Why did Mongolia split in two when they declared independence?

Why did Mongolia split in two when they declared independence?


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When Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Empire in 1911, part of it stayed under Qing control. This is the part known today as Inner Mongolia. But even before their independence, there were "Outer Mongolia" and "Inner Mongolia."

Is there a historical reason for why there was a distinction between Inner and Outer Mongolia in the first place?


After Mongols lost control of China (end of Yuan dynasty), there were many struggles between Mongols and Chinese as well as different Mongol tribes. These struggles weakened the integration among Mongols. After a successful but short-lived unification attempt by Dayan Khan, a more organized disintegration took place giving birth to Khalkha Mongols (formerly Jalair, Jaruud, Baarin etc), a more united Oirat (Western Mongols) and more distinctive Eastern Mongol tribes (Khorchin, Kharchin, Chakhar etc). Oirats had their own dynasties: Dzungar and Khoshuut khanates employed with politics with Tibetans, Kazakhs, Moghulistan and other Inner Asian entities. Khalkh khans gained more independence from the concept of unified Mongols. Eastern Mongol tribes were mostly employed with politics with neighboring Jurchens and Chinese.

When Manchu (former Jurchen) invaded Mongolia and China, Eastern Mongols were incorporated into their dynasty first, later China, Khalkha Mongols and then Western Mongols. Since, Eastern Mongols were invaded some time before others, different administrative division was applied based on the cooperation of tribes with Manchus and Mongol tribal units.

From this time, the political separation between Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia was more clear. Roughly speaking, Inner Mongolia included Eastern Mongolian tribes, while Outer Mongolia included Khalkha Mongol khanates as well as Oirat territories. Other Mongol entities also existed in Hulunbuir, Huh Nuur and Alasha.

In the last years of Qing dynasty and afterwards, many forms of independence movements took place like Bogd Khanate Mongolia, Japanese-sponsored Greater Mongolia based in Chita, again Japanese-sponsored Independent Inner Mongolia in Kalgan, infamous Manchu-Mongol Independence Movement etc: among those most popular being Bogd Khanate Mongolia. Bogd Khanate Mongolia was established by Khalkh nobles and Bogd Jebtsundamba in Huree, right in the center of Khalkh territories (current-day Ulaanbaatar). Many commoners and nobles in Inner Mongolia as well as Hulunbuir and some Huh Nuur Mongols agreed to cooperate with Bogd Khanate Mongolia. Khalkh conquests freeing Inner Mongolia from Republic of China was mostly successful until Russia and China called Bogd Khanate leaders for trilateral summit in Khyagta disabling Bogd Khanate Mongolia to expand their territory. Another thing happened was that Bogd Khanate Mongols freed Hobd territory from Manchu rulers incorporating non-Khalkh territory into their land.

In 1921, Mongolian People's Republic was established mostly on the basis of Bogd Khanate Mongolia thus incorporating Khalkh territories plus Hobd, Dariganga and Khuvsgul. On the other hand, Inner Mongolia saw rather different developments: since in the last years of Qing dynasty, policies of the weakening government made eastern Inner Mongolia and Manchuria made targets for large Chinese immigration, Republic of China decided to divide Inner Mongolia into Chinese provinces. This resulted in independence movements and Mongol support for Mengjiang puppet state. During Chinese Civil War, Inner Mongolian communist activists gained autonomy of Inner Mongolia which was more attractive than being separately colonized provinces in a foreign country.

Conclusion: Separation of Mongol tribes into political entities started after feudalist period after Yuan dynasty. Geographic differences, interactions and political turmoils forced Mongols to have different political paths.


"Inner Mongolia," part of what was later called "Manchuria," in China, had been absorbed by the Manchus in the 1630s, even before they conquered China in the 1640s. So it became part of "greater China."

(Outer) Mongolia became a tributary state of the Qing dynasty in the 1690s, but retained its "integrity" as a geographical unit.

After the Chinese Revolution of 1911, and the Russian Revolution of 1917, there was a power vacuum in Mongolia. Chinese forces briefly occupied Outer Mongolia in 1920, but was then driven out by Mongolians allied with nearby Russians. But "Inner" Mongolia had been part of "Manchuria" for so long that it stayed with China when Manchuria proper did.

Even as late as World War II, "outer Mongolia" was effectively a protectorate of the Soviet Union, while most of "inner Mongolia" was part of Japan's "Manchukuo." After the war, the Soviet Union ceded the former Manchukuo and adjacent territories to the west to its Communist allies but retained its sphere of influence over "outer Mongolia."


I guess Mongolians of Mongolia are Khalhka Mongols. Ghenghis Khan has united many different tribes of nomads. So even though they were unified under the Mongol Empire, from time to time the Mongols were divided against each other. E.g. there were the Oirats and the Buryats apart from the Khalhka Mongols. ). Meantime the Manchus were getting strong. The Last Mongolians khan Ligdan fought against the Manchus and even though Khalhka Mongols supported him (like Tsog Taij) they were defeated because many Mongol nobles of inner Mongolian allied themselves with the Manchus. This caused the Mongols to be divided and to lose trust in each other. The Mongol Empire ended with our last khan. From then on Inner Mongolia was kept continiously under Manchu rule. Mongolians of Mongolia can trace their origins(?) all the way to Ghinghis khan and our last of king because they were Mongols


Simple and plain they "China&Russia" kept us split due to being frightened that we some day MONGOLS might become a too powerful country, so now we are 3 mil in population sandwiched between two large countries and our mass population of 24 million mongols stuck in china making China greater and this is the sad truth. Russians are using us as a shield from China's growing population so current state Mongolia is for the exportation of people in China. China just wants to make Mongolia part of China as usual, evil Chinese politics.


Over time, places such as Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro gained independence. The southern Serbian region of Kosovo, however, remained part of Serbia. The Kosovo Liberation Army fought Milosevic’s Serbian forces and a war of independence took place from about 1998 through 1999.

On June 10, 1999, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution which ended the war, established a NATO peacekeeping force in Kosovo, and provided for some autonomy which included a 120-member assembly. Over time, Kosovo’s desire for full independence grew. The United Nations, the European Union, and the United States worked with Kosovo to develop an independence plan. Russia was a major challenge for Kosovo independence because Russia, as a U.N. Security Council member with veto power, promised they would veto and plan for Kosovo independence that did not address Serbia’s concerns.

On February 17, 2008, ​the Kosovo Assembly unanimously (109 members present) voted to declare independence from Serbia. Serbia declared that the independence of Kosovo was illegal and Russia supported Serbia in that decision.

However, within four days of Kosovo’s declaration of independence, fifteen countries (including the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Australia) recognized the independence of Kosovo. By mid-2009, 63 countries around the world, including 22 of the 27 members of the European Union had recognized Kosovo as independent.

Several dozen countries have established embassies or ambassadors in Kosovo.

Challenges remain for Kosovo to obtain full international recognition and over time, the de facto status of Kosovo as independent will likely spread so that almost all of the world’s countries will recognize Kosovo as independent. However, United Nations membership will likely be held up for Kosovo until Russia and China agree to the legality of Kosovo’s existence.

Kosovo is home to approximately 1.8 million people, 95% of whom are ethnic Albanians. The largest city and capital are Pristina (about half a million people). Kosovo borders Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, and the Republic of Macedonia.


Howe’s peace mission

General Howe landed on Staten Island on the very day that the Congress declared independence. He and his brother were not empowered to negotiate with the patriots until the rebellion had been crushed, except to offer pardon to those who would lay down their arms. But the terms they were authorized to offer after the collapse of resistance were very interesting. They could pardon all rebels and restore the royal protection, and they were to demand that Rhode Island and Connecticut be made royal colonies, or at least that their governors should not take office until approved by the crown. Here were no concessions to the Americans. However, the commissioners were also permitted to make a proposal with respect to money. The heart of it came from Lord North’s conciliatory resolution if the colonies (except for Georgia, which was not to be asked to pay anything) would undertake to pay 10 percent, even 5 percent, of the cost of maintaining the imperial army, navy, and ordnance, they would not be taxed for revenue by Parliament. The bargain might have seemed attractive to many defenders of American rights before the war. As it was, it was not even presented to the patriots, since they were not beaten into submission. Assuming that there was no ministerial intention to deceive, these proposals indicate an intention to try to conciliate the colonists after the close of hostilities. Ignorant of the terms, the patriots were left to imagine what their fate would be should they be defeated. That the terms were not publicly announced was a remarkable failure of British propaganda. Military failure followed.


Contents

The Han Chinese and Mongols (as well as their ancestors, the Proto-Mongols) have been in contact with each other for millennia.

Throughout history, polities in China and the Mongolian Plateau have had complicated relations. The Great Wall was constructed to ward off the northern nomads attacks, notably during the Qin dynasty and the Ming dynasty. The Tang dynasty, following its defeat of the Xueyantuo, established the Protectorate General to Pacify the North in 647 to rule the Mongolian Plateau.

In 1271, the Mongols under Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, established the Yuan dynasty and conquered all of China proper in 1279. In 1368, the Han Chinese under the Ming dynasty successfully expelled the Mongols from China proper and in 1388, sacked the Northern Yuan dynasty's capital at Karakorum.

The Ming Great Wall was strengthened and the period was characterized by repeated Northern Yuan raids into Ming territory and Ming raids into Northern Yuan territory. During the transition from Ming to Qing, the Northern Yuan monarch Ligdan Khan allied with the Ming against the Qing until Ligdan was defeated by Qing forces and Inner Mongolia was conquered by the Qing. In 1644, the Ming dynasty was overthrown by peasant rebels under Li Zicheng, who established the short-lived Shun dynasty which would soon be replaced by the Qing dynasty. During the Qing rule from 1691, Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia were incorporated into the empire.

After the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911, the Republic of China was established and Outer Mongolia declared its independence after more than 200 years of Qing rule. During this period, the Beiyang government of the Republic of China, as the successor to the Qing, claimed Outer Mongolia as Chinese territory. This claim was provided for in the Imperial Edict of the Abdication of the Qing Emperor signed by the Empress Dowager Longyu on behalf of the six-year-old Xuantong Emperor: "[. ] the continued territorial integrity of the lands of the five races, Manchu, Han, Mongol, Hui, and Tibetan into one great Republic of China" ([. ] 仍合滿、漢、蒙、回、藏五族完全領土,為一大中華民國 ). [1] [2] [3] However, the Chinese government lacked any stable control over the region due to massive civil wars in the south and the rise of regional warlords in the Warlord Era. Consequently, Outer Mongolia sought Russian support to claim its independence. In 1919, Chinese general Xu Shuzheng advanced into Outer Mongolia and annulled its independence. In 1921, Chinese forces were driven out by White Russian forces led by Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg. [4] Some months later they were driven out by the Red Army of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Far Eastern Republic and pro-Soviet Mongolian forces. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed. With the onset of the Japanese invasion of China, little effort was given to reestablish Chinese control over Outer Mongolia.

Following the end of World War II, the Republic of China, led by the Kuomintang, was forced to formally accept Outer Mongolian independence under Soviet pressure, but this recognition was revoked in 1953. In 1949, the Communists won the Chinese Civil War and re-recognized Mongolia's independent status.

The People's Republic of China established diplomatic relations with Mongolia on October 16, 1949 and both nations signed a border treaty in 1962. [5] With the Sino-Soviet split, Mongolia aligned itself with the Soviet Union and asked for the deployment of Soviet forces, leading to security concerns in China. [6] As a result, bilateral ties remained tense until 1984, when a high-level Chinese delegation visited Mongolia and both nations began to survey and demarcate their borders. In 1986, a series of agreements to bolster trade and establish transport and air links was signed. [6] In 1988, both nations signed a treaty on border control. Mongolia also began asserting a more independent policy and pursued more friendly ties with China. [6] Mongolia has always been suspicious that China wants to claim Mongolian territory, and concerned by fears of China's overpopulation pouring into Mongolian territory. [6] [7]

In the Post-Cold War era, China has taken major steps to normalize its relationship with Mongolia, emphasizing its respect for Mongolia's sovereignty and independence. In 1994, Chinese Premier Li Peng signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. China has become Mongolia's biggest trade partner and source of foreign investment. [8] Bilateral trade reached US$1.13 billion by the first nine months of 2007, registering an increase of 90% from 2006. [9] China offered to allow the use of its Tianjin port to give Mongolia and its goods access to trade within the Asia Pacific region. [8] China also expanded its investments in Mongolia's mining industries, giving it access to the country's natural resources. [8] [9] Mongolia is also a participant in the Belt and Road Initiative. [10] China is likely to support Mongolia's membership in to the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and granting it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. [8]


Rise of the Mongol empire

Among the tribes that held power in Mongolia were the Xiongnu, a confederated empire that warred with the young Chinese state for centuries before dissolving in 48 ce . The Khitan ruled in Manchuria and North China, where they established the Liao dynasty (907–1125) and formed an alliance with a little-known tribal confederacy known as All the Mongols. After the fall of the Liao, the Tatars—a Mongol people but not members of the league—appeared as allies of the Juchen, the Khitan’s successors.

During this time Genghis Khan (1162–1227) came to power within the All the Mongols league and was proclaimed khan in 1206. He skillfully gained control over the Mongols outside the league. Between 1207 and 1227 he undertook military campaigns that extended Mongol domains as far west as European Russia and as far east as northern China, taking Beijing in 1215. He died on campaign against the Xi Xia in northwest China. By this time the Mongol empire stretched over an immense swath of Asia between the Caspian Sea (west) and the China Sea (east), and Siberia (north) and the Pamirs, Tibet, and central China (south). The amazing military achievements of the Mongols under Genghis Khan and his successors were largely due to their armies of mounted archers, who possessed great speed and mobility.

After Genghis Khan’s death the Mongol empire passed to his four sons, with overall leadership going to Ögödei. Jochi received the west extending to Russia Chagatai obtained northern Iran and southern Xinjiang Ögödei inherited northern Xinjiang and western Mongolia and Tolui was awarded eastern Mongolia. Ögödei dominated his brothers and undertook further conquests. In the west the Golden Horde under Jochi’s successor, Batu, controlled Russia and terrorized eastern Europe in the east advances were made into China. With Ögödei’s death in 1241 the branches fell into war and intrigue among one another for leadership. Tolui’s son Möngke became great khan in 1248 and continued an expansionist policy. Möngke’s brother Kublai (1215–94) became great khan in 1260, and Mongol power reached its zenith during his rule. The Mongols destroyed the Southern Song dynasty and reunified China under the Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty (1206–1368).


German Invasion of Czechoslovakia

From the years 1938 to 1945, Nazi Germany occupied Czechoslovakia. Hitler claimed that the invasion was necessary in order to protect the ethnic German populations that were living in Czechoslovakia. In what was widely considered an act of appeasement, the Munich Agreement was signed, which allowed Nazi Germany to annex parts of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland. The Sudetenland was known for its ethnic German residents. Although the Munich Agreement was created by Germany, France, the United States, and Italy, as a way of maintaining peace, it was widely looked back on as a great failure. German troops completely took over Bohemia, and forced a protectorate state over Slovakia. The occupation only ended in 1945 with the end of the World War II.


Why did the US declare independence from Britain?

The U.S. declaration of independence from the United Kingdom in 1776 was a momentous event, but why did the 13 colonies declare independence? Fortunately, a group of colonial representatives wrote down all of the reasons why in one document: the appropriately named Declaration of Independence.

If you have never read the Declaration of Independence, or if it has been a while, read through the text (using the original spelling, punctuation and organization, as described by the National Archives) below:

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

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Relief

Mongolia can be divided into three major topographic zones: the mountain chains that dominate the northern and western areas, the basin areas situated between and around them, and the enormous upland plateau belt that lies across the southern and eastern sectors. The entire country is prone to seismic movements, and some earthquakes are extremely severe. Their effects, however, are limited by the low population density.


World War II

Czechoslovakia had a large German population that was mostly concentrated in its Bohemian and Moravian (Sudetenland) border regions. Some supported Nazi Germany, which created internal and external pressures. In 1938, Czechoslovakia was forced to surrender Sudetenland to Germany. Hitler then invaded what was left of Bohemia and Moravia the following year Slovakia was independent and turned into a German puppet state.

As World War II ended, Soviet troops came in and took control of much of Bohemia (including Prague), Moravia, and Slovakia. U.S. forces liberated much of western Bohemia and the city of Plzen in May of 1945, and that same month a civilian uprising occurred against the Germans. After Germany surrendered, approximately 2.9 million ethnic Germans were forced to leave the country. Also, by then, just a few thousand Jews were living in the Czech lands more than 100,000 had perished during the Holocaust.


America declared independence on July 2—so why is the 4th a holiday?

The colonies had already voted for freedom from British rule, but debates over slavery held up the formal adoption of the Declaration of Independence.

Fireworks, flags, and hot dogs: The Fourth of July is steeped in patriotism and tradition, and celebrated as the day disgruntled American colonists broke ties with Great Britain and declared their intention to found a democratic nation of their own.

But the history behind the holiday isn’t so clear-cut. The anniversary of American independence is July 2, not July 4. And the revolutionaries who founded the nation didn’t guarantee all of its residents “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”

In 1774, after years of unfair taxation and imperial control, complaints against the British crown had reached a fever pitch in the 13 American colonies. War had begun to look inevitable and so, in September, delegates from the colonies met to discuss their grievances in what they called the Continental Congress.

The process of declaring independence didn’t get underway until June 7, 1776, when Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution in the Second Continental Congress. Just 80 words long, the Lee Resolution proposed the dissolution of any political connection between Great Britain and the colonies. Although most delegates supported independence, the proposal was not guaranteed to pass unanimously, so members held off on voting.

As delegates lobbied their home states to support the resolution, five men got to work on an accompanying document that laid out the reasons colonists wanted to sever ties with Britain. The Committee of Five, as it became known, was a political dream team: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Roger Livingston. They nominated Jefferson to pen the first draft of what is now known as the Declaration of Independence. (Here are nine common myths about the American Revolution.)

In little more than two weeks, Jefferson churned out a draft that drew on a variety of other documents, including some of the up to 100 similar declarations that had been circulating in the buildup to the Lee Resolution. One, the Fairfax County Resolves, cowritten by George Washington and George Mason, claimed that the colonists’ constitutional rights had been violated by the British Parliament. Another, Mason’s 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights, affirmed that men had the right to “the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.”

Jefferson echoed that language in his draft document, which declared that “all men are created equal” and had an inalienable right to “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” He presented his draft to his fellow committee members and they made extensive edits before submitting it to the Continental Congress on June 28.

With the Declaration of Independence drafted, Congress was ready to debate Lee’s resolution for independence. But a test vote conducted on July 1 was anything but unanimous. Pennsylvania and South Carolina hoped there was still a chance to reconcile with Britain they voted against independence. Delaware’s delegation was split. And New York abstained—its delegates were under orders not to impede a possible reconciliation.

The next day, on July 2, the delegates tried again. This time, the vote had a different outcome. Caesar Rodney, a Delaware delegate, had ridden through the night to Philadelphia, where he broke Delaware’s stalemate. South Carolina changed its position. And two of Pennsylvania’s delegates simply abstained from the vote, flipping their delegation in favor of independence. That day, the Congress voted unanimously for independence.

The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America.

“The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America,” an ecstatic John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail the next day. “I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival. It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.” (See 25 dazzling pictures of fireworks.)

But the document meant to accompany the resolution wasn’t quite ready. On July 3 and 4, Congress continued to discuss Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence. The most heated debate concerned a passage about slavery in which Jefferson accused King George III of violating the lives and liberty of “a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.” In another passage, Jefferson accused the king of encouraging enslaved people to escape and join the English forces.

Although the debate was not documented, Jefferson later blamed South Carolina and Georgia for balking at the passage. But the entire Congress shared an economic interest in maintaining the institution of slavery: They knew that the colonies’ economy was largely based on the labor of enslaved people. Many delegates, including Jefferson himself, held slaves and personally profited from their labor.

Instead of laying the foundation for the abolition of slavery, the Congress deleted the controversial passage and combined the fleeting reference to slave revolts with another line from Jefferson’s draft that accused the king of encouraging Native Americans, whom they slurred as “savages,” to attack settlers at the British colonies’ western frontier.

With the Declaration of Independence complete, the Continental Congress voted to adopt it on July 4, 1776. It was received with great fanfare, and July 4—not July 2—is celebrated as the anniversary of American independence. The new republic’s independence would at last be secured with its Revolutionary War victory in 1783. But for those the document left out—enslaved people, Native Americans, and women—the celebrated declaration proved to be anything but a guarantee of equality.