he played a FBI profiler-in-training.

ਊround this time, LL Cool J continued to enjoy great musical success. He released The DEFinition in 2004, which featured the hit single "Headsprung." LL soon shared the secrets behind his remarkable physique. He co-authored the 2006 fitness book LL Cool J&aposs Platinum Workout: Sculpt Your Best Body Ever with Hollywood&aposs Fittest Star.

That year he starred with Queen Latifah in the romantic comedy Last Holiday, which made more than $38 million at the box office. LL also had a starring role in the 2007 independent crime thriller Slow Burn, with Ray Liotta.

Goat vs. G.O.A.T.: The History Behind Sports's Antithetical Animal Analogy

The picture accompanying this essay is of a fine Irish goat, which I took outside the main gate of the Listowel Race Course during the 155th running of the annual harvest racing festival in 2013. If I recall correctly, your man the goat was part of an advertising campaign for farming implements, of which he was said to be one. He did his job very well, as you see.

(A brief aside here. The appellation “your man” is often attached to third parties of many sorts and species. For example, “Your man the butcher has a drop taken. Please relieve him of the cleaver.” The great Irish genius Flann O𠆛rien made great use of it, once even referring to, “Your men, the birds.” Conclusion, as he once wrote, of the foregoing.)

Once they𠆝 separated as a species from sheep, which experts say happened 25 million years ago, goats have a noble history dating back to (drum roll, please) the dawn of civilization. In Mesopotamia’s Fertile Crescent, the bezoar goat may well have been the first domesticated farm animal. They are prominent in almost all human mythologies. Two goats named Tanngnjóstr and Tanngrisnir—pronounced “Tanager” and “Trichnosis,” I believe—were said to pull Thor’s chariot and, every night, he would eat them and then bring them back to life with his hammer. The Greeks thought so highly of goats that they made them the lower half of the god Pan, and Greeks, Egyptians and Romans all thought highly of the goat as a primal symbol of sexytime.

Charles P. Pierce/Sports Illustrated

The Bible is a bit harsher on the species. Celtic mythology gives us the Bocanach, a huge goat-creature that menaced travelers on dark country lanes. Goats are all over the Bible as well. In the Old Testament, they are highly praised for their utility as everything from burnt offerings to being the raw material for a tent over the tabernacle. However, in the New Testament, there’s that whole 𠇍ividing the sheep from the goats” passage from Matthew that complicates things, as it is the goats among us who are sent to everlasting perdition.

So, goats are deep in our cultural memory, no matter out of which part of the world our ancestors sprang. Somewhere in the dim past of American sportswriting, though, the goat became something different. A goat was an athlete who failed, garishly, hilariously, and at the worst possible time. In 1908, in the middle of a hot pennant race between his team and the Boston Braves, Fred Merkle of the New York Giants failed to touch second base on a walkoff single and, when he was called out, they had to replay the game a week later𠅊nd the Giants lost. This has gone down in history as Fred Merkle’s boner which, I admit, is worse than being called a goat for all eternity, but you get the point.

The history of our sports is loud with the braying of the goat. The butt-fumble. Wide right. The own goal from Colombia. (In this case, tragically, the goat actually was sacrificed.) Roberto De Vicenzo’s scorecard. Willie Shoemaker, maybe the best jockey of all time, standing up too soon and costing Gallant Man the 1957 Kentucky Derby. Earnest Byner’s fumble. Chris Webber’s timeout. Bartman and Buckner and a thousand others on thousands of other playing fields. (Being the goat in high school can be worse than failing in front of millions of viewers. See that awful Robin Williams movie, The Best of Times, for details.) In The Natural, right before Robert Redford smites the home run that causes a massive power failure, Robert Duvall is finishing up a cartoon in which Redford’s Roy Hobbs, who𠆝 struck out in every previous at-bat, is shown wearing the goat horns. You can look it up.

For centuries, from the Gospel of Matthew to the bleachers in Wrigley Field, nobody wanted to be the goat. Then, sometime in the last ten years, everything changed. Being the goat—or, more precisely, the G.O.A.T.�me the ultimate in athletic achievement. It confuses us old-timers when we hear it. Truly, it does.

Maybe it was Tom Brady who did it. Years ago, GQ Magazine did one of the first serious fashion photo spreads with Brady and, for reasons which passeth understanding, the photographer chose to pose Brady cradling a darling baby goat. As you might imagine, this set off general hilarity among Brady’s teammates. The quarterback showed up for a work a few days later to find the locker room festooned with copies of the picture one of Brady’s offensive linemen even wore a copy on his back. Flash forward then to 2017, when Brady turned 40, his teammates celebrated by bringing five live goats to practice, one for each of Brady’s Super Bowl wins, because, by then, being the goat had developed an entirely new meaning.

It used to be easy to identify the goat. The goat was the athlete in front of his locker with the 100-yard stare in his hand. The goat was Mike Torrez, the man who surrendered the home run to Bucky Bleeping Dent in 1978, standing in a tunnel under Shea Stadium in 1986, moments after Bill Buckner’s error, and hollering, “I’m off the hook!” Well, no, pal, you weren’t, but I take your point.

The Smith5Keys are designed to provide drivers with the knowledge and skills to create three important things while driving:

  • Space to maneuver their vehicle away from conflict
  • Visibility to detect danger and the potential for conflict with another vehicle or fixed object early
  • Time to react to volatile and complex driving environments

So, what exactly are the five keys?

Key 1. Aim High In Steering ®

  • Our eyes are designed to work for us at walking speeds.
  • The average person has not adjusted visually or mentally to the higher speeds of motor vehicles.
  • Look ahead to where you will be at least 15 seconds into your future.
  • A 15-second eye-lead time provides advanced warning and gives you an additional margin of safety.
  • Use improved eye-lead time for more efficient and economical driving.

Key 2. Get The Big Picture ®

  • While scanning ahead, do not forget the sides and rear.
  • Consistently update your information.
  • Check at least one of your mirrors every 5 to 8 seconds.
  • Do not focus attention on insignificant objects.
  • Stay alert to the relevant information that can assist you in making well-informed decisions.
  • Eliminate visual barriers by establishing proper following distance.
  • Stay far enough behind other vehicles to obtain the visibility necessary to make your own decisions.

Key 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving ®

  • Focusing on any object for too long diminishes your peripheral vision.
  • Scan all intersections before entering them.
  • Keep your eyes moving every 2 seconds.
  • Eye activity stimulates the brain. An active mind is better able to resist the effects of fatigue.
  • Avoid distractions in your vehicle and your thinking.
  • Recognize and avoid drivers who seem distracted.

Key 4. Leave Yourself An Out ®

  • The safest position in traffic is with few or no vehicles around you.
  • When possible, surround your vehicle with space.
  • Choose the proper lane and adjust speed accordingly to maintain your space cushion.
  • If you lose part of the cushion, work to keep at least the front and one side open.
  • Avoid tailgaters. When one is present, the collision potential is high.

Key 5. Make Sure They See You ®

  • Detect the presence of potential danger early.
  • Send your warning signals as soon as you think they will be recognized not too soon or too late.
  • Seek eye contact by using the warning devices on your vehicle.
  • Do not take eye contact for granted. Be sure your warnings are heeded.
  • Eye contact is valuable but it is no guarantee against the unexpected.

The Smith5Keys help drivers see, think and act their way through various driving environments, challenges and changes that exist regardless of where they travel or the vehicles they operate. The Smith5Keys apply to all types of driving conditions, making the training effective from the highways of Los Angeles to the roads of India.


Gordon Smith, creator of Naval-History.Net, died peacefully on 16 December 2016 aged 75.

Gordon started the site in 1998, initially with books he had written on the Royal and Dominion Navies of World War 2.
Over the following 18 years, Gordon massively expanded the site to include a wide range of naval history research.
This allowed often hard-to-find and difficult-to-interpret contemporary accounts to be made readily available.
The website was central to Gordon's life.
Through it he was able to pursue his most important goal: to memorialize the brave sailors who served.

Gordon will be missed dearly by his family and friends.

Donations to Gordon's favourite charity can be made here using a credit or debit card.
The site also supplies a phone number and address for donations.

Current Project Areas

ROYAL & DOMINION NAVY CASUALTIES by Don Kindell, US Researcher, compiled from original Admiralty Documents, introduced by Capt Christopher Page RN, previously Head of Naval Historical Branch (MOD)

UNITED STATES NAVY, COAST GUARD & MARINE CORPS CASUALTIES from contemporary documents and online US sources

  • World War 1, 1917-1918(contents) - US Navy & Coast Guard, US Marine Corps
  • World War 2, 1941-45(contents) - US Navy, US Coast Guard, US Marine Corps - compiled from ABMC, BuPers, DPAA, DVA, States Lists, USCG, USMC sites by name and by date

Latest World War 2:

WW1: US participation and Regia Marina Italiana details

USS Chauncey, Destroyer DD-3 (USN Photo)

NEW: REGIA MARINA ITALIANA - Flag Officers and Warships, 1915-1918


HMAS Warrego, destroyer
(State Library of Victoria)

314 logs online, 350,000 pages transcribed.
These include logs from ships present at the Battle of the Falklands, at Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, East Africa, and the China Station.

Follow this link for brief details of all ships.

USCGC Unalga (I) (USCG Photo)

Navy, Revenue Cutter Service/Coast Guard and Coast & Geodetic Survey ships operating mostly in the Arctic and in the Pacific Ocean.

Volunteers at Old Weather, a citizen science/history project, transcribe weather and historical data from the ships' logs. The historical transcriptions are published here, before and after they are edited by Naval-History volunteers. For more details, or to find out how to join in, visit the Old Weather Forum.

The forum also contains information about a sister project, Old Weather: Whaling, in which volunteers gather weather and ice data from US whaling ships, from the age of sail to the age of steam.

The Oregon Historical Society is dedicated to making Oregon's long, rich history visible and accessible to all. For more than a century, the Oregon Historical Society has served as the state's collective memory, preserving a vast collection of artifacts, photographs, maps, manuscript materials, books, films, and oral histories. Our research library, museum, digital platform, educational programming, and historical journal make Oregon's history open and accessible to all. We exist because history is powerful, and because a history as deep and rich as Oregon's cannot be contained within a single story or point of view.

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