Armenia Timeline

Armenia Timeline

  • 3500 BCE - 2200 BCE

    Occupation of Shnagavit in ancient Armenia.

  • c. 3500 BCE - c. 1000 BCE

    The Hurrian culture flourishes in the Near East.

  • c. 1500 BCE - c. 1200 BCE

    The Hayasa-Azzi confederation flourishes in ancient Turkey and Armenia.

  • c. 1320 BCE

    The Hittite king Musili II attacks the Hayasa-Azzi confederation.

  • c. 900 BCE - c. 590 BCE

    The Urartu civilization flourishes in ancient Armenia, eastern Turkey and western Iran.

  • c. 782 BCE

    The fortress of Erebuni is constructed in ancient Armenia.

  • 585 BCE

    The Erebuni fortress in ancient Armenia is occupied by the Median Empire.

  • c. 570 BCE - c. 200 BCE

    The Orontid dynasty rules in ancient Armenia.

  • c. 560 BCE

    Orontes (Yervand) Sakavakyats reigns in Armenia, founder of the Orontid dynasty.

  • 522 BCE

    The Persian satrapy of Armenia briefly cedes from the Achaemenid Empire but is brought under control by Darius I.

  • 333 BCE

    The Armenian Orontid dynasty provides troops for the Persian cause at the Battle of Issus.

  • 331 BCE

    The Armenian Orontid dynasty provides troops for the Persian cause at the Battle of Gaugamela.

  • 330 BCE

    Armavir is made the capital of Armenia, a state under control of the Macedonian Empire.

  • c. 260 BCE

    The unified kingdom of Commagene and Sophene rises in western Armenia.

  • c. 212 BCE - c. 200 BCE

    Reign of king Orontes IV (aka Yervand IV), last ruler of the Orontid dynasty.

  • c. 200 BCE - c. 14 CE

  • c. 160 BCE

    Reign of Artaxias I, founder of the Artaxiad dynasty in Armenia.

  • c. 188 BCE

    Artaxata replaces Erebuni as the Armenian capital.

  • 176 BCE

    Artashat (Artaxata) is made the new capital of Armenia by Artaxias I.

  • c. 95 BCE - c. 56 BCE

    Reign of Tigranes II, king of Armenia.

  • 94 BCE

    Armenia king Tigranes II annexes the kingdom of Sophene.

  • 87 BCE

    Armenian king Tigranes II sacks Ecbatana, the Parthian royal summer residence.

  • 83 BCE

    Armenian king Tigranes II founds a new capital at Tigranocerta (aka Tigranakert).

  • 69 BCE

    Licinius Lucullus leads a Roman army which defeats Armenian king Tigranes II and his capital Tigranocerta is captured. Artashat becomes the capital again.

  • 66 BCE

    Pompey the Great rebuilds the Armenian city of Tigranocerta.

  • 66 BCE

  • c. 56 BCE - c. 34 BCE

    Reign of Armenian king Artavasdes II.

  • 53 BCE

    Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus compels Armenia to provide troops for his campaigns against Parthia.

  • 34 BCE

    Roman general Mark Antony attacks Armenia. The Armenian king Artavasdes II is taken captive to Alexandria.

  • 30 BCE

    Arteses (Artashes) II is made king of Armenia by the Parthians.

  • 20 BCE

    Roman emperor Augustus makes Tigranes III king of Armenia.n

  • c. 6 CE - c. 12 CE

    Reign of Tigran V, last Artaxiad king of Armenia.

  • 12 CE - 428 CE

    Reign of the Arsacid dynasty in Armenia.

  • 52 CE

    Parthian king Vologases I invades Armenia.

  • 54 CE - 60 CE

    Roman general Corbulo successfully campaigns in Armenia.

  • 58 CE

    The Roman general Corbulo captures the Armenian capital Artashat without a fight.

  • 63 CE - c. 88 CE

    Reign of Tiridates I in Armenia.

  • 63 CE

    The Treaty of Rhandia gives Rome and Parthia equality over Armenia rulers and government.

  • 72 CE

    Roman emperor Vespasian annexes the kingdoms of Commagene and Lesser Armenia.

  • 114 CE

    Roman emperor Trajan annexes Armenia and declares war on Parthia.

  • 117 CE

    Roman emperor Hadrian grants independence to the Kingdom of Armenia.

  • 166 CE

    A Roman army sacks the Armenia capital of Artashat.

  • c. 239 CE - c. 330 CE

    Life of Saint Gregory the Illuminator who is credited with bringing Christianity to Armenia (dates disputed).

  • 252 CE

    The Sasanid Empire invades the Kingdom of Armenia.

  • c. 298 CE - c. 330 CE

    Reign of Armenian king Tiridates the Great.

  • 298 CE

    Roman Emperor Diocletian reunifies the Kingdom of Armenia.

  • c. 303 CE

  • c. 314 CE

    Armenia adopts Christianity as the state religion.

  • 368 CE - 369 CE

    The Sasanid Empire destroys several cities in the kingdom of Armenia.

  • 368 CE

    The Sasanian ruler Shapur II sacks the Armenian city of Artashat.

  • 387 CE

    Partition of Armenia between the Roman and Sasanian Empires.

  • c. 387 CE

    Roman emperor Theodosius I and Shapur III of Persia agree to formally divide Armenia between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sasanian Empire.

  • 387 CE

    Tigranocerta in Armenia is renamed Martyropolis.

  • 405 CE

    The Armenian alphabet is invented by Mesrop Mashtots.

  • c. 410 CE - c. 490 CE

    Life of the Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi.

  • 422 CE - 428 CE

    Reign of Armenia king Artashes IV, last ruler of the Arsacid dynasty.

  • c. 428 CE - 652 CE

    Persia rules one half of Armenia as the Marzpanate, that is with marzpan viceroys.

  • c. 439 CE

    Mamikonian prince Hamazasp marries Sahakanyush and so unifies the estates of the Mamikonians and descendants of Saint Gregory the Illuminator.

  • 451 CE

    Battle of Avarayr between Armenian forces and those of the Sasanian Empire.

  • 483 CE

    Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Vagharshapat, Armenia is rebuilt by Vahan Mamikonian.

  • 484 CE

    The Treaty of Nvarsak is signed between Persia and Armenia giving the latter a greater political autonomy and freedom of religious thought.

  • 485 CE

    Vahan Mamikonian is made marzpan of Armenia.

  • 506 CE

    First Council of Dvin establishes that the Armenian Church did not recognize the Fourth Ecumenical Council.

  • c. 554 CE

    The Council of Dvin declares the Armenian Church's adherence to the doctrine of monophysitism.

  • 562 CE

    Artashat in Armenia is confirmed as an official trading post between Persia and the Byzantine Empire.

  • 623 CE

    The Byzantine emperor Heraclius attacks the Armenian capital of Dvin.

  • 640 CE - 650 CE

  • Oct 640 CE

    A Muslim Arab force attacks and captures the Armenian capital of Dvin.

  • 642 CE

  • 651 CE

  • 701 CE

    Armenia is formally annexed as a province of the Umayyad Caliphate.

  • 746 CE - 752 CE

  • 789 CE

    Partav replaces Dvin as the capital of Armenia.

  • 862 CE

    Council of Sirakawan between the Armenian and Byzantine Orthodox Churches discuss Christological issues in an effort to reunify, although ultimately unsuccessful.

  • 892 CE

    A huge earthquake destroys much of Dvin, the Armenian capital.

  • 961 CE

    Ani is made the capital of Armenia.

  • 1001 CE - 1006 CE

    The cathedral at Ani is completed by Trdat the Architect.

  • 1021 CE - 1022 CE

  • 16 Aug 1064 CE

    Seljuk Turks, under Alp Arslan, sack the former Armenian capital of Ani, then under Byzantine control.

  • 1124 CE

    Georgia captures the city of Ani at the invitation of its Armenian population.

  • 1137 CE

  • 1206 CE

    Georgian forces under Tamar occupy the Armenian cities Erzurum and Kars.

  • 1209 CE

    The Sultan of Ardabil sacks the Georgian-held Armenian city of Ani.

  • 1236 CE

    Dvin, the former capital of Armenia, is destroyed during the Mongol invasion and definitively abandoned.


A Guide to the United States’ History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Armenia

Between the 4th and the 19th centuries Armenia was conquered and ruled by, among others, Persians, Arabs, Byzantines, Mongols and Turks. While Armenia was under Ottoman rule the United States established a consulate in Ezerum, Armenia (present-day Ezurum, Turkey) in 1896. The consulate was transferred to Trebizond, Turkey in 1904.

For a brief period from 1918 to 1920 Armenia became an independent republic. In late 1920, local communists came to power following an invasion of Armenia by the Soviet Red Army, and in 1922, Armenia became part of the Trans-Caucasian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1936, it became the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 created the opportunity for bilateral relations between Armenia and the United States.


A Series of reforms designed to improve the status of minorities

Turkey (Then Ottoman Empire)

In the mid-19th century, the three major European powers, Great Britain, France and Russia, began to question the Ottoman Empire's treatment of its Christian minorities and pressure it to grant equal rights to all its subjects. From 1839 to the declaration of a constitution in 1876, the Ottoman government instituted the Tanzimat, a series of reforms designed to improve the status of minorities.


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What happened in Armenia?

Armenia suffered a genocide, which began in 1915 and killed millions of its people.

The Ottoman Turks, who at the time had just entered World War I on the side of Germany, were worried that Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire would help Russia.

Russia had long been in control of Constantinople (now Istanbul), which controlled access to the Black Sea &ndash and therefore access to Russia&rsquos only year-round sea ports.

Many historians agree that about two million Armenians lived in the Ottoman Empire at the time the killings began.

Armenia Genocide timeline: What happened, where is Armenia and why has Joe Biden apologised? (Image: Getty)

Armenia Genocide timeline: Armenian monks commemorating the genocide (Image: Getty)

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However, victims of the mass killings also included some of the 1.8 million Armenians living in the Caucasus under Russian rules.

By 1914, Ottoman authorities were already portraying Armenians to be a threat to the empire&rsquos own security.

On the night of April 23 and April 24, 1915, authorities in Constantinople rounded up about 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, many of which ended up deported or assassinated.

The number of people killed throughout the genocide remains a point of contention.

Armenia Genocide timeline: President Erdogan of Turkey (Image: Getty)

Estimates range from 300,000 to two million deaths between 1914 and 1923, with not all of the victims located in the Ottoman Empire.

But most estimates &ndash including one of 800,000 between 1915 and 1918, made by Ottoman authorities themselves &ndash fall somewhere between 600,000 and 1.5 million.

The Government in Turkey puts the number of dead Armenians at 300,000.

Whether due to killings or forced deportations, the number of Armenians living in Turkey fell from two million in 1914 to under 400,000 by 1922.

Armenia Genocide timeline: Trump tried to avoid using the word genocide (Image: Getty)

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Victims reportedly died in mass burnings and by drowning, torture, gas, poison, disease and starvation.

Children were reported to have been loaded into boats, taken out to sea and thrown overboard, while rape was very often reported as well.

According to the website of the Armenian National Institute: &ldquoThe great bulk of the Armenian population was forcibly removed from Armenia and Anatolia to Syria, where the vast majority was sent into the desert to die of thirst and hunger.&rdquo

Armenia, the Vatican, the European Parliament, France, Germany, Russia, Canada, Argentina and the US are among dozens of states and other bodies to formally recognise what happened as a genocide &ndash but Britain is among those that have not.

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So far, an uneasy peace is prevailing after the Russian-brokered deal.

By early November, the fighting had turned against Armenia. Azerbaijani forces captured the Nagorno-Karabakh region’s second largest city and cut a key access road needed for military supplies to reach the mountain enclave, starving its defenders of hope of holding out.

The cease-fire signed by President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia, President Ilham Aliyev of Azerbaijan and Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan of Armenia called for Armenia’s army to withdraw from Nagorno-Karabakh and be replaced by Russian peacekeepers.

The deal delivered to Azerbaijan much of what the country has sought for years in negotiations. Along with withdrawing its army from the enclave, Armenia agreed to open a transport corridor for Azerbaijan through Armenia to the Azerbaijani region of Nakhichevan.

It also left Armenia deeply reliant on Russia for security, potentially weakening Armenia’s independence. Protests immediately erupted in Armenia, expressing anger at the agreement and calling into question whether the government that negotiated the deal could remain in power to enforce it.

But Azerbaijan too had to compromise. Nearly 2,000 Russian troops, operating as peacekeepers, are now stationed on Azerbaijani territory. That gives Moscow a military foothold just north of Iran — one accompanied by risk, because it puts Russian troops in the middle of one of the world’s most intractable ethnic conflicts.

The settlement also sealed a role in the region for an increasingly assertive Turkey. Turkish military officials will now work at a peacekeeping command center in Azerbaijan. More broadly, Azerbaijan won the war with diplomatic and military support from Turkey, cementing Turkey’s standing as a valuable ally inside Azerbaijan and potentially in the former Soviet states in Central Asia where Turkic languages are spoken, such as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

The Nov. 9 peace deal says nothing about the territory’s long-term status, and ethnic Armenians who returned to their homes in buses overseen by Russian peacekeepers said they could not imagine life in the region without Russia’s protection.

Deep animosity has remained. On Nov. 15, as Armenians fled from Kelbajar under the Russia-brokered peace deal, many set their homes on fire. Near some of the burning houses stood older ruins: the remains of homes abandoned a quarter-century ago, when Azerbaijanis fled and Armenians moved into the region.


The People of Armenia

Type of Government: republic

Languages Spoken: Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)

Independence: 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National Holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Nationality: Armenian(s)

Religions: Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship) 1.3%

National Symbol: Mount Ararat eagle lion

National Anthem or Song: Mer Hayrenik(Our Fatherland)


Where is Armenia?

Armenia is a landlocked country, located in the south of Caucasus mountain range (south eastern region of Europe or Western Asia) and facing the north western part of Asia. Armenia is situated in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth. It is bounded by Georgia in the north, Azerbaijan in the east, Iran in the southeast and Turkey in the west.

Note: Armenia views itself as a part of Europe geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East or both.

Armenia Bordering Countries: Georgia, Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan.

Regional Maps: Map of Asia


A Chronology of the Armenian Genocide

This chronology of the Armenian Genocide is based on a manuscript in the Haigazn K. Kazarian Collection of the Armenian National Institute. While the text of the chronology has been extensively edited and updated, this publication remains true to the sequence of events and information as reconstructed by Kazarian. As such it represents another valuable contribution by this early pioneer in the study and documentation of the Armenian Genocide.

Ittihadist: Member of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) or Ittihad ve Terakki Jemiyeti, the political party in power in the Ottoman Empire during W.W.I. Also known as the Young Turks. Chete: Member of armed irregular forces employed by the Ottoman government in carrying out policies against Armenians. Special Organization, or Teshkilati Mahsusa: The secret outfit manned by convicts and chete forces assigned the task of slaughtering the Armenians. Jihad: Holy War against non-Muslims sanctioned by the religious authority of an Islamic country.

  • Talaat (Mehmet Talaat Pasha 1874-1921), Minister of the Interior 1913-1917 and Grand Vizier (Prime Minister) 1917-1918. [Unless otherwise stated, the instructions and directives mentioned in the chronology emanated from Talaat's office.]
  • Enver (Ismail Enver Pasha 1881-1922), Minister of War 1914-1918.
  • Jemal (Ahmed Jemal [Djemal/Cemal] 1872-1922), Minister of the Navy 1914-1918 and military governor of Syria 1914-1917.
  • Dr. Behaeddin Shakir, CUP Central Committee executive and head of the Special Organization.
  • Dr. Nazim, CUP Central Committee executive and party ideologue.
  • Halil (Halil [Khalil] Kut 1881-1957), Enver's uncle and military commander of Ottoman forces.
  • Nuri (Nuri Killigil 1881-1949), Enver's brother and military commander of Ottoman forces.
  • Jevdet (Tahir Jevdet [Djevdet/Cevdet]), Enver's brother-in-law and governor-general (vali) of Van Province.
  • Mustafa Abdulhalik Renda, Talaat's brother-in-law and governor-general (vali) of Bitlis Province and Aleppo Province.
  • Adrianople, presently Edirne.
  • Aintab, presently Gazi-Antep.
  • Alexandretta, presently Iskenderun.
  • Angora, presently Ankara, capital of the Turkish Republic.
  • Constantinople, presently Istanbul, capital of the Ottoman Empire. Also home for a large Armenian community and the seat of the Armenian Patriarchate.
  • Izmid, presently Izmit.
  • Kharput, also Harput, Kharpert and Mamuret-el-Aziz, presently Elazig.
  • Marash, presently Kahraman-Marash.
  • Marsovan, presently Merzifon.
  • Smyrna, presently Izmir.
  • Trebizond, presently Trabzon.
  • Urfa, presently Sanli-Urfa.

Dates in the chronology
All dates in the chronology are given according to the Western calendar. This calendar came into use in Turkey only after November 1918. Up to that time the Ottoman calendar ran 13 days behind the Western calendar.


Prime minister: Nikol Pashinyan

Opposition leader Nikol Pashinyan was elected prime minister by parliament in May 2018 after he spearheaded weeks of mass protests against the ruling party, transforming the country's political landscape.

He had piled pressure on the ruling Republican Party through an unprecedented campaign of civil disobedience, leading to the shock resignation of veteran leader Serzh Sargsyan, a week after he shifted to the newly-empowered role of prime minister after serving for 10 years as president.

In December 2018 he called a snap election to remove the Republican Party majority in parliament, and his My Step Alliance won an overwhelming majority. The Republicans won no seats.

Mr Pashinyan promised to maintain Armenia's strategic alliance with Russia. But he faced calls for his resignation in late 2020 after agreeing to a Moscow-brokered ceasefire with Azerbaijan, which had made major gains in an offensive against Nagorno-Karabakh.

President: Armen Sargsyan

Armen Sargsyan was elected president in March 2018, when the country moved from a presidential system of government to a parliamentary one.

He briefly served as prime minister from November 1996 to March 1997 between stints as ambassador to the UK and other diplomatic posts in Europe.

Voters in a 2015 referendum backed constitutional changes reducing the powers of the president in favour of the premiership, which critics saw as a ruse to allow outgoing president Serzh Sargsyan to continue to rule as prime minister.

Serzh Sargsyan duly became prime minister on the expiry of his second term as president in April 2018, but sparked the largest street protests Armenia has seen for years. He resigned after several days of unrest.


Watch the video: Ισχυρός σεισμός 6,1 ρίχτερ ανοιχτά της Καρπάθου