Journey to America

Journey to America


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In the early 19th century sailing ships took about six weeks to cross the Atlantic. With adverse winds or bad weather the journey could take as long as fourteen weeks. When this happened passengers would often run short of provisions. Sometime captains made extra profits by charging immigrants high prices for food needed to survive the trip.

In 1842 the British government attempted to bring an end to the exploitation of passengers by passing legislation that made it the responsibility of the shipping company to provide adequate food and water on the journey. However, the specified seven pounds a week of provisions was not very generous. Food provided by the shipping companies included bread, biscuits and potatoes. This was usually of poor quality. One government official who inspected provisions in Liverpool in 1850 commented that "the bread is mostly condemned bread ground over with a little fresh flour, sugar and saleratus and rebaked."

Captains were sometimes accused of using rations to control the behaviour of their female passengers. William Mure, the British consul in New Orleans reported that one captain "conducted himself harshly and in a most improper manner to some of the female passengers having held out the inducement of better rations to two who were almost starving in the hope they would accede to his infamous designs." In 1860 the New York Commissioners of Emigration reported that there were "frequent complaints made by female emigrants arriving in New York of ill-treatment and abuse from the captains and other officers." As a result of their investigation Congress passed a law that enabled captains and officers to be sent to prison for committing sexual offences against female passengers. However, there is no evidence that anyone was ever prosecuted under this law.

Travellers often complained about the quality of the water on the journey. The main reason for this was that the water was stored in casks that had not been cleaned properly after carrying substances such as oil, vinegar, turpentine or wine on previous journeys. One immigrant travelling in 1815 described the water as having such "a rancid smell that to be in the same neighbourhood was enough to turn one's stomach".

To maximize their profits shipowners tried to cram as many people as possible on board for the trip. In 1848 the U. S. Congress attempted to improve travelling conditions, by passing the American Passenger Act. This legislation prescribed a legal minimum of space for each passenger and one of its consequences was the building of a a new, larger type of ship called the three-decker. The top two decks carried the immigrants and although they had more space, the journey was still unpleasant. It was very dark in the lower deck and their was also a shortage of fresh air. Whereas those on the upper-deck had to contend with the stench rising constantly from below.

Immigrants suffered many dangers when crossing the Atlantic. This included fires and shipwrecks. In August, 1848, the Ocean Monarch, carrying immigrants from Liverpool to Boston, caught fire and 176 lives were lost. As ships got larger so did the deaths from fires. In September, 1858, an estimated 500 immigrants died after a fire on the steamship Austria. Another 400 died on the William Nelson in July, 1865.

In 1834 seventeen ships shipwrecked in the Gulf of St Lawrence and 731 emigrants lost their lives. In a five year period (1847-52) 43 emigrant ships out of 6,877 failed to reach their destination, resulting in the deaths of 1,043 passengers. In 1854 the steamship City of Glasgowcarrying 480 emigrants went missing after leaving Liverpool and was never heard of again.

A major problem for emigrants on board ship was disease. There were serious outbreaks of cholera in 1832, 1848 and 1853. Of the 77 vessels which left Liverpool for New York between 1st August and 31st October, 1853, 46 contained passengers that died of cholera on the journey. The Washington suffered 100 deaths and the Winchester lost 79. All told, 1,328 emigrants died on board these ships on the way to America.

The most common killer was typhus. It was particularly bad when the passengers had been weakened by a poor diet. In 1847, during the Irish Famine, 7,000 people, most of them from Ireland, died of typhus on the way to America. Another 10,000 died soon after arriving in quarantine areas in the United States.

In 1852 shipping companies began using steamships to transport immigrants to America. This included the ships the City of Manchester and the City of Glasgow, that could transport 450 immigrants at a time from Liverpool to New York. The fare of six guineas a head was double that charged by sailing ships. However, it was much faster and by the 1870s the journey across the Atlantic was only taking two weeks.

Our water has for some time past been very bad. When it was drawn out of the casks it was no cleaner than that of a dirty kennel after a shower of rain, so that its appearance alone was sufficient to sicken one. Buts its dirty appearance was not its worst quality. It had such a rancid smell that to be in the same neighbourhood was enough to turn one's stomach.

The frequent complaints made by female emigrants arriving in New York of ill-treatment and abuse from the captains and other officers. caused us to investigate the subject; and from investigation we regret to say that after reaching the high seas the captain frequently selects some unprotected female from among the passengers, induces her to visit his cabin, and when there, abusing his authority as commander, partly by threats, and partly by promises of marriage, accomplishes her ruin, and retains her in his quarters for the rest of the voyage, for the indulgence of his vicious passions and the purposes of prostitution; other officers of the ship often imitate the example of their superior, and when the poor friendless woman, this seduced, arrive at this port, they are thrust upon shore and abandoned to their fate.

The Cigarmakers' Society Union of England, whose members were frequently unemployed and suffering, established an emigration fund - that is, instead of paying the members unemployment benefits, a sum of money was granted to help passage from England to the United States. The sum was not large, between five and ten pounds. This was a very practical method which benefited both the emigrants and those who remained by decreasing the number seeking work in their trade. After much discussion and consultation father decided to go to the New World. He had friends in New York City and a brother-in-law who proceeded us by six months to whom father wrote we were coming.

There came busy days in which my mother gathered together and packed our household belongings. Father secured passage on the City of London, a sailing vessel which left Chadwick Basin, June 10, 1863, and reached Castle Garden, July 29, 1863, after seven weeks and one day.

Our ship was the old type of sailing vessel. We had none of the modern comforts of travel. The sleeping quarters were cramped and we had to had to do our own cooking in the gallery of the boat. Mother had provided salt beef and other preserved meats and fish, dried vegetables, and red pickled cabbage which I remember most vividly. We were all seasick except father, mother the longest of all. Father had to do all the cooking in the meanwhile and take care of the sick. There was a Negro man employed on the boat who was very kind in many ways to help father. Father did not know much about cooking.

When we reached New York we landed at the old Castle Garden of lower Manhattan, now the Aquarium, where we were met by relatives and friends. As we were standing in a little group, the Negro who had befriended father on the trip, came off the boat. Father was grateful and as a matter of courtesy, shook hands with him and gave him his blessing. Now it happened that the draft and negro rights were convulsing New York City. Only that very day Negroes had been chased and hanged by mobs. The onlookers, not understanding, grew very much excited over father's shaking hands with this Negro. A crowd gathered round and threatened to hang both father and the Negro to the lamp-post.


Journey to America - History

Gottlieb Mittelberger from Germany, 1750
Crossing
Arrival

Emigrate or stay? writings from Ireland, mid to late 1700s (PDF)

The Atlantic Ocean was a much busier place in the 1700s than in the previous century. The number of ships crossing each year from Britain tripled from 500 in the 1670s to 1500 by the late 1730s. More people could afford the trip as the cost dropped by half between 1720 and 1770. And more Europeans were recruited to emigrate by their relatives in America and by the British government, striving to increase its colonies' population without depleting its home labor supply. 1 Between 1700 and 1775, over 250,000 people emigrated from Europe to the mainland British colonies. 2 And many people, of course, arrived from Africa. "Contrary to popular myth," writes historian Alan Taylor, "most eighteenth-century emigrants did not come to America of their own free will in search of liberty. Nor were they Europeans. . . . During the eighteenth century, the British colonies imported 1.5 million slaves&mdashmore than three times the number of free immigrants." Most were transported to the British Caribbean islands, and about 250,000 were sold in the mainland colonies. 3

Here we will focus on the experience of the transatlantic journey, for those traveling freely or forcibly, and the arrival in America. In the next two sections we will follow several new settlers as they restructure their lives in the colonies.

    Europeans' journeys. Crossing the Atlantic Ocean in the colonial period was a gruesome, life-threatening endeavor for all travelers, regardless of wealth or seamanship. Deciding whether to make the journey may have been harder. Here we read three Europeans' descriptions of their journeys&mdashan optimistic letter by the German farmer Christopher Sauer, a book discouraging emigration published by the German teacher Gottlieb Mittelberger, and the diary of Scotsman John Harrower, who earned his voyage as an indentured servant. The final text pairs two Irish writings&mdasha farmer's letter to a cousin in Pennsylvania, describing how he will "pluck up my spirits and make Redie for the Journey," and a poem written by a returned emigrant after giving "The New Island" a try. Compare the positions for and against emigration with those expressed by seventeenth-century emigrants in the toolbox American Beginnings.

  • - Christopher Sauer, (Sower), Germantown, Pennsylvania, Letter to "brothers and friends" in Germany, 1 December 1724, excerpt.
  • - Gottlieb Mittelberger, Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the Year 1754, 1756, excerpts.
  • - John Harrower, Journal (1774-1776), selection of 1774 entries.
  • - Anonymous, "An tOileán Úr" ("The New Island"), poem/folksong, mid to late 1700s.
  • - David Lindsey, Northern Ireland, Letter to Thomas or Andrew Fleming, Pennsylvania, 19 March 1758.
  • - Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself, London, 1789, excerpts.
  • - Boyrereau Brinch, The Blind African Slave, or Memoirs of Boyrereau Brinch, Nick-named Jeffrey Brace, Vermont, 1810, excerpts.
  1. How do the Europeans encourage or discourage emigration? What factors carry the most emotional force in their arguments?
  2. What aspects of the ocean journey are most distressing to the Europeans? to the Africans?
  3. Compare the eighteenth-century transatlantic journeys with those of the previous century (see supplemental links below). What has changed? What remains the same?
  4. What provides comfort or protection during the voyages?
  5. How do Equiano and Brinch respond to their first experiences with white men? to their arrival in Barbados?
  6. How do they apply Christian principles to admonish (and appeal to) the slavers?
  7. Based on the accounts of John Harrower and Gottlieb Mittelberger, describe the experience of an indentured servant from his or her departure from Europe to being "sold" in America.
  8. Compare the slaves' and indentured servants' experiences of arrival and sale in America. What aspects are similar? different? Why?
  9. Compare the seven readings by audience and genre&mdasha personal journal, a traditional poem, two private letters, and three published works. What does the reader learn through the different texts?
  10. Argue for and against the proposition that a private letter provides more authentic and accurate evidence than a published work.
  11. If you were a European immigrant, would you have chosen to live permanently in America, like Christopher Sauer, or would you have returned to your home country, like Gottlieb Mittelberger and the anonymous Irish poet? Why?
  12. If you were a freed slave, would you have remained in America, like Olaudah Equiano and Boyrereau Brinch, or would you have returned to Africa as many did in the 1800s? Why?

  • - Thomas Newe, journey to South Carolina in 1682
  • - Frances Daniel Pastorius, journey to Pennsylvania in 1683

The Middle Passage, in In Motion: The African American Migration Experience, from The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (New York Public Library)

Where was Olaudah Equiano born? by Brycchan Carey, Kingston University, Surrey, United Kingdom

2 T. H. Breen & Timothy Hall, Colonial America in an Atlantic World: A Story of Creative Interaction (New York: Pearson/Longman, 2004), p. 283.


Contents

1973–1977: Formation, Journey, Look into the Future and Next Edit

The original members of Journey came together in San Francisco in 1973 under the auspices of former Santana manager Herbie Herbert. Originally called the Golden Gate Rhythm Section and intended to serve as a backup group for established Bay Area artists, the band included Santana alumni Neal Schon on lead guitar and Gregg Rolie on keyboards and lead vocals. Bassist Ross Valory and rhythm guitarist George Tickner, both of Frumious Bandersnatch, rounded out the group. Prairie Prince of The Tubes served as drummer. After one performance in Hawaii, the band quickly abandoned the "backup group" concept and developed a distinctive jazz fusion style. After an unsuccessful radio contest to name the group, roadie John Villanueva [17] suggested the name "Journey". [18] [19]

The band's first public appearance came at the Winterland Ballroom on New Year’s Eve 1973 to an audience of 10,000, and the following day, would fly to Hawaii to perform at the Diamond Head Crater to a larger audience. Prairie Prince rejoined The Tubes shortly thereafter, and on February 1, 1974, the band hired British drummer Aynsley Dunbar, who had recently worked with Frank Zappa. On February 5, 1974, the new line-up made their debut at the Great American Music Hall in front of Columbia Records executives and secured a recording contract with the label following the performance and later performing at venues around Bay Area. [20]

Journey went into CBS Studios in November 1974 with producer Roy Halee to record their debut album. Their eponymous debut album was released in April 1975 entering the Billboard charts at number 138. Rhythm guitarist Tickner left the band due to the amount of heavy touring the band was doing in promoting the album, allowing Schon to take on the guitar duties. The band entered the studio again in late 1975 to record Look into the Future which was released in January 1976, entering the Billboard Top 200 charts at number 100. The band promoted the album with a two-hour performance at the Paramount Theatre in Seattle, which later aired on the radio as touring continued to promote their second album. [21]

From May to October 1976, the band went to His Master's Wheels Studios to record their third studio album, Next, and just like the previous album, was produced by the band themselves. They brought in a much more commercial sound while keeping their jazz fusion and progressive rock roots. [22] Following a performance at the San Diego Sports Arena on New Year's Day in 1977, the album was released in February and charted on the Billboard Top 200 at number 85. [23] Sales did not improve any and Columbia Records was on the verge of dropping the band. [24]

1977–1980: New musical direction, Infinity, Evolution and Departure Edit

I still think some of the stuff we did then was great. Some of it was self-indulgent, just jamming for ourselves, but I also think a lot of other things hurt us in the early days. It took a while for the politics to sort of shape up.
— Neal Schon [23]

Journey's album sales did not improve and Columbia Records requested that they change their musical style and add a frontman who would share lead vocals with Rolie. [24] The band hired Robert Fleischman and made the transition to a more popular style, akin to that of Foreigner and Boston. Journey went on tour with Fleischman in 1977, opening for bands like Black Sabbath, Target, Judas Priest and Emerson, Lake & Palmer. Fleischman and the rest of the band began writing and rehearsing new songs, including the hit "Wheel in the Sky". [24] [25] During a performance before approximately 100,000 at Soldier Field in Chicago, the band was introduced to Steve Perry. Differences between Fleischman and manager Herbie Herbert resulted in Fleischman's departure from the band within the year. [26] [27] [28]

Journey hired Steve Perry as their new lead singer. He made his live debut with the band at the Old Waldorf in October 1977, stepping into His Master's Studios and Cherokee Studios from October to December. Herbie Herbert, the band's manager, hired Roy Thomas Baker as producer to add a layered sound approach similar to that of Baker's previous band, Queen. [29] With their new lead singer and new producer, the band's fourth studio album, Infinity, released in January 1978, peaked at number 21 in Billboard. [30]

According to the band's manager Herbie Herbert, there were tensions between Aynsley Dunbar and the band due to the change in music direction from the jazz fusion sound. Neal Schon reflected on the tensions: "We would talk about it, and he'd say he'd be willing to simplify things. But we'd get out there, and after five shows he wasn't doing that at all." Dunbar started playing erratically and talking derogatorily about the other members, which later resulted in Herbert firing Dunbar after the Infinity tour. Dunbar was replaced by Berklee-trained drummer and Montrose member Steve Smith. [31] [32]

Perry, Schon, Rolie, Smith and Valory entered Cherokee Studios in late 1978 to record their fifth studio album Evolution which was later released in March 1979, peaking at number 20 in Billboard. The album, which would be a milestone for the band, gave the band their first Billboard Hot 100 Top 20 single, "Lovin', Touchin', Squeezin'", peaking at number 16 which gave the band significant airplay. [33] Following the tour in support of Evolution, the band expanded its operation to include a lighting and trucking operation for their future performances as the tour had grossed more than $5 million, making the band as popular as it had ever been in five years. [34] The band later entered Automatt Studios to record their sixth studio album Departure which was released in March 1980, peaking at number 8 in Billboard. The first single off of the album, "Any Way You Want It", peaked number 23 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1980. [35]

Keyboardist Gregg Rolie left the band following the Departure tour to start a family and undertake various solo projects. It was the second time in his career he had departed from a successful act. [36] Keyboardist Stevie "Keys" Roseman was brought in to record the lone studio track, "The Party's Over (Hopelessly in Love)", on the band's live album Captured. [37] Rolie suggested pianist Jonathan Cain of The Babys as his permanent replacement. With Cain's synthesizers replacing Rolie's organ, Cain had become the new member of the band. [38]

1981–1983: Height of popularity, Escape and Frontiers Edit

With Cain joining as the new keyboard player, the band entered Fantasy Studios in Berkeley, California, in late 1980, releasing their seventh studio album, Escape, in July 1981. Escape became their most successful album, charting at number one in the United States. The album had a clutch of hit singles which included: "Who's Crying Now", "Still They Ride", "Open Arms", and the iconic "Don't Stop Believin'". [39]

The band began another lengthy yet successful tour on June 12, 1981, supported by opening acts Billy Squier, Greg Kihn Band, Point Blank, and Loverboy, and Journey opened for The Rolling Stones on September 25. MTV videotaped one of their two sold-out shows in Houston on November 6, 1981, in front of over 20,000 fans, later released on DVD. [40] [41]

Following the success of the 1981 tour, the band's full establishment as a corporation, and the formation of a fan club called "Journey Force", the band released "Only Solutions" and "1990s Theme" for the 1982 Disney film, Tron. Schon had also made time to work with Jan Hammer on a few albums. [42] Journey continued touring in 1982 with shows in North America and Japan. [43]

With millions of records, hit singles, and tickets sold, the band entered Fantasy Studios again in the middle of their 1982 tour to record their eighth studio album, Frontiers. Released in February 1983, the band's second biggest selling album sold over six million copies, peaking at number 2 on the Billboard charts, and spawning the hit singles "Separate Ways (Worlds Apart)", "Faithfully", "Send Her My Love" and "After the Fall". [44]

Journey began the Frontiers tour in Japan, and continued in North America with Bryan Adams as opening act. [45] During the tour, NFL Films recorded a video documentary of their life on the road, Frontiers and Beyond, shooting scenes at JFK Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with more than 80,000 fans in attendance. [17]

1984–1987: Raised on Radio and more personnel changes Edit

After the Frontiers tour, the band took some time off. Lead singer Steve Perry and guitarist Neal Schon both pursued solo projects. In 1984 Steve Perry, with the help of the band's manager, Herbie Herbert recorded and released his first solo album, Street Talk. Neal Schon toured briefly in 1984 with his supergroup HSAS, in support of their sole album, Through the Fire released that year on Geffen. [46]

When asked if Journey was over due to the selling of their properties at the end of 1984, Neal Schon commented, "No way Journey's ending. We're all too committed to this band to ever let that happen. In fact, one of the reasons we decided to go off in separate directions for a while was to keep the band as strong as ever." [46]

Following a phone call between Cain and Perry, Journey returned to Fantasy Studios in late 1985 to record their ninth studio album Raised on Radio, but with Perry taking the role as the album's producer. Tensions within the band were shown when Herbert and Perry fired both bass player Ross Valory and drummer Steve Smith for musical and professional differences a few months into the recording sessions for the album, though Valory later admitted he left the band on his own accord. [32] [47] Bassist and future American Idol judge Randy Jackson, bassist Bob Glaub, and established drummer Larrie Londin were brought in to continue the album's recordings. [48] Raised on Radio was released in May 1986, peaking at number four on Billboard's album chart, but underperforming compared to the band's previous two efforts. [49] It featured five singles: The top ten hit "Be Good to Yourself" along with "Suzanne", "Girl Can't Help It", "I'll Be Alright Without You" and "Why Can't This Night Go On Forever?". [50]

The Raised on Radio tour began at Angels Camp in August 1986 and would perform sold-out shows throughout the United States before concluding with two shows in Anchorage in early 1987, with selected dates supported by Honeymoon Suite, The Outfield, and Glass Tiger. The tour would feature both Randy Jackson on bass and Mike Baird on drums, and was videotaped by MTV for a documentary that included interviews with the band members which was called Raised on Radio, the same as the album title. [51]

With tensions between Perry, the band and the band's manager Herbie Herbert at an all-time high following the tour's conclusion, Perry was unable or unwilling to remain actively involved and was tired of touring as it was affecting his health and his vocals. [52] [53] [54]

I called Jon and Neal together. We met in San Rafael, we sat on the edge of the marina, and I just told them, 'I can't do this anymore. I've got to get out for a while.' And they said: 'Well, what do you mean?' And I said: 'That's exactly what I mean, is what I'm saying. I just don't want to be in the band any more. I want to get out, I want to stop.' And I think Jon said: 'Well, just take some time off, and we'll think,' and I said: 'OK, fine.' And I just sort of fell back into my life. I looked around and realized that my whole life had become everything I'd worked so hard to be, and when I came back to have a regular life, I had to go find one.
— Steve Perry [54]

1987–1995: Hiatus Edit

The band went into a hiatus following the Raised on Radio tour. Columbia Records released the Greatest Hits compilation in November 1988, which became one of the biggest selling greatest hits albums, selling over 15 million copies and continuing to sell half a million to a million copies per year. The compilation spent 750 weeks on the Billboard album charts until 2008. [55] [56]

While Perry had retreated from the public eye, Schon and Cain spent the rest of 1987 collaborating with artists such as Jimmy Barnes and Michael Bolton before teaming up with Cain's ex-Babys bandmates John Waite and Ricky Phillips to form the supergroup Bad English with drummer Deen Castronovo in 1988, releasing two albums in 1989 and 1991. Steve Smith devoted his time to his jazz bands, Vital Information and Steps Ahead, and teamed up with Ross Valory and original Journey keyboardist Gregg Rolie to create The Storm with singer Kevin Chalfant and guitarist Josh Ramos, along with Herbie Herbert as the band's manager as he did with Journey with Scott Boorey. [55]

On November 3, 1991, Schon, Cain, and Perry re-united to perform "Faithfully" and "Lights" at the Bill Graham tribute concert 'Laughter, Love & Music' at Golden Gate Park, following the concert promoter's death in a helicopter accident. [57] In October 1993, Schon, Rolie, Valory, Dunbar, Smith, and Cain reunited and performed at a private dinner for their manager Herbie Herbert at Bimbo's in San Francisco, with Kevin Chalfant on lead vocals. [58] [59]

After the breakup of Bad English in 1991, Schon and Castronovo formed the glam metal band Hardline with brothers Johnny and Joey Gioeli, releasing only one studio album before his departure. Neal would later join Paul Rodgers in 1993 for live performances, alongside Dean Castronovo. [60] In 1994, Steve Perry had released his second solo album For the Love of Strange Medicine, and toured North America in support of the album, though his voice had changed since the last time he had performed. [61]

1995–1997: Reunion and Trial by Fire Edit

Perry made the decision to reunite with Journey under the condition that Herbie Herbert would no longer be the band's manager. The band hired Irving Azoff, longtime Eagles manager, as the new manager for the band in October 1995. Steve Smith and Ross Valory reunited with Journey and the band started writing material for their next album, with rehearsals beginning that same month. [62]

The band began recording their tenth studio album, Trial by Fire in early 1996 at The Site and Wildhorse Studio in Marin County and Ocean Way Recorders in which they would record under the producer Kevin Shirley. [63] It was later released in late October that year, peaking at number three on the Billboard album charts. The album's hit single "When You Love a Woman", which reached number 12 on the Billboard charts, and was nominated in 1997 for a Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal. [64] The album also produced three top 40 mainstream rock tracks, "Message of Love" reaching number 18, "Can't Tame the Lion" reaching number 33, and "If He Should Break Your Heart" reaching number 38. [65] [66]

Plans for a subsequent tour ended when Perry, troubled by pain while hiking in Hawaii on a ten-day break in August 1996, discovered he had a degenerative bone condition and could not perform without hip replacement surgery—which for some time he declined to undergo, later admitting he had other physical issues. The accident resulted in the album's release date being delayed. [67] [68] [69]

The album upon its release was considered the worst selling album that failed to match up to the charm of the band's previous work. Schon would later admit that the album had too many ballads and fans just wanted to hear a rock sound: "Even on our last record, the Trial By Fire record, a lot of the rock stuff just got shelved and ended up being like twenty ballads, I don't know how many ballads." The band would take a break following the album's release to work on solo projects, waiting for Perry to make up his mind on if he wanted to tour. Schon would release his solo album Electric World in 1997, later creating Abraxas Pool with former Journey member Gregg Rolie, drummer Michael Shrieve and a few former Santana members. Cain would release his two solo albums, Body Language in 1997, and For A Lifetime in early 1998. [70]

1998–2007: Lead singer and drummer replaced, Arrival and Generations Edit

Following the reunion album's release, the band was becoming restless of waiting for an answer from Perry regarding touring. Following a phone call between Cain and Perry, Perry would later announce that he would be departing from Journey, releasing himself from the band's contracts and making the decision to semi-retire from the music business, disappearing from the public eye again. Steve Smith would later exit the band, citing that Journey would not be Journey without Perry, and returning to his jazz career and his project Vital Information. [71]

The band hired drummer Deen Castronovo, Schon's and Cain's Bad English bandmate and drummer for Hardline, to replace Steve Smith. After auditioning several high-profile candidates, including Geoff Tate, Kevin Chalfant and John West, [72] Journey replaced Perry with Steve Augeri, formerly of Tyketto and Tall Stories. [73] The band would later record the song "Remember Me" which would be featured on the Armageddon soundtrack for the 1998 film. Upon the song's release, the song had shown fans that the band made the right decision in hiring Augeri. [74]

Following a rehearsal with Augeri and Castronovo, the band went to Japan to perform four gigs, which was a known stronghold for the band's performances. When asked how he felt about touring again in over a decade, Schon commented: "It's a little like we are reborn again." Journey embarked on a tour in the United States titled Vacation's Over which began in October and concluded at the end of December in Reno. They would continue the tour with another leg in 1999, beginning in Minnesota in June and concluding in Michigan in September. [75]

From March to August 2000, the band entered Avatar Studios to record their next studio album, Arrival with producer Kevin Shirley. The album was released in Japan later in the year. A North American release of the album followed in April 2001. The album had peaked at number 56 on the Billboard charts. The album's single "All the Way" failed to boost sales for the album which was considered a disappointment with mixed opinions regarding the album and resulted in Sony dropping the band from their label. Upon the album's completion, the band embarked on a tour in support of the album in Latin America, the United States and Europe. [76]

During the events of September 11, 2001, in response to the attacks in New York City, the band joined various bands at a major fundraising event to help the victims and families of the attack held on October 20 and 21 at the Smirnoff Music Centre in Dallas, Texas. The event raised about one million dollars. [77]

Activity in Journey was quiet in 2002, Schon would form Planet Us with bandmate Castronovo, Sammy Hagar and former Van Halen bassist Michael Anthony until 2004 when the band had disbanded. Schon would also co-write songs alongside the band Bad Company, while Cain released another solo album. Having made some recordings between 2001 and 2002, the band released a four-track EP titled Red 13 in November under their new label "Journey Music", with an album cover design chosen through a fan contest with the online cover designed by Kelly McDonald while the retail cover which was only made available at the band's performances was designed by Christopher Payne. The band only performed one club gig in support of the EP, but later began another tour of the United States from May to August in 2003. The band continued touring the following year with another summer tour titled Summer Detour which began from June and concluded in September 2004. In November, Journey would later join both REO Speedwagon and Styx for a tour around the Caribbean aboard the Triumph cruise ship. [78]

In 2005, the members of Journey was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame alongside former members Perry, Dunbar, Tickner, Steve Smith and Fleischmann. Rolie was the only member who did not appear at the ceremony. Surprised to see Perry joining them to accept the induction with the band, Valory commented on the wonderful things Perry had to say in which he looked to be in fine shape, and that it was a pleasant surprise to see him. [79]

Following their accolade on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, the band began recording at the Record Plant in Sausalito, California for their twelfth studio album, Generations which would feature producer Kevin Elson who collaborated with the band before. The album was released on August 29 in Europe with a North American release following on October 4. The album peaked at number 170 on the Billboard charts. To promote the album and celebrate the band's 30th anniversary, the band embarked on a tour starting in Irvine, California in June and concluding in Phoenix on October. Each concert on the tour was three hours long with an intermission and featured many of their classic hits as well as the inclusion of the new songs from the album. [80]

In 2006, the band toured in Europe and then joined Def Leppard in a North American tour. During the tours however, there were suggestions that Augeri was not singing but was using backing tracks to cover up his deteriorating vocals, resulting in him getting attacked by the fans. Augeri had been suffering from vocal attrition problems before the band began the tour with Def Leppard and Journey had been accused of using pre-recorded lead vocals, [81] an accusation that former manager Herbie Herbert insists was true. [59] Valory denied the accusations, stating that it was an urban myth, and that Augeri's vocals did not give out. In a press statement, the band later announced that Augeri had to step down as Journey's lead singer and leave the tour to recover. Augeri performed his last show with Journey on July 4 in Raleigh. [82]

With the successful tour still happening, the band were quick to hire Jeff Scott Soto from Talisman as their lead vocalist. He performed as Journey's vocalist for the first time on July 7 in Bristow. The tour, by its success and popularity would later be extended to November. Soto would later be officially announced as the band's new vocalist in December 2006. [83] Following tours of Europe and the United States in 2007, the band announced on June 12 that Soto was no longer with them. [84] [85] In a statement, Schon stated: "He did a tremendous job for us and we wish him the best. We've just decided to go our separate ways, no pun intended. We're plotting our next move now." [86]

2007–2019: Lead singer replaced again, Revelation and Eclipse Edit

Following Soto's departure, the band was without a lead vocalist again. Neal Schon began searching YouTube for a new lead vocalist. The band had considered hiring Jeremey Hunsicker of the Journey tribute band Frontiers, with whom they wrote "Never Walk Away" together. [87] [88] Schon later found Filipino singer Arnel Pineda of the cover band The Zoo, covering the song "Faithfully". Schon was so impressed that he contacted Pineda to set up two days of auditions with him which went well, and later naming him the official lead vocalist of Journey on December 5, 2007. [89] [90]

Although Pineda was not the first foreign national to become a member of Journey (former drummer Aynsley Dunbar is British), nor even the first non-Caucasian (bass player Randy Jackson is African-American), his recruitment resulted in some fans of Journey making racist comments towards the new vocalist. Keyboardist Jonathan Cain responded to such sentiments in the Marin Independent Journal: "We've become a world band. We're international now. We're not about one color." [91] [92]

In 2007, "Don't Stop Believin'" gained press coverage and a sharp growth in popularity when it was used in The Sopranos television series final episode [93] prompting digital downloads of the song to soar. [94]

In November 2007, Journey entered the studio with Pineda to record the studio album, Revelation. The album was released on June 3, 2008. It debuted at number five on the Billboard charts, selling more than 196,000 units in its first two weeks and staying in the top 20 for six weeks, becoming a successful album. [95] As a multi-disc set (2-CD) each unit within that set counts as one sale. [96] Journey also found success on Billboard's Adult Contemporary chart where the single "After All These Years" spent over 23 weeks, peaking at number 9. [97] [98]

On February 21, 2008, Pineda performed for the first time with Journey in front of 20,000 fans in Chile. [99] The band began the Revelation tour in the United Kingdom in June, continuing the tour into North America, Asia, Europe and South America. The 2008 leg concluded in October. [100] Receipts from the 2008 tour made Journey one of the top-grossing concert tours of the year, bringing in over $35,000,000. [101] On December 18, 2008, Revelation was certified platinum by RIAA. [102] [103]

The band performed at the Super Bowl XLIII pre-game show in Tampa on February 1, 2009. The band continued their Revelation tour in May and concluded it in October 2009. The band had also performed in Manila to 30,000 fans which was recorded for a live release, Live in Manila. [104]

In 2009, "Don't Stop Believin'" became the top-selling song on iTunes amongst those released before 2000. [105] [106]

The band entered into Fantasy Studios on 2010 with Pineda to record their studio album, Eclipse. [107] The album was later released on May 24, 2011, and debuted at number 13 on the Billboard 200 charts. [108] The band later toured the United Kingdom in June 2011 with Foreigner and Styx. [109] Journey was awarded the prestigious "Legend of Live Award" at the Billboard Touring Awards in October. [110] The band later released Greatest Hits 2 in November. [111]

In June 2015, Deen Castronovo was arrested following a domestic altercation. [112] [113] He was fired by Journey in August [114] [113] and was ultimately replaced by Omar Hakim on the band's 2015 tour. [112] In 2016, Steve Smith again returned as Journey's drummer, re-uniting all of the members of the Escape-Frontiers-Trial by Fire lineup except lead singer Steve Perry. [115] In 2018, during the North American tour with Def Leppard, Journey topped the Billboard Hot Tours List for grossing more than $30 million over 17 shows. [116]

2020–present: Contested lineup changes, lawsuits and potential new album Edit

On March 3, 2020, Schon and Cain announced that they had fired Smith and Valory and were suing them for an alleged "attempted corporate coup d'état," seeking damages in excess of $10 million. The lawsuit alleged Smith and Valory tried to "assume control of Nightmare Productions because they incorrectly believe that Nightmare Productions controls the Journey name and Mark" in order to "hold the Journey name hostage and set themselves up with a guaranteed income stream after they stop performing." Valory and Smith contested the firings, with the support of former manager Herbie Herbert and former lead singer Steve Perry. Court filings revealed that Steve Perry had been paid as a member of the band for years despite not performing. In an open letter dated that same day, Schon and Cain stated Smith and Valory "are no longer members of Journey and that Schon and Cain have lost confidence in both of them and are not willing to perform with them again." [117] [118] Valory counter-sued Schon and Cain, among other things, for their partnership's claim of owning the Journey trademark and service mark (collectively known as the mark), when that partnership, Elmo Partners, was only the licensee of the mark from 1985 to 1994, when the license was terminated by Herbie Herbert of Nightmare Productions, owners of the mark and name. Valory also sought protection against Schon from using any similarities of the Journey mark and name for his side project, Neal Schon – Journey Through Time. [119] That May, Schon and Cain announced that bassist Randy Jackson would once again join the band replacing Valory and drummer Narada Michael Walden was announced as an official new member of Journey replacing Smith. [120] [121]

In June 2020, Schon announced via his social media page that a new album with Jackson and Walden was "starting to take shape". [122] The following month he confirmed the album's progress, and confirmed that they would be releasing new music in early 2021. [123] [124] In January 2021, he announced that the first single of the album would be released later that year, with possibility of a worldwide tour to follow. [125] [126] In April 2021, the band reached an "amicable settlement" with Valory and Smith, confirming their departures. [127] The single "The Way We Used to Be" was released on June 24, 2021. [128]

    – lead guitar, backing vocals (1973–1987, 1991, 1995–present) – keyboards, backing vocals, rhythm guitar, harmonica (1980–1987, 1991, 1995–present) – bass, backing vocals (1985–1987, 2020–present) – lead vocals (2007–present)
  • Jason Derlatka – keyboards, backing vocals (2020–present) – drums (2020–present)

Over the years, Journey songs have been heard or referred to in numerous films, television series, video games, and even on Broadway. The band's songs have been covered by multiple artists and adopted by sports teams. In particular, "Don't Stop Believin'" was heard in the final episode of The Sopranos, adapted by the television series Glee, sung by the Family Guy cast, adopted as the unofficial anthem of the 2005 Chicago White Sox and 2010 San Francisco Giants World Series championship teams, performed by The Chipmunks in their album Undeniable (2008), and sung by the cast of the Broadway musical Rock of Ages. [129] [130]

On March 8, 2013, a documentary, Don’t Stop Believin’: Everyman’s Journey, was released. The movie, directed by Ramona S. Diaz, chronicles the discovery of Arnel Pineda and his first year with Journey. [131] [132]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, "Don't Stop Believin'" was used as an anthem for patients who were being discharged from New York Presbyterian Queens Hospital and Henry Ford Health System after defeating the virus. [133] [134]


Journey to America Saga

The series takes place during World War II and follows the Platts, a Jewish family that flees Germany just before the war begins. Although the family was prosperous in Germany, where the father owned his own business selling coats, getting to America proves to be difficult, and getting established in their new country after their arrival is a struggle. Throughout the family’s personal difficulties and triumphs, the war goes on in the background, and readers can see how it affects their lives and the lives of people they know.

The first two books are told from the point of view of Lisa, the middle of the three daughters in the family. Lisa loved ballet when she lived in Germany, but it takes her some time before she is able to enjoy it again in the United States. She later develops a talent for sewing. Her older sister, Ruth, used to love to play violin, but she cannot bring herself to play again when she has the chance in America because it brings back painful memories for her, how her violin was confiscated from her when she boarded the train out of Germany. Annie, the youngest sister, remembers very little about their life in Germany because she was very young when they left and ends up becoming more typically American than the other members of the family. The third book in the series is from Annie’s point of view.

The author, Sonia Levitin, also fled Germany with her family to escape World War II, and the stories are semi-autobiographical.

Books in the Series:

With the Nazis in power in Germany, hate crimes are being committed against the Jews, and their lives are restricted in many ways. The Platts know that they have to leave, but they can’t make their departure too obvious, and getting out of Germany is only the first step in a long journey.

The Platt family has reunited in the United States after a long journey. Now, they struggle to establish themselves in their new country and adapt to an unfamiliar language and culture as great changes happen in the world around them and in the lives of the girls, who are growing up.

Annie remembers very little of her family’s old life in Germany. As she grows up, she struggles to establish her identity as an independent young woman in America, but she also comes to understand her family and its history better.


Atlantic Crossings

By 1870, more than 90 percent of immigrants to America arrived by steamship. As vessels grew safer, larger, sturdier, and faster, ocean crossings became less of an ordeal.

In the same period, the American economy prospered and a class of wealthy Americans was eager to travel in luxury. Steamship companies designed their finest accommodations with these passengers in mind. High style and high society made ocean liners famous, but the ships relied on the immigrant trade as their main source of income into the 1920s. Rich and poor crossed the ocean just a few decks apart.

German passenger liner Frisia

Built at Greenock, Scotland, 1872

Passenger capacity as built: 90 first class, 130 second, 600 third & steerage

Immigrant Ship Frisia

In 1871, Hamburg-America Line steamers alone carried 4,200 cabin passengers and 24,500 steerage passengers into New York. The Frisia, launched by the company the following year, brought nearly 47,000 immigrants to the United States between 1872 and 1885.

Courtesy of Bob L. Berschauer

From Kratzke to Kansas

Jacob and Maria Magdalena Berschauer were among the immigrants from Kratzke, Russia, who sailed aboard the Frisia in 1876.

A century after many German Lutherans settled along Russia’s Volga River, a group of about 70 left the village of Kratzke for the United States. They were escaping rumors of war and restrictions on land ownership. With half the group made up of children, they traveled by train to the port of Hamburg, then sailed aboard the Frisia to New York. After heading west by train, they established Bender Hill, a village about ten miles south of Russell, Kansas, in October 1876.

Immigrants at the rail of a steamship, early 1900s

Travelers’ Trunks

These trunks and others nearby are transoceanic travelers. They journeyed on ocean liners, to and from the United States, protecting the belongings of people from different eras and different nations.

Swedish immigrant’s trunk, 1867

Gift of Edward C. Swanson and Barbara A. Swanson

A Dominican nun brought this horsehair-covered trunk from France when she sailed across the Atlantic to join the Monastery of St. Dominic in Newark, N.J., in 1881.


Voyage of the Mayflower

The Mayflower was hired in London, and sailed from London to Southampton in July 1620 to begin loading food and supplies for the voyage--much of which was purchased at Southampton. The Pilgrims were mostly still living in the city of Leiden, in the Netherlands. They hired a ship called the Speedwell to take them from Delfshaven, the Netherlands, to Southampton, England, to meet up with the Mayflower. The two ships planned to sail together to Northern Virginia. The Speedwell departed Delfthaven on July 22, and arrived at Southampton, where they found the Mayflower waiting for them. The Speedwell had been leaking on her voyage from the Netherlands to England, though, so they spent the next week patching her up.

On August 5, the two ships finally set sail for America. But the Speedwell began leaking again, so they pulled into the town of Dartmouth for repairs, arriving there about August 12. The Speedwell was patched up again, and the two ships again set sail for America about August 21. After the two ships had sailed about 300 miles out to sea, the Speedwell again began to leak. Frustrated with the enormous amount of time lost, and their inability to fix the Speedwell so that it could be sea-worthy, they returned to Plymouth, England, and made the decision to leave the Speedwell behind. The Mayflower would go to America alone. The cargo on the Speedwell was transferred over to the Mayflower some of the passengers were so tired and disappointed with all the problems that they quit and went home. Others crammed themselves onto the already very crowded Mayflower.

Finally, on September 6, the Mayflower departed from Plymouth, England, and headed for America. By the time the Pilgrims had left England, they had already been living onboard the ships for nearly a month and a half. The voyage itself across the Atlantic Ocean took 66 days, from their departure on September 6, until Cape Cod was sighted on 9 November 1620. The first half of the voyage went fairly smoothly, the only major problem was sea-sickness. But by October, they began encountering a number of Atlantic storms that made the voyage treacherous. Several times, the wind was so strong they had to just drift where the weather took them, it was not safe to use the ship's sails. The Pilgrims intended to land in Northern Virginia, which at the time included the region as far north as the Hudson River in the modern State of New York. The Hudson River, in fact, was their originally intended destination. They had received good reports on this region while in the Netherlands. All things considered, the Mayflower was almost right on target, missing the Hudson River by just a few degrees.

As the Mayflower approached land, the crew spotted Cape Cod just as the sun rose on November 9. The Pilgrims decided to head south, to the mouth of the Hudson River in New York, where they intended to make their plantation. However, as the Mayflower headed south, it encountered some very rough seas, and nearly shipwrecked. The Pilgrims then decided, rather than risk another attempt to go south, they would just stay and explore Cape Cod. They turned back north, rounded the tip, and anchored in what is now Provincetown Harbor. The Pilgrims would spend the next month and a half exploring Cape Cod, trying to decide where they would build their plantation. On December 25, 1620, they had finally decided upon Plymouth, and began construction of their first buildings.


Journey to America - History

George Washington was the first President of the liberty-loving nation, and The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. Both of these comprise rather well-known events throughout the course of American history. But there’s a wealth of hidden history nuggets that you might not know about. Here are ten of them.

1. The Founding Fathers penned the first couple of drafts of the Declaration of Independence on hemp paper, since at the time at least 75 percent of all the world’s paper was made from cannabis hemp fiber. The democratic delegates eked out the document’s first and second drafts—completed on June 28th and July 2nd 1776, respectively—on Dutch hemp paper. The final document had a more official air, though, as it was printed on parchment.

2. Months before World War Two culminated in the absolute decimation of Hiroshima, the Japanese found themselves in a bit of a pinch. Making the most of the strong air current across the Pacific Ocean, the Japanese crafted what was likely the first intercontinental weapon system and attached bombs to hydrogen balloons, in what was known as the Fu-Go campaign.

Depending on weather conditions, it would take each balloon anywhere from 30 to 60 hours to reach the United States. Researchers estimate that the Japanese said sayonara to around 9,000 bombs that were approximately 33 feet in diameter to the United States, with 342 known to have reached the United States.

Many of them landed and exploded, with one even killing a whole family in Oregon in 1944. Rumor has it that there may still be dozens – potentially still active – lying around.

3. The Liberty Bell is an iconic American relic. Unfortunately, its tolling hasn’t been heard since George Washington’s Birthday in 1846. The bell, which used to reside in Pennsylvania’s Independence Hall, was erected in August 1752 and was first rung in July 8, 1776, to celebrate the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence.

Though no conclusive evidence exists to determine when the bell first cracked (some argue that Liberty split during the Revolutionary War in 1824, others speculate that it happened during the funeral of Chief Justice John Marshall in 1835), it was the cherry tree chopping president’s birthday that cracked the bell beyond repair.


Journey to America - History

A t the end of the seventeenth century approximately 200,000 people inhabited the British colonies in North America. The following century saw an explosion in numbers with the population doubling about every 25 years. The majority of these new immigrants were Scotch-Irish, Germans or African slaves. Between 1700 and the beginning of the American Revolution, approximately 250,000 Africans, 210,000 Europeans and 50,000 convicts had reached the colonial shores.

"Few of this class escape with their lives."

Gottleb Mittelberger was an organ master and schoolmaster who left one of the small German states in May 1750 to make his way to America. He arrived at the port of Philadelphia on October 10. He represents the thousands of Germans who settled in middle Pennsylvania during this period. He returned to his homeland in 1754. His diary was published in this country in 1898:

". during the voyage there is on board these ships terrible misery, stench, fumes, horror, vomiting, many kinds of seasickness, fever, dysentery, headache, heat, constipation, boils, scurvy, cancer, mouth rot, and the like, all of which come from old and sharply-salted food and meat, also from very bad and foul water, so that many die miserably.

No one can have an idea of the sufferings which women in confinement have to bear with their innocent children on board these ships. Few of this class escape with their lives many a mother is cast into the water with her child as soon as she is dead. One day, just as we had a heavy gale, a woman in our ship, who was to give birth and could not give birth under the circumstances, was pushed through a loophole (porthole) in the ship and dropped into the sea, because she was far in the rear of the ship and could not be brought forward.

Children from one to seven years rarely survive the voyage and many a time parents are compelled to see their children miserably suffer and die from hunger, thirst, and sickness, and then to see them cast into the water. I witnessed such misery in no less than thirty-two children in our ship, all of whom were thrown into the sea. The parents grieve all the more since their children find no resting place in the earth, but are devoured by the monsters of the sea. It is a notable fact that children who have not yet had the measles or smallpox generally get them on board the ship, and mostly die of them.

When the ships have landed at Philadelphia after their long voyage, no one is permitted to leave them except those who pay for their passage or can give good security the others, who cannot pay, must remain on board the ships till they are purchased and are released from the ships by their purchasers. The sick always fare the worst, for the healthy are naturally preferred and purchased first and so the sick and wretched must often remain on board in front of the city for two or three weeks, and frequently die, whereas many a one, if he could pay his debt and were permitted to leave the ship immediately, might recover and remain alive.

The port of Philadelphia, 1756
The sale of human beings in the market on board the ship is carried on thus: Every day Englishmen, Dutchmen, and High German people come from the city of Philadelphia and other places, in part from a great distance, say twenty, thirty, or forty hours away, and go on board the newly-arrived ship that has brought and offers for sale passengers from Europe, and select among the healthy persons such as they deem suitable for their business, and bargain with them how long they will serve for their passage money, which most of them are still in debt for, When they have come to an agreement, it happens that adult persons bind themselves in writing to serve three, four, five, or six years for the amount due by them, according to their age and strength. But very young people, from ten to fifteen years, must serve till they are twenty-one years old.

Many parents must sell and trade away their children like so many head of cattle, for if their children take the debt upon them- selves, the parents can leave the ship free and unrestrained but as the parents often do not know where and to what people their children are going, it often happens that such parents and children, after leaving the ship, do not see each other again for many years, perhaps no more in all their lives.

It often happens that whole families, husband, wife, and children, are separated by being sold to different purchasers, especially when they have not paid any part of their passage money.

When a husband or wife has died at sea, when the ship has made more than half of her trip, the survivor must pay or serve not only for himself or herself, but also for the deceased. When both parents have died over halfway at sea, their children, especially when they are young and have nothing to pawn or to pay, must stand for their own and their parents' passage, and serve till they are twenty-one years old. When one has served his or her term, he or she is entitled to a new suit of clothes at parting and if it has been so stipulated, a man gets in addition a horse, a woman, a cow."

References:
Mittelberger, Gottleb, Gottleb Mittelberger's Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the year 1754 (published by the German Society of Pennsylvania 1898)


The 2000s to Today – All Anime, All the Time

By the early and mid-2000s, anime had broken into American homes and was here to stay. Cartoon Network introduced their Adult Swim block and programmed a lot of anime series that American audiences had not been introduced to. A standout from this era was Cowboy Bebop, a short anime series that is often cited as one of the best anime shows of all time.

As the internet and digital distribution began to explode, fans found it even easier to get a hold of original Japanese versions of their favorite anime shows and films. The influx was incalculable as distributors were being held to task for providing accurate adaptations of these shows.

And by today, anime is a multi-million dollar industry that shows no sign of stopping. There are streaming services that cater specifically to anime shows and releases from Japan. Fan conventions are full of cosplayers dressing up as their favorite anime characters. And the mainstream acceptance of the medium is at an all-time high.

Anime is here to stay. Its journey from Japan to America is a long and storied one, and it will continue to affect American culture in immeasurable ways.


Watch the video: Die Schwarzwaldklinik s02e01 24 Die Reise nach Amerika


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