Miles Dempsey

Miles Dempsey


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Miles Dempsey, the son of a marine insurance broker, was born in New Brighton, Wallasey, Cheshire, on 15th December, 1896. He was educated at Shrewsbury School. After graduating from Sandhurst Military Academy in 1915 he joined the Royal Berkshire Regiment.

During the First World War he served on the Western Front in France and as well as being mentioned in dispatches was awarded the Military Cross for bravery. On 12th March, 1918, he was gassed at La Vacquerie. This resulted in him later having a lung removed.

Dempsey remained in the British Army and by 1939 had reached the rank of lieutenant colonel. On the outbreak of the Second World War Dempsey was sent to France as commander of the 13th Infantry Brigade and during the Dunkirk evacuation he won the Distinguished Service Order.

In December 1942 Dempsey was promoted to lieutenant general and replaced Brian Horrocks as head of the 13th Corps in the 8th Army under the command General Bernard Montgomery. Dempsey was involved in the planning of the invasion of Sicily and led the assault on 10th July 1943. He advanced to the Straight of Messina on 3rd September 1943 and began to move through Italy.

In January 1944 Dempsey was given command of the 2nd British Army and took part in the D-Day landings on 6th June 1944. After coming under considerable pressure from General Erwin Rommel he finally broke out of the Normandy beachhead at the end of July. Dempsey's troops entered Belgium and liberated Brussels (3rd September) and Antwerp (4th September) before moving on to Holland. He crossed the Rhine on 23rd March, 1945 and captured Hamburg on 3rd May.

He succeeded General William Slim in Singapore and Malaya in 1945. The following year he was appointed as Commander in Chief of the Middle East (1946-47). After retiring from the British Army in July 1947 he published Operations of the 2nd Army in Europe.

In 1948, he married Viola O'Reilly, the daughter of Captain Percy O'Reilly, of County Westmeath, who represented Ireland in the Summer Olympics. Dempsey and "Tuppeny" as she was always known, shared a love of horses, and they purchased the Old Vicarage at Greenham. According to his biographer, Peter Roston, "the marriage, although not blessed with children, was extremely happy."

Dempsey was chairman of the Racecourse Betting Control Board. The RBCB had two functions: to present an alternative to bookmakers for betting; and to apply a proportion of its income from its betting activities for the good of racing. He was also chairman of Simonds Brewery (1953-1963) and deputy chairman of Courage, Barclay & Simonds (1961-1966).

Miles Dempsey died in Yattendon, Berkshire on 5th June 1969.


World War II Database


ww2dbase Miles Dempsey was born in New Brighton, Cheshire, England in the United Kingdom. His lineage traced back to the aristocratic O'Dempsey family of Clanmalier. He was educated at Shrewsbury School and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Upon graduating in 1915, he joined the Royal Berkshire Regiment and fought in WW1 on the Western Front. During the inter-war years, he reached the position of lieutenant colonel after experience leading men of the 5th Infantry Brigade, the 1st Battalion of the Royal Berkshire Regiment, and others. As the commanding officer of the British 13th Infantry Brigade of the British Expeditionary Force between 20 Nov 1939 and 18 Jul 1940, he took part in the massive evacuation at Dunkirk, France during the German invasion of France. His unit was the rear guard for the retreating forces such bravery during the evacuation, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Between 1941 and end of 1942, he led the 46th and later the 42nd Infantry Divisions the latter was renamed the 42nd Armored Division on 1 Nov 1942. In Dec 1942, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and was given command of the 13th Corps in the British 8th Army in North Africa. In 1943, with the 13th Corps, he participated in the invasion of Sicily, followed by the Italian campaign, where he remained until Jan 1944. On 26 Jan 1944, he became the commanding officer of the British 2nd Army, which took part in Gold, Juno, and Sword beaches during the Normandy invasion in Jun 1944. By Sep 1944, his troops were in the Low Countries, and crossed the Rhine River into Germany on 23 Mar 1945. In May, men of the 2nd Army captured Bremen, Hamburg, and Kiel in Germany. On 5 Jul 1945, he was made Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. On 9 Aug 1945, he was named the commanding officer of the 14th Army. Between late 1945 and 1947, he was the Allied Commander in Chief of Land Forces in Southeast Asia, and then the British Commander in Chief in the Middle East. He retired from active service in 1947, but held several honorary posts after retirement. On 2 Jan 1956, he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire. He passed away in Yattendon, Berkshire, England.

ww2dbase Source: Wikipedia.

Last Major Revision: Dec 2007

Miles Dempsey Interactive Map

Miles Dempsey Timeline

15 Dec 1896 Miles Dempsey was born.
5 Jun 1969 Miles Dempsey passed away.

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Visitor Submitted Comments

1. Alan Chanter says:
12 Dec 2007 08:11:50 AM

The Commander of the British 2nd Army in North West Europe 1944-45 was a much tougher character than one would at first assume.

On one occasion he arrived at the Command Post of Lt. General Brian Horrocks XXX Corps in Belgium to issue the Corps Commander with new orders. Calm and collected as usual, General Dempsey sat in General Horrocks caravan clarifying his orders in his usual fashion, and then personnally confirmed them in writing before making his departure.

It was only later that General Horrocks learnt that the small Auster aircraft in which the Second Army Commander had arrived, had crashed and overturned on landing. Although he must have been badly shaken by this event, he had not even thought of mentioning it during the briefing.

All visitor submitted comments are opinions of those making the submissions and do not reflect views of WW2DB.


Mount Harriet:

The grounds you now tread on used to be part of a huge nutmeg plantation in the 1850s called Mount Harriet. Colonial Treasurer William W. Willans and local businessman Whampoa Hoo Ah Kay co-owned the estate, which, with 1,600 trees, included the area where Singapore Botanic Gardens now stand.

When an outbreak of disease felled many plantations in Singapore, Mount Harriet was not spared. A nutmeg-beetle blight, “a curious disease of the nut, resembling leprosy in the human being”, eventually caused the estate to cease operations in 1857.

Though the plantation was extremely profitable for a period of time, the nutmeg blight caused Mount Harriet to become commercially unviable. Probably eager to get the plot off their hands and move on, Willans and Hoo sold the land to the British Forces in May 1860 for a modest sum of 25,000 Spanish dollars.

In 1843 the district of Tanglin consisted of barren-looking hills covered with short brushwood and lalang. This was the result of the deserted gambier plantations, and immediately on the inauguration of granting land in perpetuity in that year a large number of nutmeg trees were planted in this district. . The plantations …[that] surrounded the country residences were very luxuriant, and when the fruit was on [the nutmeg trees] the odour was quite delightful. . Tanglin must have been a very beautiful place at this time, a veritable spice garden.

– From One Hundred Years of Singapore

Illustration of workers in a nutmeg plantation


MILES Genealogy

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Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey, 1896-1969

General Miles Dempsey (1896-1969) was the commander of the British and Canadian troops on D-Day, and led the 2nd Army for the rest of the campaign.

Dempsey was born at New Brighton, Cheshire, on 15 December 1896, the son of a marine insurance broker. He attended Sandhurst, graduating in 1915 then joining the Royal Berkshire Regiment. He served on the Western Front and in Iraq, and was wounded, mentioned in dispatches and awarded the Military Cross.

By 1939 he had been promoted to lieutenant colonel, and he commanded the 13th Infantry Brigade (Royal Berkshires) with the BEF in France in 1939-40. Dempsey first made a name for himself during the Dunkirk evacuation, where his brigade played a major role in the British rearguard actions. He was appointed to the DSO for his role in the retreat.

Dempsey spent the two years after Dunkirk in a series of staff appointments. In 1942 he was promoted to major general and given the job of forming a new armoured division.

In December 1942 he was promoted to acting Lieutenant General, replaced General Horrocks as commander of the 13th Corps and posted to the 8th Army in Libya.

Dempsey helped plan the invasion of Sicily, then commanded the 13th Corps during the invasion itself, starting on 10 July 1943. His corps landed on the Allied right, near Syracuse and Avola, with the 5th and 50th Infantry Divisions in the lead. His corps advanced up the east coast of Sicily, reaching the Straits of Messina on 3 September 1943.

Dempsey took part in the early stages of the campaign in Italy, where he became an expert in combined operations. His corps carried out an assault crossing over the Straits of Messina (Operation Baytown), and then advanced up the boot of Italy.

As a result of Dempsey&rsquos successes in Sicily and Italy, Montgomery chose him to command the British 2nd Army during Operation Overlord. His troops landed on Juno, Gold and Sword beaches, and then took part in many of the hardest battles in Normandy. His army&rsquos role was to draw the German armour onto itself, while the Americans prepared to break out at the western end of the line.

Dempsey&rsquos army took part in the battle for Caen Operation Epsom (26-27 June 1944), the second major British attack on Caen Operation Charnwood (8-9 July 1944), the capture of northern Caen Operation Goodwood (18-20 July 1944), which cleared the rest of Caen Operation Bluecoat (28 July-7 August 1944), carried out to support Operation Cobra and the battle of the Falaise Gap (although the Canadians and Poles carried out the main attacks from the north of the gap).

At first Dempsey commanded the British and Canadian forces, but once enough Canadian units were in place they were formed into General Crerar&rsquos 1st Canadian Army, and the two formed Montgomery&rsquos 21st Armour Group.

After the breakout from Normandy the Canadians advanced along the Channel Coast, while Dempsey&rsquos forces took part in the Great Swan, advancing through France and Belgium, liberating Brussels and Antwerp and entering Holland. Dempsey was gazetted KCB in June, and dubbed by King George VI during a Royal visit to the front later in the year.

Dempsey&rsquos army fought in the Roermond Triangle (15-27 January 1945). It then took part in Montgomery&rsquos set piece crossing of the Rhine around Wesel on 23 March (Operation Plunder). Within five days he had broken through the last German defensive line and his troops was able to dash across the north German Plain. Dempsey personally accepted the surrender of Hamburg on 3 May 1945.

After the end of the war in Europe Dempsey was sent to the Far East, where he replaced General Slim as commander of the 14th Army, after Slim had controversially been told he was being replaced causing a near mutiny in the army. The issue was solved by promoting Slim to command the Allied Ground Forces in South-East Asia, replacing General Leese. Dempsey commanded the 14th Army during the post-war reoccupation of Singapore and Malaya. He then replaced Slim as commander of Allied Ground Forces in South-East Asia. In 1945 his knighthood was raised from a KCB to a KBE. He was promoted to full general, then appointed commander-in-chief Middle East in 1946-47.

He retired at his own request in July 1947 and entered the world of business. He also became chairman of the Racecourse Betting Control Board, reflecting a long time interest in horses. He married in 1948, and died on 5 June 1969.

One key to Dempsey&rsquos success was that he was an un-assuming figure who was able to control his corps commanders while remaining largely in the background. As a result he isn&rsquot as well known as his American contemporaries, many of whom became very famous.


The Leadership

IKE’S INVASION “Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force! You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. . .” — FROM EISENHOWER’S ORDER OF THE DAY UPON THE INVASION OF NORMANDY, JUNE 6, 1944

Omar Nelson Bradley:

Omar Nelson Bradley was born in Clark, MO on February 12, 1893. He was appointed to the US Military Academy in 1911. He graduated 44th in his class. He rose to the rank of major during the First World War.

In February of 1941, Bradley was promoted to brigadier general and sent to Fort Benning to set up the Infantry Officer Candidate Program. After the entrance of the United States into WWII, he acquired command of the 82nd Infantry Division and later the 28th Infantry Division after promotion to major general.

In 1943, Eisenhower appointed Bradley his personal representative in North Africa. Following this, Bradley took command of II Corps and went on help defeat the German Afrika Korps. After victory in Africa, Bradley helped plan and execute the allied invasion of Sicily on July 10, 1943.

His successes earned Bradley the command of the 1st U.S. Army in the invasion of Normandy. Later, Bradley assumed additional duties as commanding general, 1st U.S. Army Group. Following his release from II Corps, Bradley arrived in the United Kingdom in October 1943. Bradley’s strategy was to use the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions to protect his landing forces from local counterattacks by German forces.

Following extensive planning by allied commanders, Bradley landed in France with the 1st Army. On July 26, the 1st Army penetrated German lines at St. Lo and continued to drive into France. Sensing victory, Bradley split his divisions into two separate armies and called in Patton’s 3rd Army. This move put Bradley in charge of the 1st, 3rd, 9th and 15th Armies.

Miles Dempsey:

Miles Dempsey was born on December 15, 1896, in New Brighton, Cheshire, England. Commissioned into the British Army in 1915, Dempsey fought with the British Expeditionary Force in France during World War I. At the beginning of World War II, Dempsey was a lieutenant colonel in command of an infantry brigade in France.

During the Allied retreat, Dempsey’s force provided screening for the British forces as they evacuation from Dunkirk in May-June 1940.

Dempsey was promoted to lieutenant general, in November 1942 and took command of the 13th Corps of the 8th Army in North Africa. In July 1943, the Corps, under Miles Dempsey’s command, formed the right wing of Montgomery’s forces in the invasion of Sicily. His troops later led the invasion the Italian Peninsula across the Strait of Messina, where they advanced more than 300 miles to the north in 17 days before linking up with U.S. forces at Salerno.
Because of his strategic acumen, Montgomery selected Dempsey to command the 2nd Army in the invasion of Normandy, which was comprised of both Canadian and British forces. According to the plan, the British 50th Infantry, British 3rd Infantry and Canadian 3rd Infantry Divisions were to assault Gold, Sword and Juno beaches respectively. After landing on June 6, the 2nd Army drove inland to capture Caen on July 9. Dempsey’s army kept German forces engaged so that the U.S. 1st Army was able to break out of Normandy.

After Normandy, Dempsey continued to command the 2nd Army during its drive up to Germany. The 2nd Army fought major battles at Mortain and Falaise before driving to the east through Belgium. Dempsey’s Army was involved in Operation Market Garden, the failed Allied assault on the Netherlands in September 1944. The 2nd Army crossed the Rhine River in late March 1945 and captured the German cities of Bremen, Hamburg, and Kiel.

Dwight Eisenhower:

Dwight David, one of seven sons of David and Ida Eisenhower, was born October 14th, 1890, in Denison, Texas. He entered the US Military Academy in 1911, where he graduated in the upper third of his class in 1915. After two years with the 19th Infantry at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, Eisenhower’s career accelerated with the Army’s expansion for WWI.

By 1917, he had risen to the temporary grade of lieutenant colonel. Although he never went to France, Eisenhower commanded Camp Colt, the Army’s tank corps training center at Gettysburg.

When the United States into WWII, Eisenhower took over the Army War Plans Division to draft a basic strategy for the war against the Axis. As a result of his efforts, Eisenhower was promoted to Commanding General, European Theater on June 25, 1942.

Soon after his arrival, he led British and American troops in North Africa during Operation TORCH. By the end of 1943, Eisenhower had conducted successful landings in Sicily and Italy and negotiated an Italian surrender.

Due to his successes, the Combined Chiefs of Staff named him Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force for the invasion of Europe. Codenamed Operation OVERLORD, the attack across was to be the decisive act of the World War II. The Germans were aware of the Allied force build-up in the United Kingdom and anticipated an attack somewhere on the French coast. It was Eisenhower’s job to surprise the Germans in the time and place of the landings. Complicating matters was the fact that the Allied resources were sufficient for only one invasion attempt. After painstaking planning, Eisenhower launched the invasion on June 6, 1944.

Following the beginning of the invasion, Eisenhower could to little but wait. In no way assured of success, he actually drafted letters both for the success and failure of the landing. However, the brave men on Gold, Sword, Juno, Omaha and Utah beaches managed to gain a solid beachhead by late afternoon. By the end of June, the Allies had moved nearly one million men and over 585,000 tons of supplies over the beaches. Following of the success of OVERLORD, Eisenhower launched a second landing in the south of France to trap the Germans in converging pincers and force them to retreat from France. Eisenhower remained in command of the Allied forces through the unconditional surrender given to him by General Alfred Jodl at the SHAEF headquarters in Rheims.

Following WWII, Eisenhower was appointed the Army’s Chief of Staff in 1945. In 1952 he was elected President of the United States. As president, he achieved a great deal including signing the treaty to end the Korean War, lobbying Congress to pass the Federal Aid Highway Act in 1956 and enforcing school desegregation in Little Rock, Ark. Additionally, he signed legislation to create the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and oversaw the statehood of Alaska and Hawaii.

Trafford Leigh-Mallory:

Trafford Leigh-Mallory was born on Nov. 7, 1892 in Mobberly, Cheshire. Educated at Cambridge University, he graduated with honors after following a curriculum in history.

He served with the Territorial Battalion of the King’s Regiment in 1914 at the outbreak of World War I and later received a commission in the Lancashire Fusiliers. In July 1916 he volunteered for service in the Royal Flying Corps.

When the Corps reorganized as the Royal Air Force in April 1918, he took command of an aerial reconnaissance squadron receiving the Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.) and continuing on in this position through to the Armistice.

By 1937, with the clouds of war again gathering over Europe, Leigh-Mallory found himself in command of the RAF’s 12 Group. During the Battle of Britain, 12 Group played a vital role in turning the tide of the air war and inflicting heavy losses on the Luftwaffe.

After the Battle of Britain, Leigh-Mallory took command of 11 Group which covered the airspace over London and southeast England. In 1942 Leigh-Mallory rose to Head of RAF Fighter Command, and by 1943 he became Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Expeditionary Air Forces (AEAF).

During the buildup to Operation Overlord there were differing opinions on the best method of utilizing the Allied air power in support of the invasion troops. Leigh-Mallory, as AEAF Commander in charge of all tactical airforces based in England, was characteristically outspoken in support of his “Transportation Plan”. The “Transportation Plan” was an interdiction campaign that would encompass all Allied tactical and strategic air power and bring it to bear on the Axis forces throughout France and Germany. It had the singular purpose of targeting the transportation systems linking France and Germany. By solely targeting rail marshalling yards and associated service depots, Leigh-Mallory felt that German military traffic could be brought to a stand still. This would support the invasion by preventing German High Command from deploying its mobile reserve to the landing site at Normandy. Leigh-Mallory felt that by implementing the “Transportation Plan” ninety days prior to D-Day would allow the necessary time needed to saturate infrastructure targets across France and Belgium. By championing this approach Leigh-Mallory came into confrontation with Lt. General Carl ‘Tooey’ Spaatz, commander of the U.S. Strategic Air Force (USSTAF). Spaatz felt that the strategic bombing of aircraft factories and oil refineries was the quickest way to support an invasion and bring the Axis to its knees. After much debate on these courses of the air campaign, the ‘Transportation Plan’ finally received the approval of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander. Leigh-Mallory took command of all Allied air power, both tactical and strategic, for Operation Overlord. His coordination of these air assets against the railroads and military traffic traveling over them proved to be of incalculable value to the success of the D-Day invasion. By June 6, 1944, rail traffic was sufficiently interrupted as to pose a logistical nightmare to the defending German army and the Luftwaffe units in France had been decimated to a point where they posed little threat to the invasion force. Through the implementation of the ‘Transportation Plan’ as part of the overall invasion, combined with the failure of the German High Command to recognize Normandy as the actual invasion site, the Allied forces were able to establish a firm foothold on the Continent and begin the drive east to Berlin.

After the invasion of France, Leigh-Mallory was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Expeditionary Air Forces in South-East Asia in November 1944. Leigh-Mallory never took command of his new post, on Nov 18, 1944 his transport plane crashed in the French Alps killing all on board.

Bernard Law Montgomery:

Bernard Law Montgomery was born in November 1887 in London. In 1907, he entered the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst and was commissioned a lieutenant of infantry. During World War I he served with distinction and earned the D.S.O. for conspicuous gallantry after being wounded twice in the chest and knee in October 1914.

During the inter-war years, Montgomery steadily rose through the levels of British Army. He was the Chief of Staff for the 47th London Division at the age of 31. In 1939 he was given command of the 3rd Division of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF).

When the British Army was trapped at Dunkirk he was given command of the 2nd Corps.

By 1941, Montgomery commanded the South Eastern Army with troops stationed in the Home Counties of Surrey, Kent and Sussex.
His maxim of ‘training, training and more training’ combined with a penchant for organization helped rebuild and refit the British Army and helped alleviate the fears that Britain would be helpless against a German cross-channel invasion.

His skill and leadership style was not lost on his superiors, and on Aug. 10, 1942 Montgomery took command of the Eighth British Army in North Africa. The Eighth Army, after retreating hundreds of miles across Libya and Tunisia in the face of Rommel’s Afrika Corps, suffered from a lack of morale and decisive leadership. Like his resurrection of the South Eastern Army in England, Montgomery focused on training and military doctrine. His singular success was his integration of operations and command between the Army and Royal Air Force. He was put to the test two months after his arrival in Africa, when the British met the Afrika Corps at El Alamein in Egypt on Oct. 23, 1942. With this victory, Montgomery sounded the death knell for the German Army in Africa. Even with the brief resurgence of the Afrika Corps at Kasserine Pass on Feb. 20, 1943, Montgomery continued to exert pressure with his Eighth Army out of Egypt and constant harassment by the Desert Air Force. The Afrika Corps capitulated in March 1943 with Rommel being evacuated by air to Italy.

After his victory in North Africa, Montgomery was recalled to England to serve under General Dwight Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander. He commanded all Allied Ground troops during the D-Day invasion in June 1944. After the breakout of the Cherbourg Peninsula, he commanded an Army Group for the push up through Belgium and the Netherlands. In August 1944, he was promoted to Field Marshal and took command of all British and Canadian troops. Montgomery orchestrated Operation Market Garden, the largest airborne attack of WWII. The operation was an airborne attack deep in the enemy’s rear areas to be launched in mid-September 1944, in conjunction with a ground offensive by the British Second Army. The idea was to attack through the Netherlands and attack Germany from the West, avoiding the heavily fortified Siegfried Line and isolating any German forces to the west along the coast. Operation ‘Market’ would entail capturing the bridges between Eindhoven and Arnhem by means of airborne landings of the 1st Airborne Corps of the 1st Allied Airborne Army. Operation ‘Garden’ would be the simultaneous advance of the 30th Army Corps of the 2nd British Army from Belgium across occupied bridges to Arnhem. The operation was a failure due to a combination of poor communications, the surprise presence of crack German troops in the vicinity and bad weather, which prevented the reinforcement by air of the airborne contingent. However it did succeed in liberating the Southern Netherlands.

Bertram Home Ramsay:

Born in 1883, Adm. Bertram Home Ramsay spent nearly his entire life in the service of the Royal Navy. During, Ramsay’s 29 year career in the navy he commanded a monitor, destroyer, three cruisers and a battleship, and during Normandy, the largest amphibious assault force ever collected. In 1915, Ramsay had a stroke of good luck he turned done the opportunity to be a Flag Lieutenant in the cruiser Defiance, which was later sunk at the battle of Jutland.

He was promoted to Rear Admiral in May 1935 and Ramsay retired for the first time in 1938, but returned to the service of his country at the beginning of WWII.

Ramsay’s experience in commanding invasion fleets made him Eisenhower’s natural choice to lead the naval forces in Operation Overlord. Despite Ramsay’s concerns that the large waves on the channel would degrade the accuracy of his fleet’s gunfire, the invasion was launched on June 6th, 1944. His minesweepers began the invasion by scouring the channel for mines and clearing ten channels to Normandy for the invasion fleet.

After the channel was cleared of mines, Ramsay’s fleet began landing men and equipment ashore while pounding suspected German strong points with gunfire. The 702 vessel strong naval bombardment fleet ranged in size from battleship all the way down to landing craft that were specially fitted with rockets. Ramsay’s planning and experience made history’s largest amphibious invasion possible. In 1945, Ramsay’s life was cut short when he was killed in a plane crash.

Carl Spaatz:

Carl Andrew ‘Tooey” Spaatz (his surname was originally Spatz, the extra “a” was added in 1937) was born in Boyertown, Penn. on June 28, 1891. After graduating from West Point in 1914, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the infantry and assigned to the Schofield Barracks in Hawaii. He volunteered for the fledgling Air Corps in 1916 and became one of the first military aviators in the U.S. Army.

In May 1917 he was promoted to captain and placed in command of the 31st Aero Squadron in France. His primary mission was to establish a curriculum and training plan for the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center at the aerodrome at Issoudon. By the end of World War I he managed three weeks of combat flight time, during which he received the Distinguished Service Cross for shooting down three German aircraft. In June 1918 he was brevetted a major.

Spaatz was promoted to a permanent major in July 1920, and during the inter-war years he proceeded up the ranks of a peace-time Air Corps. When war broke out in Europe in 1939, Spaatz became the Air Corps’ chief planner. He went to England in 1940 as an observer in the position of an acting brigadier general. Upon his return to the United States he headed the materiel division of the Air Corps. In July 1941 Spaatz became chief of the air staff of the newly renamed Army Air Force under General Henry H. “Hap” Arnold. After the United States entered into World War II, Spaatz rose to Chief of the Air Force Combat Command in January 1942. He was again sent to England to initiate the planning stages of the American Air Effort in Europe. In May 1942 he commanded the Eighth Air Force and in July he was named commander of U.S. Army Air Forces in Europe. By November 1942, on order of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Spaatz reorganized the Allied air forces in North Africa. He become commander of the Allied Northwest African Air Forces (NWAAF) in February 1943. By March 1943 he took command of the Twelfth Air Force in North Africa as a temporary lieutenant general. There his forces played an instrumental part in reducing Rommel’s Afrika Korps and later in support of the invasion of Sicily.

By January 1944, Spaatz commanded the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSTAF), to include the Eighth Air Force under the command of General James ‘Jimmy’ Doolittle in England, and the Fifteenth Air Force under General Nathan Twining in Italy. During the implementation of an air superiority campaign for Operation Overlord, Spaatz came into direct confrontation with British Air Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Expeditionary Air Forces (AEAF), the tactical air command. Leigh-Mallory’s scheme for an interdiction campaign, known as the ‘Transportation Plan’, encompassed all Allied tactical and strategic air power with the singular purpose of targeting the rail systems linking France and Germany. Spaatz felt that the best way to neutralize any German threat to a cross channel invasion was to launch an all out strategic bombing campaign against the oil production and industrial infrastructure of the Third Reich. While Leigh-Mallory’s ‘Transportation Plan’ won final approval from Eisenhower, Spaatz felt the best use of the strategic air forces was the continued systematic destruction of all German oil production. In Spaatz’s opinion, “…forces employed against oil will force policy decisions in anticipation of impending reduction in fuel supplies and consequent reduction in fighting power.” He felt that the three target priorities for the strategic air forces should be: the German Luftwaffe, German aircraft production to include ball bearing manufacturing, and Axis oil production.

By mid April 1944 Eisenhower issued a formal directive outlining the Allied air interdiction campaign in support of the invasion of Normandy. Air power was prioritized into two missions: to defeat the Luftwaffe and destroy and disrupt the enemy’s rail links within France, Germany and Belgium. Ultimately, Spaatz, under the guise of following Eisenhower’s number one directive, destruction of the Luftwaffe, used the strategic forces under his command to direct attacks against Axis oil production, as well as grudgingly support the ‘Transportation Plan’ with his bombers. These raids brought the available fuel supply to dangerously low levels for the Luftwaffe.


BOOKS OF THE TIMES Snaring Dempsey in the Tangled Ropes of History

Illustrated. 474 pages. Harcourt Brace & Company. $28.

Jack Dempsey, the brutal ''Manassa Mauler'' of the 1920's, not only helped make boxing a big-time sport, but he also helped turn sports into a big business. He belonged, along with Babe Ruth, Red Grange, Bobby Jones and Johnny Weissmuller, to the so-called golden age of sports, and he is remembered to this day for his unaccommodated ferocity in the ring. Red Smith hailed him as 'ɺ tiger without mercy'' and '𧆇 pounds of unbridled violence.'' Joyce Carol Oates described him as ''the very embodiment of hunger, rage, the will to do hurt the spirit of the Western frontier come East to win his fortune.''

In his new authorized biography, 'ɺ Flame of Pure Fire,'' Roger Kahn gives us a kinder, gentler Dempsey. Although Mr. Kahn -- a friend of the fighter, who died in 1983 -- talks of Dempsey's ''snarling intensity'' in the ring, he also deems him 'ɺ cold professional, a gorgeous craftsman.'' Mr. Kahn's Dempsey sometimes sounds more like his famous rival, the bookish Gene Tunney. He describes Dempsey as 'ɺ thinking, even intellectual, boxer'' and observes that his diaries reveal 'ɺ thoughtful, introspective young man, and in a sense, the champion as existentialist.''

In addition Mr. Kahn tries to argue in this book that Dempsey 'ɺll by himself'' symbolized 'ɺmerica in the Roaring 20's.'' '⟞mpsey's great years, across the bounding and increasingly unzippered days from 1919 to 1927, play in a grand sense against a wild American epoch,'' he writes. ''Prohibition was wild and the suddenly fast-and-loose stock market was wild and down the road two great show trials blossomed wildly into causes, still well remembered.''

There are two problems with this premise. In the first place Dempsey is a somewhat dubious representative figure. Yes, he embodied fame and glamour and the raucous, restless temper of the times, but then so did a host of others. Second, Mr. Kahn's determination to open out Dempsey's story into something larger causes him to lard the boxer's tale with dozens of panoramic asides, reminiscent of Frederick Lewis Allen's ''Only Yesterday.'' These asides -- about everything from Sacco and Vanzetti to Warren G. Harding, from women's suffrage to Prohibition -- have little to do with Dempsey, and they end up feeling irrelevant and pretentious.

When Mr. Kahn sticks to Dempsey's story and controls his own taste for romance-novel prose (''Trouble was dark-haired and gorgeous''), the results are decidedly better. Mr. Kahn succinctly sketches in Dempsey's peripatetic and impoverished childhood in Colorado and Utah and his hardscrabble adolescence working in the mines and riding the rails.

Under the name Kid Blackie, Dempsey began his career as a barroom fighter in the mining camps of the West. ''Going for a quick knockout was just common sense,'' Dempsey later explained. ''I had a little motto about getting rid of my opponents. 'The sooner the safer.' ''

This ''killer instinct,'' as boxing writers called it, would come to the attention of a wider public in 1919, when the 24-year-old Dempsey took on the hulking Jess Willard, who outweighed him by some 50 pounds, for the heavyweight crown.

'⟞mpsey circled left, bobbed and circled to Willard's right, then closed, moving toward Willard's right near the center of the ring,'' writes Mr. Kahn. '➾hind the fall step Dempsey landed a left jolt to the jaw and then, in seconds, he loosed the most devastating combination of punches in boxing history. He crashed a right hook and a left hook into Willard's body and a short right to the mouth. Now a full left hook to the cheekbone crashed on Willard's face. This was a classic hook, a perfect hook, what Dempsey called ɺn ideal whirl-powered shovel hook.' The blow fractured Jess Willard's cheekbone in 13 places.''

As such passages attest, Mr. Kahn is at his best in this volume describing Dempsey's actual fights, capturing the thrashing, deadly violence of the boxer in the ring. His account of Dempsey's celebrated 1923 confrontation with Luis Firpo, Argentina's ''Wild Bull of the Pampas,'' captures all the wild drama of that fight, in which Dempsey was knocked out of the ring and recovered to hold on to his title. And his accounts of Dempsey's two losing showdowns with Tunney (the second marred by the controversial ''long count'' that gave Tunney a couple of extra seconds to recover) convey the poignancy of a courageous fighter going down to defeat.

Dempsey had always been a controversial figure, in large part because of the perception that he was a coward and slacker for not serving during World War I. But he found, in the wake of those two fights, the sort of public acclaim that had long eluded him. ''I want you to get to the people,'' he told Mr. Kahn, 45 years later, ''that losing was the making of me.''

The changes in sports during Dempsey's career would bring boxing into a new era. While his 1919 fight with Willard drew only 19,650 fans, the Tunney fight of 1926 would attract an estimated 135,000. In Dempsey's seven years as heavyweight champion, Mr. Kahn observes, boxing had gone from being a marginal sport, ''scorned as immoral,'' to 'ɺ sport that had the leaders of the country tripping over one another in their rush for ringside seats.'' As for Dempsey, he would go on to a career on Broadway as an actor and restaurateur: a folk hero of sorts and a model of the modern athlete as celebrity.


Dempsey History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

Today's Irish surnames are underpinned by a multitude of rich histories. The name Dempsey originally appeared in Gaelic as O Diomasaigh, from the word "diomasach," which means "proud." [1]

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Early Origins of the Dempsey family

The surname Dempsey was first found in King's County and Queen's County, where they were traditional Chiefs of Clanmaliere, a territory that lay on both sides of the river Barrow. It contained parts of Geashill and Phillipstown in Kings County and parts of Portnehinch in Queen's County. They claim descent through the O'Connors of Offaly, specifically the 2nd century Irish King, Cathair Mor. [2]

According to O'Hart, they claim descent from through the "Connor" Faley pedigree.

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Early History of the Dempsey family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Dempsey research. Another 286 words (20 lines of text) covering the years 1172, 1193, 1652, 1865, 1599, 1631 and 1641 are included under the topic Early Dempsey History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Dempsey Spelling Variations

Names from the Middle Ages demonstrate many spelling variations. This is because the recording scribe or church official often decided as to how a person's name was spelt and in what language. Research into the name Dempsey revealed many variations, including Dempsey, O'Dempsey, Dempsy, Dempsay, Dempsie and many more.

Early Notables of the Dempsey family (pre 1700)

Notable among the family name at this time was Sir Terence O'Dempsey, knighted May 1599, by Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Terence was created "Baron of Philipstown," and Viscount Clanmaliere, by patent dated 8th July, 1631, temp. Charles I. He had five sons, two of which were clergy.
Another 52 words (4 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Dempsey Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Dempsey migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Dempsey Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Capt. Dempsey, who landed in Georgia in 1741 [3]
  • Ann Dempsey, who arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1753 [3]
Dempsey Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Joseph Dempsey, aged 18, who landed in New York, NY in 1804 [3]
  • Mary Dempsey, aged 14, who landed in New York in 1810 [3]
  • Edward Dempsey, who settled in New York in 1810
  • Francis Dempsey, who arrived in New York in 1810 [3]
  • Catherine Dempsey, who landed in New York, NY in 1816 [3]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Dempsey migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Dempsey Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
Dempsey Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • William Dempsey, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1820
  • James Dempsey, aged 28, a labourer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "Hibernia" from Kinsale, Ireland
  • Norry Dempsey, aged 26, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "Hibernia" from Kinsale, Ireland
  • James Dempsey, aged 1, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "Hibernia" from Kinsale, Ireland
  • John Dempsey, aged 11, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "Hibernia" from Kinsale, Ireland
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Dempsey migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Dempsey Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. John Dempsey, (b. 1778), aged 24, Irish labourer who was convicted in Wicklow, Ireland for lif for being an Irish rebel , transported aboard the "Atlas" on 30th May 1802, arriving in New South Wales, Australia, he died in 1845 [5]
  • Mr. Edward Dempsey, (b. 1789), aged 20, Irish convict who was convicted in Ireland for 7 years, transported aboard the "Boyd" on 10th March 1809, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[6]
  • Dennis Dempsey, English convict from London, who was transported aboard the "Ann" on August 1809, settling in New South Wales, Australia[7]
  • Mr. John Dempsey, (b. 1804), aged 19, Irish groom who was convicted in Wicklow, Ireland for life, transported aboard the "Castle Forbes" on 28th September 1823, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[8]
  • Mr. John Dempsey, (b. 1794), aged 23, Irish labourer who was convicted in Roscommon, Ireland for 7 years for stealing, transported aboard the "Chapman" on 25th May 1817, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[9]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Dempsey migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:


War of 1812 Discharge Certificates: Soldiers by Unit

Capt. Erskurius Beatty's Co.
Daniel Cross, Henry Despert.

Capt. Thomas Martin's Co.
Edward Abbey, Joseph Carroll, William Denton, Joseph Knowles, George Paschal, John Pournel/Pournell.

Capt. Abner Prior's Co.
Noah Heath.

Company Not Indicated
Michael Burke, John Cockle, William Dawson, Patrick Dever, Isaac Fleming, David Gardner, Jacob Grimm, Archibald Kelly, John Kersey, William McDonald, John McDow, George Richardson, Jacob Rogues, Nicholas Smith, Conrad Wiggins, Charles Younghart.

Capt. Howell Lewis's Co.
William Belfield, John Coons, Peter Goard, John Pago, Barnard Pierce, Samuel Sealor, Daniel Smith, John Woods.

Miscellaneous Records Capt. Guions [sic, Guion], Capt. H. Lewis, Capt. Thomas Lewis, Capt. William Lewis, Capt. Reed, Capt. Sparkes [sic, Sparks], Capt. Springer, Capt. Tinsley.

1st Infantry

Capt. Thomas Hamilton's Co.
James Curry.

Capt. Daniel Hughes's Co.
James Wilson.

Capt. Ballard Smith's Co.
Robert Broad, John Smith.

Capt. David Strong's Co.
Matthew Mitchell.

Capt. Matthew Arbuckle's Co.
James Cunningham. Lt. Joshua B. Brant's Detachment of Invalids (or Supernumeraries)
William Gray, James Wells, Elias V. Wood. Capt. Alexander Brownlow's Co.
John Devine, Robert Divan/Devin, Alexander Irvine, Jacob Neff.

Lt. Shubael Butterfield's Detachment of Invalids
Dominick Sandford, William Weaver.

Capt. Reuben Chamberlin's Co.
William Girrard, Anthony Palmer, Abraham Timbrook, John Williams.

Capt. Edmund Pendleton Gaines's Co.
James D. Scott.

Capt. John Miller's Co.
John Beard, Daniel Campbell, Jacob Hiers, Samuel Pendock, William Vastbinder.

Capt. Alexander Ramsey Thompson's Co.
David Blissard, Walter Boyd, Samuel Bradbury, Joseph F. Lowd, George Nieus.

Company Not Indicated
John Clark/Clarke was apparently in this regiment.

Capt. Henry Atkins's [sic, Atkinson's] Co.
James Cherrintone/Cherrington

Capt. Samuel Waring Butler's Co.
William C. Friell, John Mitchell.

Capt. William Butler's Co.
Laban [Loben] Bennet, Joshua James, Isaac Jones, Willie Jones, John Moss, James Smith.

Capt. Henry Chotard's Co.
Thomas Clark, Nathan Harris.

Capt. Duncan Lamont Clinch's Co.
Andrew Easley.

Capt. James Edward Dinkins's Co.
John Boswell, James Braswill, Arthur Hill, Moses Hubbard, Patrick Kelly, Stephen Tucker.

Capt. William Laval's Co.
Joseph Watson.

Capt. Samuel C. Mabson's Co.
Anthony Labrosier.

Capt. John McClelland's Co.
Victor Bennet, George Brown, Charles Compton, William Conkling, John Hixon, James Nelson.

Capt. Hays G. White's Co.
William D. Annadell, Charles Brimmer, Jeremiah Dawson, Nathaniel Gale, Stephen Gestford, Levi Humphrey, James Jerrome, Daniel Muse, Walker Muse, Ewel Rust, Solomon Springer, Noble Veazey.

Capt. Joseph Woodruff's Co.
Richard Fuller.

Capt. John Binney's Co.
Calvin Hall.

Capt. George Gooding's Co.
Samuel Dearborn, John Miller.

Capt. Lewis Peckham's Co.
Fordice Paine, Benjamin Tilton.

Company Not Indicated
Richard Boyington.

Capt. Richard Hales Bell's Co.
John Cloherty, Ransom Hull, James Neal, Joshua Turner.

Capt. Eben (Ebenezer) Child's Co.
Gideon Lincoln.

Capt. John R. Corboley's Co.
Isaac Stroap, Jonathan Thompson.

Capt. William L. Foster's Co.
Mark Whalen.

Capt. John Fowle Jr.'s Detachment
Alexander Forguson/Ferguson.

William S. Henshaw's Co.
William Bell, Traverse Benson, George Bosswell, Jacob Boyer, Matthew Branch, Willis Carter, James Charleston, George Connor, John Crossley, Charlemagn Defour, John Finn [?], William Fowson, Jesse Gowing, Phillip Gowing, James Green, Michael Kitts, Joseph Lippincott, Bernard May, David McKnight, Alexander Murray, Anderson Reynolds, William L. Richardson, George Robinson, Jacob Ross [or Stott or Hoff?], Stephen Simonds, Samuel Stewart, James Taylor, Benjamin Thomas, Samuel Thomas, Tarleton Thomas, Peter Trexler, Cornelius Vencant, William Waterfield, Samuel Welpley [enlisted as Whelpley], William Wood.

Capt. John Jamison's Co.
James Brownley, Alvin Cressey, Philip Harman, Caleb Harrington, Otis Johnson, Francis Lawyer.

Bvt. Maj. Morrill Marston's Co.
William Gleason.

Capt. LeRoy Opie's Co.
William Bennett, Soloman Cherry, Jonathan Dudley, Andrew D. Guinea, Peter Stickney [Hickney?].

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Bartholomew Buck [or Burk?], George W. Dill, Samuel Diskey, Thomas Hanna, George Kaullough/Kaulough, Henry Rees, James Sargeant.

Company Not Indicated
William Bache, John L. Sprogel.

Capt. John T. Arrosmith's (T. J. Arrowsmith's) Co.
Jeptha Heminger.

Capt. Londus L. Buck's Co.
Delaplain Giffin, John Smith, Arthur Walker, William C. Wiley, Richard Worrell.

Capt. Ralph Burton Cuyler's Co.
Andrew Sweeney.

Capt. James E.A. Master's Co.
Robert Marshall, Obediah Tompkins.

Capt. Edward Webb's Co.
William Rogers.

Detachment at Fort Columbus
Henry Bayou, Abraham Blonk, Joseph Doty, Charles Jadwin, Abraham Townsend, Robert Varty, Isaac Vredenburgh, Thomas Wildy, William Williams.

Man at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Samuel Dean.

Company Not Indicated
Samuel Browne, Henry Dapue, Daniel Devinney, John Duffy, Thomas Hasard, ____ Hibbs [first name not indicated], James Lord, Adam Mace, John McDanold/McDonald, Daniel Morris, John Powley, William Williams. William Secord may also have been in this regiment his record is filed with men whose unit or place of service is not indicated.

Capt. George Bender's Co.
Leonard Alger, Amos Boutell, John G. Grossman, Samuel Kerr, Nicholas Lamb, Samuel Libbey, Zebulon Richardson, Patrick Ryan, Henry Simonton, William F. Terry.

Capt. William L. Foster's Co.
Enoch Abbot/Abot, Jacob Brown.

Capt. Abraham Fuller Hull's Co.
Thomas Briggs, William Briggs.

Capt. Chester Lyman's Co.
Fisher Ayres.

Capt. James F. Norris's Co.
Stephen Clark, John Cordwell, William Merrick, Benjamin Sweet, Tilley Woodward, John Young.

Company Not Indicated
Elijah Douglass, Phinehas Frost, Luther Gregory, Ami Kelton, Peter Sandborn.

Capt. Phillip Brittain's Co.
Daniel Mooney.

Capt. Joseph Clay's Co.
John Elmoore.

Capt. Jesse Copeland's Co.
James Bateman.

Company Not Indicated
James Norris, John Rice.

2nd Lt. John Varnum Barron's Co.
Alanson Adams.

Capt. Richard Bean's Co.
Nathaniel Palmer.

Capt. John Bliss's Co.
Gates Blanchard, Nathaniel Colbath.

Capt. Malachi Corning's Co.
John Reed.

Capt. David Crawford's Co.
Patrick Elliet.

Capt. William Sewell Foster's Co.
Daniel French, Elisha Plumb.

Capt. Valuntine R. Goodrich's Co.
Enoch Bickford, William Bickford, John Brown, Samuel Drown.

Capt. Horace Hale's Co.
John Herrick/Herreik, John Hunt, Jonathan Ward.

Capt. Jonathan Stark's Co.
John Hunt, Daniel Wentworth.

Capt. John W. Weeks's Co.
Simion Atwater, George Sherland, Luther Southworth.

Capt. James Charlton's Co.
George Barnhart, James Berry, Jesse Brown, Benjamin Cox, Van Dairy, Enoch Dunn, Thomas Durham, John Eberline, Enoch Ellsley, Edmund Ferguson, Luke Flanagan, Moses Harris, John J. Martin, Preston McClelland, Ezra Mitchell, James Morgan, Richard Morris, Hugh Nelson, David Ray, John Rice, Armsted Tapp, Jonathan Thatcher, John Waddle, John Williams.

Capt. Andrew Lewis Madison's Co.
John Bush, Adam Fast, George Green [Grein?], Abraham Herbaugh, Jacob Keller, Boston Kneedler, Jacob Kneedler, James Lee, John Levy, Edward McComich, John McElvoy, John Mitchall, Ervin Mulhorn, James Murphy, Nathaniel Needles, William Nicholls, John Wilson, Uriah Wolverton, James Woodard.

Capt. James Paxton's Co.
James Akins, John Allison, Thomas Blinco, Gasper Bonner, Peter Bunett, Anguish Campbell, Samuel Conally, Peter Cook, John Craver, Edward Devenport, Philip Hoover, Jonothan Hudson, James Murry, Jacob Pentinss [?], Robert Todd, Charles Way, John Woodard.

Capt. Thomas Post's Co.
Charles Alexander, William Beck, Jonathan Bowman, James Butt, James Carmer, Isaac Davis, William Dawkins, Enoch Ferrill, Powell Hall, James Hunt, Andrew Hutcherson, Fleming Keyser, David Martin, William McKinney, Joshua McKnight, Jacob McMahon, Joseph Miles, John Quick, Benjamin Roberts, Thomas Simpson, Nehemiah Slater, John Stephens, Benjamin Steward, Richard Tibbs, Dickerson Timpkins, Rodolphus Townley, Thomas Turner, Jessee Wells, Lewis Williams, James Wilson, Thomas Wrose.

Capt. Lewis B. Willis's Co.
Fushee Ashby, Matthias Baker, John Brumley, John Cordell, Christian Corder, Simeon Corder, James Crawford, William Cross, John Davis, Henry Day, Edward Devaughan, James Devaughan, Cornelius Evans, George Forbes, Simeon Fry, Henry Haddox, Patrick Hanvy, William Hight, David Huston, Sherod Martin, Henry Maxfield, Martin McLaughlin, William Morgan, John Nichols, George Sampson, William Sisterson, Hugh Walker, Thomas Ward, John H. Waymer.

Capt. John L. Fink's Co.
William L. McLaughlin.

Capt. Samuel Haring's Co.
Henry Wheeler.

Capt. Stephen Watts Kearney's Co.
Charles Fluvel.

Capt. Mordecai Myers's Co.
William Dexter.

Capt. John Sproull's Co.
Timothy Lucas.

Lt. John Williams's Detachment
Henry Jones.

Company Not Indicated
James Davis, John Hustler.

Regimental Staff
John McNamar.

Capt. Richard Arell's Co.
Samuel Barnes, William M. Conklin, Stephen McCarrier, Martin Redmond, Abijah Smith, Isaac Van Bibber.

Capt. Reuben Gilder's Co.
James Allen, Lewis Augh, Everhard Banks, Abraham Beatty, Bayne L. Berry, James Burk, Henry Causer, Cornelius Cloud, John Cochran, Joshua Corbin, Samuel Daws/Dawes, Phillp Deaver, John Gardner, William Hayes/Hays, Joseph Hyatt, William Jamison, William Jarrett, Henry Lindemore, Fredrick Lobenstine, Jacob Lobenstine, George Low, Henry F. Low, John McDaniel, Charles Miles, Benjamin Nailor, Stokely Newman, Archabald Parkans, Joseph Ricks, Nathan C. Smith, Samuel Smith, John Strahan, William Thornell, Francis Tibbins, Samuel Tydd, Jacob Wildt.

Capt. Joseph Marechal's Co.
John Abott, Alexander Bailey, James A. Bayard Jr., John Beattys, Samuel Belville, John Beverlo, Thomas Bingham, Peter Bowen, Benjamin Boyer, Nehemiah Brittenham, John Brunan, Zachariah Casey, Moses M. Clay, John Colven, James M. Cullin, John Davis, Elijah Duskey, James Fletcher, Zebedee Fortine, William Gillis, Bennet Grace, George B. Graves, Eleazer E. Green, Thomas Green, James Griffin, David Hanes, Simon M. Headman, Levin Henderson, James Holstone, Judson Hoy, Joel Jordan, James Karnahan, John Keppold, Benjamin Keys, Philip Lee, John List, Joseph Lutz, George Mack, Alexander Massey, Thomas Meek, Peter Moraro, John Morford, Justus Morris, Benjamin Murphy, Thomas Murray, Isaac Nichols, Patrick Norris, William Randle, Charles Saffell, Thomas Skilley, Jacob Smith, Tully Sneed, William Steller, Nathaniel Sykes, William Tarr, Thomas Vance, Francis Vingard, William Weightman, Thomas Wilks, John Worthington.

Capt. William McIlvain's Co.
Hezekiah J. Balch, Richard Boyle, Joseph Culbertson, Hambleton McBlair, William McConn, Barney McCormick, Samuel Moore, George Powley, Joseph Price, Thomas Quillan, Jacob Rice, Adam Rimmey, William Spencer, John Varnes, John Voice, Joseph S. Wyatt.

Capt. Thomas Montgomery's Co.
James Barr, Thomas Church, William H. Cohen, Patrick Egnew, John Goddard, Frederick Hose, Caleb Hotchkiss, Hugh Hubberd, Berton/Burton Johnson, William Johnson, John Mercer, Hugh Robinson.

Capt. Clement Sullivan's Co.
Samuel Boyd.

Company Not Indicated
Shelby Hobbes.

Capt. Joseph L. Barton's Co.
Lewis Bronson, Elijah Dunham, Phillip Holbert [aka Phineas Halbert] (Note 14), John Huler, James McCann, Hugh Stevenson, David Utt.

Capt. Charles Carson's Co.
Emery Humphreys.

Lt. Alexander Godwin's Detachment
Job A. Beach, Abraham Degrote, Samuel Emly, Isaac Garnsey, Benjamin Guinniss, Gilbert Kearney, John D. Stephen, Isaac Williams.

Capt. John Lambert Hoppock's Co.
John Uber.

Capt. Zachariah Rossell's Co.
Caleb Bonnell, John Carr, Michael Cunningham, Phineas Halbert [aka Philip Holbert] (Note 14), Wildman Hall, Joseph G. Smith.

Capt. Henry H. Van Dalsem's Co.
Ichabod Allen, William Bowers, William Campbell, William Curtis, Daniel Dunham, Thomas Dunn, William Haughy, John Henry, Michael Magher, John Simonson.

Capt. White Youngs's Co.
James Ashmore, Anthony Benoit, Stephen C. Cobb, Calvin Cook, Francis Dixey, John Martin, Hiram Millington, Jacob Mires, Henry Shepherd, William Wentworth.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Edward Haup, William Ostvugh/O'Strugh.

Squadron on Lake Champlain (under command of Capt. White Young)
Michael Quinn.

Company Not Indicated
Richard Hallowell, Joseph Heed, Francis Naisan, Thomas C. Willis.

Field & Staff
Roswell Smith.

Lt. John Caldwell's Co.
James Bradley, Joseph Dovons, John Gott, John Greiner, Hector McFatrick, Samuel Milner, Abraham Nonamaker, Joseph Robb, Joseph Sefford, Michael Titus, John Weaver.

Capt. William Davenport's Co.
Samuel Huff.

Capt. Miles Greenwood's Co.
Thomas Cunningham.

Capt. Thomas Lyon's Co.
Stephen Beech [?], Roger S. Bigelow, John Caskey, William Closson, George Collins, Richard Hamilton, Caspar Knedlar, Hugh O'Donly, Henry Tomlinson.

Capt. John Machesney's Co.
William Conklin, Charles Harman, William T. Smith, William Walker 2nd.

Capt. Alexander McEwen's Co.
James Farrell, Bernard Galaugher [?], Thomas Hough, John Jones, Henry Nowland, William Price, George Sailor, John Shewel, Andrew Shingleton, Richard Sill, John Smith, Joseph Still, Isaac West.

Lt. Thomas M. Powers's Co.
James Shillingsford.

Capt. George G. Steele's Co.
Benjamin Boyan, Joel Brown, Ezrael Butler, Philip Clutz [?], John Davis, Nicholas Deeker, John Grapewine, James Jennings, Charles Leo, Thomas McGee, Alexander McKinly, Solomon Sullivan, John Williams, Jacob Williamson.

Men at Fort George
Peter Donnelly, N. M'Laughlin.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
John Bouhie, _____ Braceland [first name not indicated], Daniel Crate, William Curry, Hugh Dougherty, James Douglass, Jacob Haley, James Leggit, James McIntire, John Murdock, Lewis Olmstead, Christopher Traxler, Charles Willcox.

Company Not Indicated
Thomas Harding, Jacob Lister, Bernard Shriner, Samuel Warring.

Capt. Robert Edwards's Co.
Daniel Braner.

Company Not Indicated
John Maxwell.

Capt. John Gray Blount's Co.
John Bland, Mathias Cone, James Creekman, Daniel Curgomes [Coganus?], Erwin Faunt, William Riggs, Jasper Smith, Peter H. Smith, William Turner.

Capt. George Butler's Co.
James Rogers.

Capt. Owen Clinton's Co.
Nelson N. Duke, James Ivey, Thomas Morgan, Levi J. Whatley.

Capt. James Hamilton's Co.
William Shaw.

Capt. Edward King's Co.
William Neighbours.

Capt. Thomas J. Robeson's Co.
William Anderson, John Ashley, Lewis Bass, Rice Bass, Harman Bolton, James Braddy, Joseph Buchanan, John Cole, Stephen P. Connell/Connel, John Connelly, John Cooke, Hugh Cunningham, John Cunningham, Martin Gurley, Daniel Haily, Benton Holiman, William Jackson, Hugh Johnson, Alexander Lashley, John Martin, Charles McArthur, John McArthur, Malcolm McDuffie, Hugh McIntyre, Peter McLauchlan, Jacob Miller, Daniel Munroe, Daniel Norman, Seth North, John Perry, Joseph Plummer, Reuben Sauls, John Steel, John Story, William J. Tate, Bryant Taylor, Daniel Twigg, Richard S. Williamson, Littleberry Woodliff.

Capt. Henry P. Taylor's Co.
William W. Brown, Patrick Dorning, Samuel Norris, Ephram Tiller, Samuel S. Ward, Moses Williams.

Capt. William Taylor's Co.
Joseph Boin [?], John Cape, Samuel McClellan/McClellen, William McCurry, Jacob Pruet Sr., John Vandegrift.

Capt. Montague G. Waage's Co.
Jesse Holmes, Samuel B. Lewis, John Mounce.

Company Not Indicated
Samuel Key.

Capt. John T. Chunn's Co.
Andrew Leaf.

Lt. William MacDonald's Co.
William Gulridge.

Capt. Henry Branch's Co.
John S. Mitchum.

Capt. Reuben Crawford's Co.
Reuben Crawford.

Capt. John ("McCraye") McRae Jr.'s Co.
Wyatt Lantrip [?].

Capt. John A. Thornton's Co.
William Speck.

Capt. Torrington's Co.
Thomas Bush.

Company Not Indicated
Drury/Drurry Hudson, John Smith, Charles Snead, David Trial.

Lt. Josiah Bartlett's Detachment
Alvarius Willard.

Lt. William Bowman's Co.
Robert Mann.

Capt. Lemuel Bradford's Co.
Winthrop Barton, John Raynes, Samuel S. Thompson.

Lt. Sullivan Burbank's Co.
James Clark, John Fisher, John Waymoth.

Capt. Ira Drew's Co.
William Hutchins.

Lt. Thomas Harrison's Co.
Zachariah Soule.

Capt. Benjamin Ropes's Co.
Abraham Durgin.

Capt. Charles Edward Tobey's Co.
Robert Hill.

Capt. Joseph Treat's Co.
Phineas Ames, Zachariah Hussey, John Keegan, Enoch Leathers Jr., John McIntire, James Mills, Thomas Pool, Nathan Thombs, Gardner Trask, Joseph Trask.

Capt. Josiah H. Vose's Co.
Nathan Bacheldor, Jonathan M. Ballard, Isaac Farwell, Joshua Grant Jr., Ebenezer James, Lorain M. Judkins, Ebenezer Stearns, Caleb Whittore.

Company Not Indicated
Henry Buckmore, James Lamb Jr., Willard Smith, John Withus.

Capt. Willis Foulk's Co.
John Gordon.

Lt. Robert R. Hall's Co.
Richard Barre.

Capt. Thomas Lawrence's Co.
Andrew Kitlinger.

Capt. William Morrow's Co.
Hugh Crawford, George Crowl, John Emrick.

Capt. John Pentland's Co.
William McQuown.

Lt. Samuel A. Rippey's Co.
John Dobson.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Alexander Anderson, Parley/Pardy Bennet, Thomas Hough.

Company Not Indicated
Gideon Low, Leonard St. Clair.

Capt. Horatio Gates Armstrong's Co.
Henry Ambler, Nathan Bacon.

Lt. Peter L. Hogeboom's Co.
Thaddeus Green.

Lt. Justus Ingersoll's Co.
Wolston Wright.

Capt. Peter Mills's Co.
Jonathan Thompson.

Capt. Azariah W. Odell's Co.
John Dalzell.

Capt. Samuel Tappan's Co.
Simeon Salisbury.

Capt. Derck Van Veghten's Co.
John Watkins 3rd, Joseph Wood.

Company Not Indicated
Elijah Armstrong, John Bartholomew, Gabriel [Grabib?] Bennet, Zenah Call, Aldredge Carpenter, David Conkleton, Daniel Connell, John Conway, David Corey Jr., Samuel Cornwall, Benjamin Cornwell, Jabez Crane, Samuel Dickinson, John Dinsmore, James Dopp [or Dobb], Samuel Hawkins, Daniel Johnson, James Knapp, John Knight, Samuel Lewis, Andrew McMillen, Seth Nicholson, Roswell Olds, Thomas Parker, Jonas Pembrook, Henry Persall [Pearsall?], Rodolphus Simons, Daniel Skinner, Thomas P. Smith, William Spencer, Thomas Storrs, Ambrose Thompson, Abel Warren/Warrin, John Watterman, Labius [Lebius?] Young.

Company Not Indicated
Patrick Bigley.

Capt. William Battey's Co.
Hezekiah White, James Wilner.

Lt. Jesse Beach's Co.
John Moore.

Ensign Alexander T.F. Bill's Co.
Benjamin Whitman.

Capt. Peter Bradley's Co.
Stiles Burroughs, John Chatterton, Isaac Hubbell, Samuel Tibbets.

Lt. James Burbidge's Co.
James F. Hazen, Zephen Nash.

Ensign John Gifford's Co.
Archibald White.

Capt. George Howard's Co.
Andrew Ainsworth, Spicer [?] Ruddnow [?].

Maj. Daniel Ketchum's Detachment
Shadrach Robinson, Thomas Turner.

Capt. Joseph Kinney's Co.
Alexander Adams, James Burton, William Judd, Francis Parker.

Capt. Henry Leavenworth's Co.
Daniel Cummings, Solomon Stanton.

Capt. John Bates Murdock's Co.
Tobias Bright, Otho Cocks, Daniel Fitzgerald, Enoch Hickson, James Kinnett, John Sutton, James Young.

Capt. Seth Phelps's Co.
James Charles, Lathrop Davis.

Lt./Capt. Thomas M. Read's Co.
Francis Burns, Thomas Cole, John D. Felton/Felten, Ziba Hinkle, Joseph Jones, Richard Noris/Norris, Richard Sheckley.

Capt. Thomas S. Seymour's Co.
Robert Bennett.

Capt. William Walker's Co.
Joshua C. Burton.

Capt. Benjamin Watson's Co.
William G. Baidstone, Thomas Hewitt, John Ludwick, James Munn, James Robbins, John Sparks.

Lt. Edward White's Co.
Joseph Drake.

Company Not Indicated
John Bennet, Worcester Cooper, William Cummings, Sylvester Fuller, William Harrison, John Hewlett, Warren Holcomb, Jacob Miller, John H. Mitchell, Nathan Sellick, Simeon Sloot, James Soles, John Stiverson, William H. Upright, Epenetus F. Webb, Ransford Whitney.

Capt. William Bezeau's Detachment
John Aldridge, William Bradbury, John Cooper, Joshua Coxe, Joseph Finerty/Finnerty, John Jackson, Thomas Johnson, Aaron Pursel/Pursal.

Capt. Ira Williams's Co.
Philip Lovering.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
John Gardnor, Patrick McDevitt.

Company Not Indicated
Isaac Blacksford, Hosea/Hossea Conner, Joseph Freeman, Zera King, Daniel Knight, Charles Mathias, Samuel Morris/Moris, John Peters, William Smith.

Capt. Matthew D. Danvers's Co.
Henry Sherwood.

Capt. Elam Lynds's Co.
William Albrough, David P. Nutting.

Capt. Lyon's Co.
Andrew Miller.

Company Not Indicated
James Blakeslee, Martinus/Mattinus Brate, John Goold/Gould, Daniel Gray, Ezra B. Griffith, Isaac Groat, Nathaniel Hunt, Luke McQuin, James R. Moody, John Perry, John Ralston, Samuel Tucker, John Van Huvenbergh [on record for Luke McQuin], Shubel/Shubael T. Weeks.

Capt. James Taylor's Co.
Josiah Brush.

Capt. Robert Patterson's Co.
Hugh H. Erwin, Alexander Fullerton, William Hackney, James McCloskey, John Myers/Mayers, Adam Shivers, John R. Thompson.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Thomas Irwine, Daniel McCloud.

Capt. Benjamin Adams's Co.
James Allbee, Joseph Pannal, David Quint, Jeremiah Robinson.

Capt. Francis Drew's Co.
Isachen Lane, John Lane.

Capt. Benjamin Dunn's Co.
David J. Dunn, Joseph Webster Jr.

Capt. Elijah Foss's Co.
Zachariah Knox, Michael Lawyer, Elisha Strout, Jeremiah York.

Capt. Rufus K. Goodenow's Co.
Nathaniel Cole, William Lord, William White.

Capt. Isaac Hodsdon's Co.
Thomas Bartlet, Joseph Basford, John Bennett, Thomas L. Bickford, Charles Bradford, Abner Buckman, Isaac Burton, Abner Chase, Absalom Douglas, William Droelly/Dwilly, Samuel Durgen, George Fletcher, Charles George, William Hammons, David K. Hayes, Bartlet Holmes, James Hutchings, Arnold Inman, Morey Inman, Samuel Jellison, Samuel Jellison Jr., David Keniston/Kennison, James Kitridge, Elihu Lancaster, Levi Levey, Abraham Longley, Thomas Mayo, Daniel Millikin, Milbrey Mitchell, Edmund Mudget, Nathaniel Mudget, Abel Packard, Richard Palmer, William Richardson, Nathan Sellick, Benjamin Spauldin, Daniel C. Thompson, Moses Towne, Benjamin Warner, Enock Woodman.

Company Not Indicated
Uriah Abbott, William Allen, Elisha Bither, Robert Blair, Abiather Bodwell, Stephen Bridges, John Carbary, James Carlton, William Carter, Aaron Clark, Timothy Cleveland, James Coffin, Henry Cole, Libbeus Collamon, Obediah Cramm, Jeremiah Cranmore, John Curtis, David Davis, Samuel Davis, Freeman Dawes, Arthur Dennis, Dean Densmore, Edward Donnelly, John Doughty, Clement Drew, Francis Dudley, Joseph Dyer, Wheeler Dyer, John P. Eastman, Daniel Eldridge, Robert Emery, Aaron/Aron Fogg, Joseph Grant, William Hamblin, David Hanson, Andrew Herriden, Seth Hilton, Ebenezer Hopkins, Jonathan J. Hunt, James Jones, John Knight, Ebenezer Knox, Silas N. Lane, Nathaniel Leach, Thomas Learnerd, Ezekiel Lincoln, Jonathan Littlefield, Simon Lord, Hezekiah Lumbard, John Marshall, James Mason, John Meserve, Robinson T. Mills, David Mitchell, Enoch Moody, Richard Morse, John Moulton, William Murch, Ephraim Nickerson, Stephen Paine, Henry Parsons, Nathan Pendexter, William B. Peterson, Thomas Pindexter, Dodovah Plummer, Joseph Potte, Joseph Pottle (Note 15), John Sanboum/Sanboun [?], Robert Sawyer, George Simpson, James Sinclair, George Smith, Nathan Smith, Noah Smith Jr., Paul M. Snow, Robert Spear, John Spencer, Aaron Stevens, Solomon Stuart, Artemos Turner, John Wakefield, Ezra Waldron, Josiah Wallace, Joseph H. Waterhouse, James Weeks, John Wentworth, Patrick White, Benjamin Whitten, Quincy Williams, Israel Woodbury, Richard Young.

Capt. Joseph C. Addams's Co.
Thomas P. Steward.

Capt. Benjamin Bailey's Co.
James C. Churchill, Ichabod Spencer, Henry M. White.

Capt. Peter Chadwick's Co.
Abiel Abbot, Barnard Center, Jacob B. Demeritz, Simion Dening, John P. Dollaft [?], Samuel Freeman, John Hussey/Hussy, John B. Judkins, William Mayhew, Joseph Merrall, Joseph Mitchel, Charles Peterson, Chandler Russell, Bradbury [?] Smith, John Stacy.

Capt. Daniel Crossman's Co.
Samuel Adams, Ephraim Bryant, John Gray, Thomas Hardy, Benjamin Jenks, Robert Row.

Capt. Robert Douglas's Co.
Joseph Barter, Ephraim Benson, Daniel R. Chandler, Seth Fogg, John Libbey, Robert Osgood, Newel Sanbourn, Henry Shurbourn, Isaac Smith, James T. Smith, Stetson West.

Lt. Jeremiah Ede's Co.
Jesse Smith.

Capt. Robert R. Kendall's Co.
Joseph Banks, John Elder, Isaac Martin, Charles Frederick Merit, Caleb E. Parker, David Reynold, Nathaniel Stearns.

Capt. Sherman Leland's Co.
Thomas Barrows, John Batrong, George McKenny, John G. Mosart, James Perkins.

Capt. John Merrill's Detachment
Noah Foster, Isaac Pinkham.

Capt. Benjamin Poland's Co.
John Austin, Nathan Austin, James Bagley, Elisha Bedel, Stephen Clapham, Joseph H. Clark, Robert Evans, Benjamin Frost, Samuel Gilman, James Hodgdon, John Holmes, Jacob Jones, Caleb Kimball, David Lambert, Dennis Lane, George Libby, Hubbard Nickerson, Eleazer Nock, Thomas Rankings, James Russell, Elexander Smith, Obediah Taylor, Samuel Tibbets, Josiah Whittier, Shuball Wixen Jr.

Lt. Royal D. Simons's Detachment
Samuel Tolman.

Lt. William A. Springer's Detachment
Thomas Alley, James Bacon (?), Reuben Cole, Samuel Dunnel, Hiram Earl, Seth Gerry, Hawes Hatch, James Hendrick, Ralph Hill, Job Libby, Nathaniel Martin, Jeremiah Mitchel, Jacob Riyal/Royal [?], Daniel Sprague, William Wirtman.

Capt. William Sweet's Co.
George Doe, Abraham McLewis [McLucas?], Isaac Ricker, Elias Shurburne, Archibald Thimsen.

Company Not Indicated
Ephraim Abbot, David Bagley, John Blyther, Joseph Boyce, Dennis Bragdon, Timothy Clark, Rufus Coburn, Joseph A. Crossman, James Curtis, James Elliot, Abijah Foster, Isaac Guptail, Otis Legg, Christian L. Lund, Andrew Marshall, Moses Meder, Thomas Morris, James Murphy, John Nash, William Nevers, Nathan Proctor, Samuel Richard [Richards?], Amos Richardson, James Shibles, George W. Thomas, John Whitney, Benjamin Woodman.

Capt. Thomas Carberry's Co.
John Lightell.

Capt. Samuel Rasin's Co.
Samuel Rasin.

Company Not Indicated
Dr. Asahel Hall.

Capt. James Harvey Hook's Co.
Patrick McDonough.

Capt. James Davis's Co.
Robert H. Enochs, James D. Fisk, Edmond Gandy, Henry Laswell, Jonathan Moore, Arthur Murray, Nicholas Parks, John Queen, Amos Read, Lodawick Robertson, James Shepherd, Lamuel Simmons, Henry Studevant, James Trammell, Thomas Warren, James Woods.

Capt. James Gray's Co.
William Cox, Bryant Currel, James Dunlavy, Luke Earp, Zadoc Freeman, Absolem Goforth, Daniel Harmon, Rigdon Hobbs, Ezekiah Kirkpatric, George Martin, George May, John McGee, Dennis Murphey, Charles O'Neal, William Ramsey, Nathaniel Redden, Richard Richards, Elijah Richardson, Samuel Roach, David Robertson, John Robertson, John Steal, Joseph Stewart, Robert Strother, Ellis Williams, Elisha Williams, John Williams, John York, Thomas Zook.

Capt. Henry Henniger's Co.
David Claunch.

Capt. John Jones's Co.
Abner Armstrong, John M. Bolles, Archibald Cannon, William Derrickson, Richard Dover, William Grant, Thomas Howard, James Lynch, Macomb MacCown, Robert Martin, William McGahey, Robert McGill, William Moasley, Henry Morris, Thomas Shepherd, David Woodall, John Woodall.

Capt. John B. Long's Co.
Thomas Allison, Greenberry Bab, Jesse Betha, John Boarin, John Brittin, Gabriel Caves, Nicholas Clark, Benjamin W. Cunningham, James Dobbs, Joseph Eastess, John Edwards, William Garret, John Gibbons, William Goodrich, Jeremiah Gray, John Hamock, Jacob Harden [Harder?], Henry Harper, Benjamin Herd, Christopher Hobbs, Samuel Hutchisson, Thomas Jones, Dempsey Jordan, William Langdale, Joel Longley, Joseph Longley, Charles Matheny, Lewis Matheny, Soloman McCloud, Henry Meazel, Mathew Miller, Abraham Morgan, David Nelson, Alexander Oursler, Robert Page, Dempsey Parker, Perter Porter, John Sea Jr., John Sea Sr., Ezekiel Shearly, James Shearly, Joel Shelton, John Sillman, Samuel Smith, Samuel Wilkinson, John Williams, William Wilson, Thomas Wood.

Lt. Bernard M. Patterson's Detachment
Matthias Chronister, Larkin P. Lewis, William Reynolds.

Capt. John Phagan's Co.
Joseph Adkisson, Joseph Alexander, John Barnett, Robert Barnett, Henry Brazier, Michael Burkhalter, William Cain, John Crofford, Hezekiah Danley, Lewis Davis, Thomas Dixon, William Fortney, Robert Gaines, Zecharah Green, Richard Hankins, William Hardin, Robert Harris, Asa Journagin, John Loder, Robert Michell/Mitchael, Philip L. Munson, John North, Benjamin Osleium/Osleum, Peter Perryman, George Phink, John Reynolds, Lenard Rhoden, John Sands, George Scroggins, Hezekiah Seals, William Smith, William Sumptor [Sumpter], John Whitaker, Acklen Woods, Thomas Wright, Joseph Wyatt.

Capt. Thomas Stuart's Co.
James Bennefield.

Capt. William Walker's Co.
Charles R. Benson, Carter Brandon, Isaac Conly, William Cresen, Jacob Gentry, John Harbenson, Jeremiah Harrison, Robert Harrison, Moses Hart, Solomon Hart, Anthony Hudgeons/Hudgions, Jarrard Huffman, Jacob Hufman, Francis Kizer, John Lemmons, James Maddon, James Malcom Jr., Abel McArthur, Joseph Miller, James Morrison, John Parks, Hannibal Perry, James Proctor, William Roach, James Sevier, Absalom Walters, William Weatherford, James Wilkeson.

Detachment (Commander not indicated)
Abraham Denton, James Duffield, John Nelson, John Owens, James Sumter.

Company Not Indicated
David Childress.

Capt. John Fillebrown Jr.'s Co.
John Dickson, Benjamin Mulliken.

Capt. John Leonard's Co.
Joel Barrus, Charles Bird, Asa Bosworth, Amos Boutwell, Joseph C. Brown, Asa Bryant, Rufus Campbell, John T. Cobb, Ichabod
Coffee, Nathan Coffee, Rufus Coffee, Joseph Coleman, Henry Crofford, David Davis, Abel Dean, Walter Dean, Joseph Dodge,
Thomas Foster, Oliver Fraizer, John V. Gale, John F. Giles, Silas Hall, Reuben Hardy, Moses Hemphill, William H. Hewit, Daniel Howland, Isaac Jacquith, Gilbert Jones, Jenkin Jones, John Knight, Joseph B. Knights, Reuben Lamberton, Samuel P. Merritt, Philip Miller, John Montgomery, Samuel Pendleton, Jonathan Rand, Seth Randall, Samuel Robertson, John Schollar, Josiah Scribner, Elijah Sebree, Lewis Sloter, Charles Smith, Ebenezer Staples, Obediah Stoddard, James Thayer, David Thompson, Thomas Thompson, Atkin Todd, Samuel M. Varnum, Seth Walker, Samuel Waterman, John Whitelock, Nathaniel Whittemore, Levi Wilson, Aaron Wood, David Wymer.

Capt. James Perry's Co.
Samuel Albro, James Bates, Reuben Bates, James Borde, David Bourke, Benjamin Braman, Daniel Carr, George Clark, David Cole,
Daniel Collins, Samuel Cranston, Henry Cummings, Charles C. Cushing, Nicholas C. Cushing, Andrew Dillon, Nathaniel Drown,
James Duffel, Joseph Elliot, Elisha Franklin, Benjamin Gardner, David Gardner, Samuel Gardner, John W. Goodson, William Green, Silas Greenman, Welcome Harrindeen, John Hendrick, Benjamin Holland, Hans Johnson, Thomas Jones, William H. Jones, Peleg C. Lewis, Abner Luther, John Lynch, Samuel Manley, George Mann, Gardner U. Mitchell, Zebulon Northup, Isaac S. Osburn, Lyman Peck, John B. Perry, Joseph Pettis, Stephen Pettis, Hazard Potter, John Rising, Jeremiah F. Rogers, Anthony Sheldon, John Sheldon, Thomas Simmons, Lewis Smith, Henry Snow, Francis Southwick, Jason Sprague, Solomon Sturtevant, Joseph M. Taylor, Oliver Tinnant, Joseph W. Vose, Andrew F. Wagner, Josiah Webster, Joseph Weeden, John Wetheril, Joseph Wonderly.

Company Not Indicated
Samuel Hodges Jr., Sewall Hutchason.

Capt. George W. Barker's Co.
Hugh Allen/Allin, Thomas Grimes, Samuel Nealy/Nealey, Lewis Nicholls/Nickolas, Jacob Rees, David/Daniel Ross, John Seese/Seease/Sease, Thomas Vandergrift/Vandigrift.

Capt. John Jehu Robinson's Co.
Jacob Andy, David Bangs, James Books, Joseph Collins, Martin Culp, Thomas Davis, John Donacky, James Ferrier, John Kislar, William Marsh, John McDevitt, Isaac McDowall/McDowell, Pomenius Olford, Adam Rothrick, George Shuler, Benjamin Staunton, Adam Winegardner.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Duncan Cane, John Davis, William Hornby/Holmley, Jonathan Simpson.

Capt. Henry Garrett's Co.
Timothy Langston.

Capt. John L. Thompson's Co.
John H. Clements.

Capt. Isaac L. Baker's Co.
Wiley V. Harper.

Capt. Joshua Danforth's Co.
Hermon Blanchard, James Buswell, John Chote, Robert Cochran, Daniel Colomy, William Cunningham, Beniah Woodward.

Capt. Smith Elkins's Co.
Samuel Hinkley.

Capt. Elijah Hall's Co.
William Baker, Jacob Foye, William Simpson.

Capt. Daniel Holden's Co.
Ebenezer Albee, Daniel Arlen, Nicholas Arter, Benjamin Bailey, Joseph Bennett, James Blodget, Moses Brown, Jonathan Burbanks, Ebenezer Burges, Dunham Campbell, Samuel Carr, Jonathan Chapman, John Clark, Thomas Clark, Ezekiel Clough, Ebenezer Cobb, Josiah W. Coburn, Josiah W. Coburn Jr., Benjamin Coggins, William Colby, William Cole, Stephen Cook, Joseph Creasey, Thomas Crocket, Thomas Crowell, John Cushing, Samuel Davis, Shubal Davis, Stephen Davis, Elias Duly, Samuel Edmunds, Robert Erskine, Enoch Fisk, Robert Ford, James Foye, Benjamin Gale, John Gilbert, John Hall, Jonathon Haskell, William Heath, Ezekiel Higgins, David Hilyan, William Holden, William Hudson, Elijah Hunter, Benjamin Jackson, William Jackson, Daniel Kimball, James Kincaid, James Lampson, James B. Lyon, William McPheters, Spencer Nelson, Thomas Newhall, James Osmore, Joseph Owen, Dalel/Daniel Page, William Patterson, Richard Powers, Benjamin Putney, Thomas Rankin, Joseph Remick, Nathan Smith, Lewis Stone, Charles Stuart, John Stuart, Daniel Thurstin, Luther Turner, Joseph Tyler, Moses H. Wardwell, Robert L. Wheelright, Ebenezer White, Joseph Whitney, Daniel L. Wilkins.

Capt. Henry Snow's Co. (Note 16)
Thomas Lewis, Jonathan Osgood Jr., Benjamin Tarr.

Capt. Nathan Stanley's Co.
Samuel Adams, Thomas Lowell, James Wilson.


Lt. Samuel Sylvester's Detachment (Note 17) (see also folder "Lists of Discharged Men")
John Bickmore, Josiah Colcord, Lot Conant, James Douglass, David Durgan, William Elwell, Levi Gould, Samuel Guy, John Hacket, Joseph Hayes, Elijah Heggins/Higgins, Samuel Hodjkins [sic], Thomas Lewis, Jacob Lufkin, John McElister, John McLucas, Stephen Melcher, Moses Michaels, Amariah Morrill, Zachariah Norton, Jonathan Osgood Jr., Ezra Sawyer, James Sweet, Charles Swift, Benjamin Tarr.

Capt. Thomas B. Sylvester's Co.
John Olds.

Company Not Indicated
George Abbot, Benjamin Allen, David Atkins, Enoch Bailey, Benjamin Baker, Benjamin Barret, Isaiah Brown, Robert Brown, Richard Carr, John W. Chesley, Tilly H. Cleasby, Charles Cocks, Samuel Cossen, James Costellow, Samuel Craigg Jr., James Deaker, John Deeker, John Dinslow, Israel Douglas, John Dunnells, Jonas Farnsworth, Solomon Furnell, Benjamin Gerry, James Gibbs, Martin Gill, William Gray, John Groves, John Groves Jr., Joseph Harris, David Hathen, James Herrington, Cornelius T. Hinkley, Joseph Holt, Nathan G. Howard, William Johnson, Michael Joseph, David Kimball, Guy Kincaid, William Kincaid, John Kinne, Samuel Lewis, Levi Lighton, Samuel Lisherness, Abner Loomis, Aaron Lufkin, Benjamin Lufkin, John Lufkin, Stephen Lufkin, John Mars, Thomas M. McFadden, William McFadden, James McLucas, Jeremiah McLucas, Robert McLucas, Joseph Milikin, Caleb Moody, John Mouton, Abel Nutting, Samuel Page, Smith Palmer, John Parshley, Elisha Patterson, John Russell, Samuel Sennet/Sinnit, Lemuel Small, William Spencer, Edward Stafford, Robert Stevens, James Talman, John Todd, Clarkson Turner, Stephen Vivuan, Ichabod Weymouth, Zenas Whitten, Elisha Winslow, Samuel Yates, Isaac Young.

Capt. Arthur P. Hayne's Troop
Joseph Howell.

Capt. William M. Littlejohn's Co. (Note 18)
Thomas Con [Com?], Jeremiah Mannaka.

Capt. Asa Morgan's Co.
John C. Burns.

Lt. Abel Wheelock's Co.
Ephraim Spoor.

Capt. Clinton Wright's Co.
Andrew Carmeain.

Lt. George Birch's Co.
Lewis Myers.

Capt. Henry Bowyer's Troop
Peter Conley, David Hopkins, John Lawless, Andrew McCleary, Berryman Tate.

Capt. George Haig's Co. (or Troop) (Note 19)
Henry Barnaby, Benjamin Cunningham, John Foster, Ebenezer Randall, Nathaniel Satchwell, George Shippey, Lewis Slyears. (Note 20)

Capt. William Winston's Co.
William Barnett, James Becks, Craddock Blanks, John Breck, Noble Hamm, John Powers, John Sailor, Perrigan Scott, James Sears, John Stanley, James M. Sweeney, Berrman Tate.

Company Not Indicated
Gwinn Fletcher.

Capt. Noah Lester's Co.
David Sherman.

Capt. Selleck Osborn's Troop
Alexander S. Jackson, Ezra Lumbart.

Lt. I. [J.?] Palmer's Detachment
Cyrus B. Adams, George Brown, Benjamin Gage, Nathan B. Harvey, John Huse, James Laird, Benjamin Maple, George Mucmannimy, Harmon Norton, William Pierce, Raymond Reynolds, Henry Shattuck.

Company Not Indicated
John M. Clement, James Coveart (Note 21), Joshua Frink, John Miller.

Capt. John A. Burd's Troop (or Company)
Jasper Johnson, William Spicer.

Capt. Samuel D. Harris's Troop (or Company)
Benjamin Beers, William Bordley, Francis Doble, Ezekiel Fletcher, Moses Green, Joseph Hadley, Elisha Harrington, Chayes Taylor, John Wareing/Warring, Beriah Warner, Levi Wells, John Withington.

Capt. Samuel Goode Hopkins's Troop
John Buntin, Joseph Coney, Samuel Dawson, William W. Ewing, Charles L. Peale, Daniel Pool, Erskin Robertson.

Capt. Joseph Selden's Co.
Pleasant Hazelwood, Isaac Hoel, Isaac Howell.

Capt. Charles Smith's Troop
Thomas Burk, Samuel Field Jr.

Company Not Indicated
John Brink, John Gardner/Gardiner, Peter Tremper.

Capt. George Gray Jr.'s Co.
James Mitchell.

Capt. Lodowick Morgan's Co.
William Patrick.

Capt. Thomas Ramsey's Co.
Robert Carter, Joseph Morris.

Capt. Edward Wadsworth's Co.
John P. Carter.

Company Not Indicated
Benjamin White.

Capt. Walter Coles's Co.
Walter Coles.

Capt. Joseph Kean's Co.
Ebenezer Cannon, Thomas Dawson, John P. Ditzler, Amos A. Dyal, Michael Forbes, Daniel Humm, John Irwine, Archibald Kidd, Robert Koozer, John Kritzler, James Mackey, George Mann, Frederick Marker, Patrick McAlenny, John Minton, Armstrong Moore, John Morgan, Philip Mullen, William Murtough, Jesse Orndorff, Joseph Sanderson, Samuel Webster, Joseph L. Willson.

Capt. John Lytle's Co.
Silas Adams, John H. Anthony, Jonathan Balcum, John Beebe, Robert J. [?] Benton, James Butterfield, William Clark, Michael B. Collins, William Conner, Elias Croucher, John Davis, John Dearborn, Andrew Dyer, Daniel Eggerton, James Ellison, John Evans, Tarrence Farmer, Thomas Hathorn, Henry Henione, Alva Hill, Seymour Howe, Seth Hull, Robert B. Hutchinson, Benjamin Jenkins, Benjamin H. [R.?] H.HJewell, Caleb Joy, Ephiam Kendall, Abel Kenny, Edward Kerney, Bartholomew Kittles, James Lewis, Ward Lock, Ware McConnell, Felix McDonald, David McMurphey, David Montgomery, Joshua W. Morgan, Richard Mullen, William Mulloy, Brazilla Nicholson, Alexander Patton, Abr'h [Abraham] Perry, Charles Phiney, William Pugsley, George Pulphrey, Cornelius Reed, Stephen Robert, Harrison G. Rogers, Jeremiah Rogers, William W. Roper, John Ross, Henry Schoonoven, Lemuel Scott, Benjamin Sherman, Henry Simmons, Robert Simpson, John Smithe, Eli Tanner, William Tarble, David Thomas, George Thomas, George Tibbets, John B. Tucker, Samuel Van Schaick, Josiah Whitlocke, Chester Williams, John Willis, John Wood.

Company Not Indicated
James Johnson.

Capt. Benjamin Birdsall's Co.
David D. Irwin.

Company Not Indicated
Benjamin Kinney.

Capt. William Cocks's Co.
Moses Cook, John Gardner, John Page.

Capt. Enoch Humphrey's Co.
William Downs, Daniel Howe, Henry O'Harra, Ewele E. Wright.

Capt. James B. Many's Co.
Benjamin Adams, John Arnold, Charles Kelly, William Ledger, Thomas McDonald, Matthew Tumbletee.

Capt. James Read's Co. (1806) (Note 23)
James Robinson.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks
Thomas Andrews, Abraham Antrim, John Bender, Obediah Brown, John Clowden, George Daily, John Kinsler, George Kizer, Henry Kurtz, Daniel Ludlam, William McCray, Richard Pioven/Pawin, Michael Reinhard, Sampson Shearman, Jonathan Stanton, George Strade, Nicholas Wagner.

Capt. John Wingate Gookin's Co.
Joshua Skiner/Skinner (Note 24), John Toland.

Capt. James Green's Co.
Henry Brown.

Capt. Julius Frederick Heileman's Co.
John Blake, Daniel Driggan, Samuel Mullikin, Robert White.

Capt. Rufus McIntire's Co.
Samuel Carter, Samuel S. Colby, Henry Hart.

Capt. Francis Newman's Co.
Eli Capon, Philip Carroll, John Davis, John Gaffney, James Glassford, Noah W. Lewis, Thomas Martin, Oliver Plumbley, William D. Smith.

Capt. Joseph Philips's Co. (Note 25)
John R. Conley, Francis Hartgraves, James Roberts/Robberts.

Capt. George H. Richards's Co.
David Aldridge, Joseph Ayres, Piere Bailey, Thomas Brown, Joseph L. Calder, John Capps, Elijah Collins, Charles Conret/Cornet, Isaac Dempsey, Daniel S. George, David Hanaford, Patrick Hart, William Hennesy, Benjamin Jenkins, Isaac Long, Benjamin Marker, James McCoy, Charles Mooney, David Morgan, Thomas Redding, Sylvester Rowley, Elizer Seeley, Benjamin Smith, John Thompson, John Warner, Stephen Woolman.

Capt. John Ritchie's Co.
James McCrossen.

Capt. Richard Augustus Zantzinger's Detachment
Isaac Barker, John Wooley/Woolley.

Capt. Addison Bowles Armistead's Co.
William Adams, John Chalton, William Creeley/Creely, James Hanlon, John Lester, Thomas McMoran, Daniel Moses.

Capt. Stephen Conover's Co.
John Hulett.

Bvt. Maj. Ichabod Bennet Crane's Co.
Jacob Groves, Lot Hall.

Capt. Samuel T. Dyson's Co.
Jonathan Dear, David Dunning, John Moody.

Capt. William Gates's Co.
William Hudner, Martin Shoop, Hugh S. West.

Capt. Nathaniel Leonard's Co. (Note 26)
James Cole, Charles Jadwin, Andrew Rochead [?], Jacob Shefft.

Capt. Benjamin Kendrick Pierce's Co. (Note 27)
James Howard.

Lt. Samuel Rockwell's Detachment
Shimwell Goodnow.

Capt. James T.B. Romayne's Co.
Nathan Sanborn Prescott, Louis Slyears (Note 28), Thomas Webster.

Capt. James. Strode Swearingen's Co.
Isaac Bunnel.

Capt. John De Barth Walbach's Co.
Nathan Smith, Joseph Williams, William Williams.

Company Not Indicated
Peter Bunk, Jonothon Dar [Dear?], Abner Smith.

Capt. Samuel B. Archer's Co.
John Hazelwood.

Capt. James Nelson Barker's Co.
Joseph Derrickson, George Prager.

Capt. Thomas Biddle Jr.'s Co.
John Murdock.

Bvt. Maj. Alexander C.W. Fanning's Co.
John Brown, Peter McDonald, William Pecure.

Capt. Spotwood Henry's Co.
Jesse L. Morton.

Maj./Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob Hindman's Co.
Dr. Cottrin, Edmund Doughtery, John Goff

Capt. Benjamin Lawson's Co.
William Peters.

Capt. William Nicholas's Co.
Gideon Clark, Obadiah King, Mayhew Morris, David Simpkins.

Capt. James Reed's Co. (1813) and Capt. James Read's Co. (Artillery, 1806)
Samuel Kreiser/Cryser (1813), Michael Ring (1813), James Robinson (1806).

Company Not Indicated
William Brady, Henry Carman, John Gordan.

Lt. John P. Bartlett's Co. (Note 29)
Samuel Andrews, William Webb Jr.

Capt. Jonathan Brooks's Co.
Elijah Foot, Nathaniel Loomis, John Murphy, William Smith.

Capt. William King's Co.
Allen Brunson/Brownson.

Capt. James McKeon's Co.
Loring Pottle, John L. White.

Capt. Benjamin S. Ogden's Co.
Elisha Adams, William Leeard.

Capt. Benjamin Kendrick Pierce's Co.
John Quicksell.

Capt. Thomas Stockton's Co.
Charles Cartey.

Capt. Horace Harvey Watson's Co.
James Adams Jr.

Company Not Indicated
John H. Bennett, James Douglass, Priest Jerread/Jerreaud, Conklin Lewis, John H. McLellen, Isaiah Parker, Samuel Pollay, Jedidiah Skinner, Elijah Swift, Henry Wilson.

Company Not Indicated
John Switzer.

Lt. John R. Bell's Co.
Samuel Arno, Jonathan Weares.

Capt. William Bezeau's Co. (Note 30)
Samuel Clarke.

Capt. Benjamin Branch's Co.
Eleazer Ames, Amos Brown Jr., Ezekial W. Clements, David Dunn.

Capt. William Campbell's Co.
Robert Francis, Michael Grumble, James Hutton, John Matrow, William Ozier, Samuel Pope.

Capt. Nathan Estabrook's Co.
Timothy Knox.

Capt. John N. McIntosh's Co.
Robert Doughterty, James Getchell/Gitchell, Nathaniel Marston, William B. Marvin, James Paddy, ___ Patterson [first name not indicated].

Capt. Arthur Whetham Thornton's Co.
Samuel Clark, James Farmer, John Hines [?], Ephram Pixley, William C. Watson.

Company Not Indicated
Weasmaon Cohoon, Enoch Dearborn, William Withington.

Capt. Luther Leonard's Co.
James Brice Jr.

Capt. Robert Hector McPherson's Co. (Note 31)
Alexander Kinion/Kinyon/Kenyon Jr., Joseph F. Mial, Henry Wheeler.

Capt. George Washington Melvin's Co.
William Finch, Thomas Sharp.

Lt. Wilkinson's Co., regiment not stated, 1811
Robert Laughlin.

Lt. Lawrence's Co., 1811
Perum Atkins, Edward Howard, Solomon Padget.

Col. Denny McCobb's Volunteer Regiment, 1814 (Note 32)
Robert Withington.

3rd Military District
Justus Post.

4th Military District
Dr. James Mease.

Corps of Engineers, Company of Bombadiers
Lyman Smith, Ebenezer Spear.

Corps of Engineers, Company Not Indicated
Zadock Robinson.

Paymaster General's Department
Charles Williams (private waiter for J. Bell, A.D.P.M.G.)

Quartermaster General's Department
Jabez Davis.

Militia at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks, 1814
Bartholomew Kelly.

Men who Served on Lake Champlain, 1814 (*indicates names appear on two lists). Called "Affidavits Relating to Service on Lake Champlain" in Table of Contents.

Elijah Albright,* Philip Allsworth/Alsworth,* Ezra Baker, Peter Benson,* Phillip Berkley/Borkley,* James Boggs,* Ezra Borkin [?], William Connally/Connelly,* Thomas Crossley,* John Darr,* Clayton Dodney,* Hugh Edgars/Edgers,* James Fletcher,* James Galagher/Gallagher,* John Goodrich,* Jacob Hiliard/Hillyard, Zebah Hooper, H. Jones, Henry Jones, Lawrence Jurtison/Juttison, Benjamin Ketchum/Kitcharn [?],* James Love,* Henry Mason/Muson,* John McEver/John McKever,* John McHenry, John McKiney, Thomas McMarowy/McMaromy/McMenomy,* Jacob Mork [?]/Muck,* Samuel Peirson/Pierson,* Levi Peters,* Thomas Potter,* William C. Prager,* John Saterfield,* Robert Sharp,* Jacob Skaat, James Stroud,* William Taylor,* James Tremble,* James Vandeventer,* John Wise.*

Man at Fort Mifflin, 1808
Tyrus [?] Hurd.

Men at Fort Mifflin and Province Island Barracks, 1814
Patrick Conoway, John Dilsauer [?], Henry Waters.

Men Whose Unit or Place of Service is not Indicated (Most of these men are listed as having "Unit not Stated" in Appendix III).
William Brown, Abraham Delamater, Sylvenus Franklin, Rufus Frisbie, John Gordon, Joseph Guignon, William Haze, John Hurst, Henry Jones, Samuel Langebach, William Lighthall, James Linsey, Felix Long, James Torrence McConnell, Robert McKinsey [?], James Minar, William Secord, Thomas Smith, Jeremiah Wells, William Whithington, Thomas Wilkins.

Civilians

Marie Foxe [see Dr. James Mease], John Lewis [see Dr. James Mease], Charles Williams [see Paymaster General's Department], two unnamed women [see Obadiah King]

Prisoner
James Brown [see James Robinson]

Note 14: Phillip Holbert, aka Phineas Halbert, was in both Capt. Joseph L. Barton's Co. and in Capt. Zachariah Rossell's Co., 15th Infantry.

Note 15:Joseph Potte and Joseph Pottle were two different men.

Note 16: All three men also served in Lt. Samuel Sylvester's Detachment, 45th Infantry.

Note 17:Lewis, Osgood, Jr., and Tarr also served in Capt. Henry Snow's Co., 45th Infantry.

Note 18: Mannaka's record shows this company to be in the 1st Light Dragoons.

Note 19: The various discharges show this company to be in the Dragoons, Light Dragoons, or 1st Light Dragoons.

Note 20:His discharge indicates service in both Capt. Haig's Co. and in Capt. James T. B. Romayne's Co., 1st Artillery.

Note 21: Mentioned in record for John Miller.

Note 22: The record does not clearly state the nature of the organization to which this man belonged.

Note 23:Filed together with Capt. James Reed (1813), 2nd Artillery.

Note 24:Also served in Capt. Alexander J. Williams's Co., Artillery Corps.

Note 25: John R. Conley, Francis Hartgraves, and James Roberts are on one record in addition, there is a separate record for Francis Hargraves.

Note 26: This company also indicated as being in just "artillery."

Note 27: He was a brother of President Franklin Pierce.

Note 28: His discharge indicates service in both Capt. Haig's Co. and in Capt. James T. B. Romayne's Co., and is filed with the records for Capt. Haig's Co., Light Dragoons.

Note 29: Also called Lt. Bartlett's Artillery Co., 3rd Infantry. See 3rd Infantry for a company commanded by a Lt. Bartlett.

Note 30: Capt. William Bezeau commanded a company of infantry in the 26th Regiment there may have been artillerists assigned to his command.

Note 31:Also spelled MacPherson this company also simply stated to be "Light Artillery."

Note 32: Denny McCobb was appointed colonel of the Maine and New Hampshire Volunteers, Dec. 23, 1812 appointed colonel of the 37th Infantry, Mar. 26, 1814 transferred to the 45th Infantry, Apr. 21, 1814 and honorably discharged June 15, 1815. Robert Withington's discharge, dated July 1814, is on a discharge certificate of the 45th Infantry, but annotated to indicate discharge from McCobb's volunteer regiment.

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
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“Dempsey vs. Carpentier” July 1921

In 1921, they called it “the largest audience in history,” the 300,000 or so people estimated to have heard one of the first radio broadcasts of a special event — the outdoor heavyweight championship boxing match between American Jack Dempsey and French challenger, Georges Carpentier. Dempsey was reigning world champ at the time, and Carpentier was a European boxing champion and decorated French Army veteran. The fight’s promoter had billed the event as the “Battle of the Century.”


July 2, 1921. Jack Dempsey and Georges Carpentier get ready to square off in championship fight before 80,000 fans. The fight ushered in a 'golden age' of sport in the 1920s, and with radio, the beginnings of sport as mass-audience, big-business entertainment.

A hastily assembled outdoor arena was built on a farm in Jersey City, New Jersey, not far from New York City. More than 80,000 fans came to see the fight in person on July 2, 1921, producing boxing’s first million-dollar gate. Dempsey won in four-round knockout in a scheduled 12-round fight. But the big news for many was the radio broadcast of the fight. It was the first ever broadcast to a “mass audience,” with the blow-by-blow call of the fight from ringside relayed over the new “radiophone,” reaching hundreds of thousands in the northeast U.S. Wireless Age magazine, reporting on the event a few weeks later, described the fight’s call over radio by “a voice that sounded loud and clear throughout the Middle Atlantic states.” It was “history in the making,” said the magazine.

There was also a good deal of hype associated with this fight, as there would be for any major event of this kind. The promoter of the fight, Tex Rickard, cast its principal contestants as “hero” vs. “villain.” The billed “hero” in this case was not the American Jack Dempsey, but rather, the Frenchman, Georges Carpentier, the light-heavyweight champ who had distinguished himself as a pilot in World War I.

Dempsey, on the other hand, was cast as the “villain” as he had been labeled a “slacker” for avoiding the military draft — even though he had been found not guilty of the offense in 1920. Promoter Rickard offered Carpentier $200,000 for the fight and $300,000 to Dempsey — considerable sums for the time — as well an equal share of 25 percent of the film profits. Rickard saw the radio broadcast of the fight as a positive for his future business, and he did what he could to accommodate the new technology at the site. He believed that radio might be a way to advance prizefighting in the post-World War I popular culture. Rickard allowed for a makeshift wooden room for the radio broadcast to be constructed under the stands. Telephone lines and a temporary radio transmitter, sponsored by the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), were installed at the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railway terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey.


David Sarnoff, of the early RCA Company, was among those who saw that the Dempsey-Carpentier fight would help advance radio. (1922 photo).

Radio beyond the reach of a few people had barely begun in the early 1920s. Fledgling operations had started in 1916 in both New York city and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Pittsburgh, a Westinghouse employee named Frank Conrad began sending out recorded music played from a phonograph over a radio transmitter set up in his garage. By 1920, Conrad’s employer, Westinghouse, noticed that the broadcasts had increased the sales of radio equipment, which Westinghouse was then manufacturing. The company had Conrad move his transmitter to the Westinghouse factory roof. Westinghouse then applied for a government license and started the pioneer station KDKA, which in early November 1920, began radio programming with the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns. Those broadcasts, however, were only reaching a few thousand hobbyists.

In New York City, too, local radio broadcasts had begun in the fall of 1916 over Lee DeForest’s experimental “Highbridge” station. David Sarnoff, a manger at the American Marconi telegraph company, who lived in New York had heard the early Highbridge broadcasts. Sarnoff wrote a brief memo to the Marconi’s president in 1916-17 about a business possibility for developing a “radio music box” to sell to amateur radio enthusiasts. But nothing came of Sarnoff’s idea at the time. Marconi was then in the heat of WWI. A few years later, however, in January 1920, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was established when General Electric acquired American Marconi and Sarnoff, with it. RCA had formed in 1919 after the U.S. Government relinquished control of the wireless industry following World War I.


Poster advertising fight at the New York Theater in NY city. Such advertising ran for several days in advance of the bout. This theater would be one of many locations in New York and elsewhere that would fill with listeners on fight day.

“…For Entertainment”

David Sarnoff, meanwhile, wrote another, more detailed memo on the prospects for radio business and sales to the general public — a 28-page memo titled Sales of Radio Music Box for Entertainment Purposes.

“I have in mind a plan of development which would make radio a ‘household utility’ in the same sense as the piano or phonograph,” Sarnoff began. “The idea is to bring music into the house by wireless,” by which he meant radio.

Sarnoff saw a large potential market, which he then put at about 7 percent of the total families,” yielding a gross return of about $75 million annually in 1920s dollars. Both estimates would soon prove to be very conservative.

“Aside from the profit to be derived from this proposition,” he wrote, “the possibilities for advertising for the company [RCA] are tremendous…” The company’s name “would ultimately be brought into the household,” he said, and radio thereby would receive “national and universal attention.” Indeed it would, and did. But it was the broadcast of the Dempsey-Carpentier fight that would help spark the early public curiosity in the radio and also help the rise of RCA and the radio business. RCA, in fact, made its broadcast debut with the July 2, 1921 championship fight.

Sarnoff also appears to have played an important role in the radio broadcast of the Dempsey-Carpentier fight, although some say the extent of his role has been exaggerated. Still, it does appear that Sarnoff helped make the broadcast possible: he provided money for expenses, a high-powered GE transmitter, and the use of the Lackawanna Railroad terminal antenna in Hoboken, New Jersey.


Cover of the fight program for the July 1921 Jack Dempsey-Georges Carpentier boxing match.


On Boardwalk, Asbury Park, NJ, a “rolling chair” offers passers by a listen to the fight by wireless radio telephone.

There are also varying accounts as to who initially came up with the idea to do a wide-area radio broadcast of the fight, with some attributing the idea to Sarnoff, and some to others. Julius Hopp, manager of the Madison Square Garden concerts at the time, had observed amateur radio men in more limited venues and was impressed with their descriptions by voice. Some credit Hopp with the idea.

In any case, in April 1921, it appears the idea of broadcasting the Dempsey-Carpentier fight was offered to promoter Tex Rickard and his partner, both of whom liked the idea. There had also been one previous fight broadcast on radio in the Pittsburgh area in April 1921, heard only by a limited number of listeners and radio hobbyists in that location. The broadcast that planners had in mind for the Dempsey-Carpentier fight, however, was for a much broader region.


Boxer Jack Dempsey, being introduced to new “radiophone” technology, appears on cover of “The Wireless Age” magazine, July 1921.

An early July edition of Wireless Age magazine described the plan for how the broadcast would work:

…The radio station at Hoboken will be connected by direct wire to the ringside at Jersey City, and as the fight progresses, each blow struck and each incident, round by round, will be described by voice, and the spoken words will go hurtling through the air to be instantaneously received in the theaters, halls and auditoriums scattered over cities within an area of more than 125,000 square miles.

Through the courtesy of Tex Rickard, promoter of the big fight, voice-broadcasting of the event is to be the means of materially aiding the work of the American Committee for Devastated France [i.e., following World War I] and also the Navy Club of the United States. These organizations will share equally in the contributions secured by large gatherings in theaters, halls and other places. The amateur radio operators of the country are to be the connecting link between the voice in the air and these audiences. … Any amateur who is skilled in reception is eligible, whether or not he is a member of any organization.


This photo provides a partial view of the huge crowd surrounding the outdoor boxing ring at the Dempsey-Carpentier fight in Jersey City, NJ, July 2, 1921.

On fight day, a notable cast of local and national dignitaries attended the actual event in person. Among politicians and celebrities who joined the 80,000-to-90,000 fans who came to watch the fight were: industrialists John D. Rockefeller, Jr. William H. Vanderbilt, George H. Gould, Joseph W. Harriman, Vincent Astor, and Henry Ford entertainers Al Jolson and George M. Cohan literary figures H.L. Mencken, Damon Runyon, Arthur Brisbane, and Ring Lardner the three children of Theodore Roosevelt — Kermit Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. and Alice Roosevelt Longworth prominent Long Island residents, such as Ralph Pulitzer, Harry Payne Whitney and J.P. Grace Jersey City Mayor Frank Hague and New Jersey Governor Edward I. Edwards. At the gate, meanwhile, the fans who poured in payed a then-record $1,626,580. It was the first time that a million-dollar amount had been exceeded for a boxing event.


Interest in the fight was keen, as this photo illustrates, showing a crowd of more than 10,000 outside the New York Times building in Times Square awaiting updates.


New York Times photo showing Dempsey standing after a Carpentier knock down.


The fight’s results made front-page news across the country, along with the equally big news of the fight’s 1.6 million-dollar gate (in above clip, see headline below photo).

The results of the fight were big news all across the country in the next day’s newspapers — including the fight’s astounding $1.6 million gate. Some historians, in fact, see the fight as a key landmark for the Golden Age of sport that boomed during the 1920s a Golden Age that also brought expanded media coverage and business promoters like Tex Rickard into the arena, setting sports media on the path to big-business entertainment.

As for radio, other sports broadcasts followed. By August 5th, 1921, the first broadcast of a baseball game was made over Westinghouse station KDKA — a game between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Philadelphia Phillies from Forbes Field in Pittsburgh. Demand for home radio equipment soared that winter.

By the spring of 1922, David Sarnoff’s prediction of popular demand for broadcasting was coming true, and over the next eighteen months, he and RCA gained in stature and influence. RCA soon went into cross-licensing arrangements with AT&T and Westinghouse, which helped propel the company into a leadership role in both the broadcasting and recording industries.


Ringside broadcaster calling the fight’s blow-by-blow action, then sent out across northeast U.S. from Hoboken, NJ.

1922: 30 Stations

By 1922, there were 30 radio stations in America, and things picked up considerably after that. By late January 1923, programming from New York’s WEAF station was being carried simultaneously over a second station WNAC in Boston, giving rise to the concept of the “network” or “chain broadcasting.”

Less than a month later, on February 2nd, a transcontinental network broadcast link was formed between WEAF in New York and KPO, San Francisco, which was the Hale’s Department Store station. Although New York’s WEAF had featured one of radio’s first paid advertisements in August 1922 — by the Queensboro Corporation using a ten-minute pitch to advertise a new real estate development — broadcasting was not yet supported by advertising.

Most of the early stations were owned by radio manufacturers, department stores trying to sell radios, or by newspapers using them to sell newspapers or express their owners’ opinions.


Photo from ringside also showing part of immense crowd. Carpentier is down for the count here. Radio broadcaster is located at the tip of the white arrow. Photo from, ‘Wireless Age’, August 1921.
Map showing approximate range of the Dempsey-Carpentier radio broadcast in the eastern U.S., reaching a potential audience of 200,000-to-500,000.

Radio historians mark the July 1921 Dempsey-Carpentier fight as one of the landmark events advancing the “radio era” and big-audience communication. And as would become the pattern for other communications technology in the future — whether the Muhammad Ali vs. Joe Frazier fight by satellite TV in 1975, or subsequent global telecasts of World Cup Soccer, Superbowl games, or the Olympics — big sporting events would often be used to introduce or showcase new technology or expanded capability, reaching not just hundreds of thousands, but hundreds of millions and billions. The 2008 Olympics in Bejing, for example, had an estimated total audience of some 4 billion viewers. Special, multi-venue rock concerts and global charity events can now reach billions as well. And online communications only add to these numbers. Still, it wasn’t that long ago when our communications world was a lot smaller when “big” was a few hundred thousand, as it was on that day in July 1921 when the human voice beamed out over the northeast United States.


Ticket for the Dempsey-Carpentier fight of July 2, 1921, with promoter Tex Rickard’s name at lower right, main stubb.

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Date Posted: 8 September 2008
Last Update: 14 May 2020
Comments to: [email protected]

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Dempsey vs. Carpenteir, July 1921,”
PopHistoryDig.com, September 8, 2008.

_____________________________

Sources, Links & Additional Information


1921 poster announcing filmed newsreels of the Jack Dempsey-Georges Carpenteir boxing match.


Jim Waltzer’s book, “The Battle of the Century: Dempsey, Carpentier, and the Birth of Modern Promotion.” Click for copy.

“July 2nd Fight Described by Radiophone – The Great International Sporting Event Will Be Voice-Broadcasted from the Ringside By Radiophone Under the Direction of the National Amateur Wireless Association on the Largest Scale Ever Attempted,” The Wireless Age, July, 1921.

“Voice-Broadcasting the Stirring Progress of the ‘Battle of the Century’ – How The Largest Audience in History Heard the Description of the Dempsey-Carpentier Contest Through Use of the Radiophone,” The Wireless Age, August 1921, pp. 11-21.

“Tex Tours Jersey City,” New York Times, April 14, 1921.

“Dempsey Knocks Out Carpentier in the Fourth Round Challenger Breaks His Thumb Against Champion’s Jaw Record Crowd of 90,000 Orderly and Well Handled,” New York Times, July 3, 1921.

Ed Brennan, “The Day History Was Made in Jersey City.” Jersey Journal, February 9, 1960.

Lud Shahbazian, “Jersey City Gave Boxing Its First Million Dollar Gate Just 50 Years Ago Today.” Hudson Dispatch, July 2, 1971.

Randy Roberts, Jack Dempsey: The Manassa Mauler, New York: Grove Press, 1979.

Roger Kahn, A Flame of Pure Fire: Jack Dempsey and the Roaring 20s, New York: Harcourt Brace, 2000.

George Mercurio, “The ‘Battle of the Century’,” Jersey City Reporter 16 July 2001.

Alexander B. Magoun, PhD, David Sarnoff Library, “Pushing Technology: David Sarnoff and Wireless Communications, 1911-1921,” Presented at IEEE 2001 Conference on the History of Telecommunications, St. John’s, Newfoundland, July 26, 2001

“Jack Dempsey Smashes Carpentier,” The Hartford Courant (Hartford, CT), July 3, 1921.

Greg Moore, “Dempsey Cocktail,” Cocktail101.org, November 16, 2011.

Randy Roberts, Jack Dempsey, The Manassa Mauler, 2003, University of Illinois Press, 336 pp (click for copy).


Watch the video: Miles Dempsey